Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Revelation 16:21

And huge hailstones, about one hundred pounds each, *came down from heaven upon men; and men blasphemed God because of the plague of the hail, because its plague *was extremely severe.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Afflictions and Adversities;   Blasphemy;   Good and Evil;   Hail;   Impenitence;   Meteorology and Celestial Phenomena;   Wicked (People);   The Topic Concordance - Day of the Lord;   Earthquakes;   Israel/jews;   War/weapons;   Wrath;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Weights;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Babylon;   Hailstones;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Day of the lord;   Millennium;   Weights;   Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Order;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Blasphemy;   Hail;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Hundredweight;   Revelation, the Book of;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Antichrist;   Moses;   Plagues of Egypt;   Weights and Measures;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Hail ;   Moses ;   Plague;   Talent;   Weights and Measures;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Hail;   Weights and Measures;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Blasphemy;   Hail (1);   Revelation of John:;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

A great hail - about the weight of a talent - Has this any reference to cannon balls and bombs? It is very doubtful; we are all in the dark in these matters.

The words ὡς ταλαντιαια, as a talent, are used to express something great, excessively oppressive; as νοσηματων ταλαντιαιων, terrible diseases, not diseases of the weight of a talent. See Rosenmuller.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Revelation 16:21". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/revelation-16.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

And there fell upon men a great hail out of heaven - Perhaps this is an allusion to one of the plagues of Egypt, Exodus 9:22-26. Compare the notes on Revelation 11:19. For a graphic description (by Com. Porter) of the effects of a hailstorm, see the notes on Isaiah 30:30. Compare the notes on Job 38:22.

Every stone about the weight of a talent - The Attic talent was equal to about 55 lbs. or 56 lbs. Troy weight; the Jewish talent to about 113 lbs. Troy. Whichever weight is adopted, it is easy to conceive what must be the horror of such a storm, and what destruction it must cause. We are not, of course, to suppose necessarily, that this would literally occur; it is a frightful image to denote the terrible and certain destruction that would come upon Babylon - that is, upon the papal power.

And men blasphemed God - See the notes on Revelation 16:9.

Because of the plague of the hail - Using the word “plague” in allusion to the plagues of Egypt.

For the plague thereof was exceeding great - The calamity was great and terrible. The design of the whole is to show that the destruction would be complete and awful.

This finishes the summary statement of the final destruction of this formidable anti-Christian power. The details and the consequences of that overthrow are more fully stated in the subsequent chapters. The fulfillment of what is here stated will be found, according to the method of interpretation proposed, in the ultimate overthrow of the papacy. The process described in this chapter is that of successive calamities that would weaken it and prepare it for its fall; then a rallying of its dying strength; and then some tremendous judgment that is compared with a storm of hail, accompanied with lightning, and thunder, and an earthquake, that would completely overthrow all that was connected with it, We are not, indeed, to suppose that this will literally occur; but the fair interpretation of prophecy leads us to suppose that that formidable power will, at no very distant period, be overthrown in a manner that would be well represented by such a fearful storm.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Revelation 16:21". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/revelation-16.html. 1870.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

And great hail, every stone about the weight of a talent, cometh down out of heaven upon men: and men blasphemed God because of the plague of the hail; for the plague thereof is exceeding great.

About the weight of a talent ... No such hail was ever seen, nor could be it the result of ordinary natural processes; therefore, it must be related to the extraordinary phenomena attending the onset of the final judgment. At the time when mankind shall have completed his destruction of the moral and spiritual environment of the earth, God will destroy his physical environment also and summon all people to accountability before the judgment seat of Christ.

Men blasphemed God ... How strange is the thought that hardened sinners will not stop their blasphemy even in the judgment. How could it be supposed that the Father will accommodate to that type of persistent wickedness in any other manner than that of the final and complete destruction of it?

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Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
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Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Revelation 16:21". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/revelation-16.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And there fell upon men a great hail out of heaven,.... Which must be understood not as after the fall of the cities, and the flight of the islands and mountains, but at the same time; and it looks as if such men that shall escape at the battle of Armageddon, that hail stones from heaven will fall upon them and destroy them; just as the kings of the Amorites and their men were killed by hail stones, cast down by the Lord from heaven, as they fled before Joshua, when more were killed by the stones than were slain by the sword, Joshua 10:11 the allusion seems to be to the plague of hail in Exodus 9:23

every stone about the weight of a talent; which is threescore pound weight, a prodigious weight indeed for a single hailstone! such hail stones were never known to fall; the largest I have read of is what Caspar Wesserus assured Mr. BroughtonF6See his (Zohar's) Works, p. 491. of, at Zurich, which being brought from a field afar off, to the consul, and so must melt in carriage, yet weighed a pound. It may be said of this hail storm, as of the earthquake in a preceding verse, that it will be such as never was since men were upon earth; and denotes the sore, heavy, and even intolerable judgments of God upon the antichristian party: God's judgments are sometimes signified by hail storms, Isaiah 30:26 and particularly the judgments upon Gog and Magog, Ezekiel 38:22 which may respect the same as here: the JewsF7Shemot Rabba, sect. 12. fol. 99. 1. now expect a great hail in the times of Gog and Magog:

and men blasphemed God because of the plague of the hail; the plague of hail brought down the hard heart of Pharaoh, and humbled him, so that he acknowledged his wickedness, and the sin of his people, and owned the justice of God; but this more terrible storm will have no effect upon these men, to convince and reform them, but, on the contrary, they will break out into blasphemy against God, who caused it to fall on them; it will have the same effect as the fourth and fifth vials:

for the plague thereof was exceeding great; it must beat down all before it, and be intolerable: whether this hail storm may not also have some regard to coldness and lukewarmness, as Naplet suggests, and so may point at the close of the spiritual reign of Christ, or the Laodicean state, which will bring on the second coming of Christ, and so this effect of the seventh vial will end where the seven churches and seven trumpets do, may be considered; See Gill on Revelation 11:15.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on Revelation 16:21". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/revelation-16.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

30 And there fell upon men a great hail out of heaven, [every stone] about the weight of a c talent: and men blasphemed God because of the plague of the hail; for the plague thereof was exceeding great.

(30) The manner of the particular execution, most evidently testifying the wrath of God by the original and greatness of it: the event of which is the same with that which is in (Revelation 9:12) and that which has been mentioned in this chapter, from the execution of the fourth angel till now, that is to say, an incorrigible pertinency of the world in their rebellion, and a heart that cannot repent; (Revelation 16:9-10).

(c) About the weight of a talent, and a talent was sixty pounds, that is, six hundred groats, by which is signified a marvellous and strange weight.

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Bibliographical Information
Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Revelation 16:21". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/revelation-16.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

fellGreek, “descends.”

upon menGreek,the men.”

and men blasphemed God — not those struck who died, but the rest. Unlike the result in the case of Jerusalem (Revelation 11:13), where “the remnant  …  affrighted  …  gave glory to the God of heaven.”

wasGreek, “is.”

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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 16:21". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/revelation-16.html. 1871-8.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

Hail (χαλαζαchalaza). As in Revelation 8:7; Revelation 11:19.

Every stone about the weight of a talent (ως ταλαντιαιαhōs talantiaia). Old adjective (from ταλαντονtalanton), here only in N.T., but in Polybius and Josephus. See Exodus 9:24 for the great hail in Egypt and also Joshua 10:11; Isaiah 28:2; Ezekiel 38:22 for hail as the symbol of God‘s wrath. In the lxx a ταλαντονtalanton ranged in weight from 108 to 130 pounds.

Because of the plague of hail (εκ της πληγης της χαλαζηςek tēs plēgēs tēs chalazēs). “As a result of the plague of hail.” This punishment had the same effect as in Revelation 16:9, Revelation 16:11.

Exceeding great (ΜεγαλησπροδραMegalē- sphrodra). Emphatic positions at ends of the clause (great - exceedingly).

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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
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Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Revelation 16:21". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/revelation-16.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

Hail

See Exodus 9:18.

Every stone about the weight of a talent ( ὡς ταλαντίαια )

The adjective, meaning of a talent's weight, agrees with hail; hail of a talent's weight; i.e., having each stone of that weight. Every stone is therefore explanatory, and not in the text. Hailstones are a symbol of divine wrath. See Isaiah 30:30; Ezekiel 13:11. Compare Joshua 10:11.

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Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 16:21". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/revelation-16.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

And there fell upon men a great hail out of heaven, every stone about the weight of a talent: and men blasphemed God because of the plague of the hail; for the plague thereof was exceeding great.

And a great hail falleth out of heaven — From which there was no defence. From the earthquake men would fly into the fields; but here also they are met by the hail: nor were they secure if they returned into the houses, when each hail-stone weighed sixty pounds.

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Wesley, John. "Commentary on Revelation 16:21". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/revelation-16.html. 1765.

Abbott's Illustrated New Testament

That the outpouring of the seven vials is intended to represent a series of judgments and calamities brought upon the enemies of God, is very plain; but in applying the several symbols to specific events in history which have since occurred, commentators have been extremely divided in opinion.

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Abbott, John S. C. & Abbott, Jacob. "Commentary on Revelation 16:21". "Abbott's Illustrated New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ain/revelation-16.html. 1878.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

21 And there fell upon men a great hail out of heaven, every stone about the weight of a talent: and men blasphemed God because of the plague of the hail; for the plague thereof was exceeding great.

Ver. 21. A great hail] Bigger than that which brained the kings of Canaan, Joshua 10:11; perhaps this shall be fulfilled according to the letter. Howsoever, the elements shall melt like scalding lead upon Antichristians and other atheists; and they shall answer for all with flames about their ears.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Revelation 16:21". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/revelation-16.html. 1865-1868.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

Revelation 16:21. (186) ὡς ταλαντιαία, as it were of the weight of a talent) Of many pounds singly. I take it in its proper sense, at the beginning of the Non-being of the beast.

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Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Revelation 16:21". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/revelation-16.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

The hail was another of the Egyptian plagues, Exodus 9:22-25. The allusion also may be to the hailstones by which God fought against the five Canaanitish kings, Joshua 10:11. It signifies only further great judgments with which God will pursue the beast and his party, until they all be destroyed. The latter words only show the continued hardness of heart of the beast, and all his party; wherein also they answered Pharaoh and the Egyptians, (their type), who would relent with no steadiness and certainty, until they were all ruined by the waters of the Red Sea. In all this prediction of the final ruin of the papacy, Pharaoh and the Egyptians are apparently made the type of the pope and all his party:

1. As to their sins, which were idolatry, and the oppression of God’s Israel.

2. In the plagues by which they were destroyed gradually; turning waters into blood, boils and blains, darkness, hail.

3. In their impenitency, and hardness of heart; only with these two differences, by which the antitype exceeded the type in wickedness:

(1.) We read of Pharaoh oft relenting, though his goodness was like a morning dew, and he returned to his former stubbornness.

(2.) We read nothing of the Egyptians blaspheming God, because of their plagues, which is often said of these Egyptians.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Revelation 16:21". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/revelation-16.html. 1685.

Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture

в талант Самый тяжелый вес, который может нести обычный человек (около 75 фунтов, примерно 34 кг). Градины огромных размеров говорят о несравнимых атмосферных катаклизмах. Такие огромные глыбы льда приведут к невообразимому опустошению и смерти.

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MacLaren, Alexander. "Commentary on Revelation 16:21". Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mac/revelation-16.html.

Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

A great hail; a symbol of God’s awful judgments on the wicked.

The weight of a talent; the Attic talent was equal to about fifty-seven pounds; the Hebrew talent to more than a hundred pounds. The weight of the stones represents the awful severity of the judgments. No sufferings, however great or long continued, will of themselves bring sinners to repentance, or lead them to submit to God and obey him.

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Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on Revelation 16:21". "Family Bible New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/fam/revelation-16.html. American Tract Society. 1851.

Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary

REFLECTIONS

Look up, and contemplate the Lord, sending forth from his Church, the seven Angels, and messengers with his seven last plagues, to take vengeance on his enemies, and to deliver his people. Then let the Reader consider, how sure, how everlastingly sure, is the Lord's Church and people. What though for a while the enemy seems to triumph, and the redeemed of the Lord are oppressed by the mighty, yet the salvation of the righteous is of the Lord, who is also their strength in the time of need.

How awful are these pourings out of the vials of divine wrath? One after another, arising higher and higher in the scale of judgment. But so desperately hardened in sin, are the enemies of our God, and of his Christ, that though the sinner is scorched with fire and great heat, yet he only blasphemes the name of God, and repents not to give the Lord glory.

My soul! learn from hence, to trace all thy mercies to their source. It is God's everlasting love, which hath chosen thee in Christ, and preserved thee in Christ, and accepted thee in Christ, before the foundation of the world. Hence, all thy mercies in Jesus, by which the vials of wrath, poured out upon the ungodly cannot come nigh thee. Blessed Jesus! let my soul be on the lookout for thy coming, that no midnight hour may surprise me, no blasphemies of men or devils may alarm me. And, when Babylon shall come into remembrance before God, and our God shall give unto her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath, thy Church may shout aloud in her destruction, and both heaven and earth praise God with exceeding joy.

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Hawker, Robert, D.D. "Commentary on Revelation 16:21". "Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pmc/revelation-16.html. 1828.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

The accompanying storm will include huge hailstones that will fall on the earth crushing people (cf. Revelation 8:7). Hail was often an instrument of divine judgment in biblical history (cf. Joshua 10:11; Job 38:22-23; Isaiah 28:2; Isaiah 28:17; Ezekiel 13:11-13; Ezekiel 38:22-23). In spite of all these judgments the hearts of earth-dwellers will remain hard, as Pharaoh"s did during the plague of hail in Egypt (cf. Exodus 9:24). They will know that God sent this calamity, but rather than repenting they will shake their fists in God"s face. God will stone these blasphemers with these huge hailstones (cf. Leviticus 24:16).

"We cannot emphasize too strongly that in the three series of divine judgments-first the seals, second the trumpets, third the vials (or bowls) of wrath-we have those preliminary hardening actions of God upon an impenitent world, by which He prepares that world for the Great Day of Wrath-at Christ"s coming as King of kings, as seen in Revelation 19:11-15.... [Note: Newell, p259.]

J. Dwight Pentecost believed that the bowl judgments describe the second advent of Jesus Christ to the earth.

"Since the bowl judgments must span some period of time, we must view the second advent of Christ as an event that encompasses a period of time. In that regard, we find an interesting chronological note in Daniel 12:11-12 : "From the time that the daily sacrifice is abolished and the abomination that causes desolation is set up, there will be1,290 days. Blessed is the one who waits for and reaches the end of the1,335 days." Twelve hundred ninety days span the second half of Daniel"s seventieth week, and that time period brings us to the end of the Tribulation period. But the blessings of Messiah"s reign are not enjoyed until some forty-five days later. Therefore, it is suggested that the forty-five day period is the period in which the judgments associated with the second advent of Christ are poured out on the earth. And that entire forty-five day period, then, could be called the second advent of Christ.

"Further, it is suggested that the1,290 days come to their completion with the appearance of the sign of the Son of Man in heaven ( Matthew 24:30). The judgments of Revelation 16 follow in a forty-five day period and are concluded with the physical descent of Jesus Christ to the earth. Hence, Revelation 11:15 brings us to the second coming of Jesus Christ back to the earth at which time He will experience the fulfillment of the Father"s promise ... [in Psalm 2:8-9]." [Note: Pentecost, Thy Kingdom . . ., p301.]

It seems to me that the45-day period may be the time of preparation for the beginning of the Millennium following Christ"s return. It seems unnatural to describe the return of the Lord as taking this long to happen (cf. Acts 1:9-11). Therefore I prefer the view that the bowl judgments describe what happens before Jesus Christ returns rather than when He returns. These judgments then set the stage for the return of Jesus Christ to the earth.

Before recording that event in chapter19, God led John to give more revelation concerning the fate of Babylon in chapters17,18.

Thomas viewed the description of the seventh bowl as extending through Revelation 22:5. [Note: Thomas, Revelation 8-22, pp567-85. See Chilton, The Days ..., p418, for a similar view.] He saw all that follows to Revelation 22:5 as a result of this final climactic judgment. More students of Revelation, however, have seen the description of the seventh bowl as limited to Revelation 16:17-21 with the consequences of that judgment following through Revelation 22:5.

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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 16:21". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/revelation-16.html. 2012.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

Revelation 16:21. And a great hail cometh down as of a talent in weight out of heaven upon men. The seventh particular, founded upon the thought of the plague of hail on Egypt. Each hailstone is magnified to an enormous extent. Each is a talent, or between 50 and 60 lbs., in weight. The stone descends upon ‘men,’ i.e upon all the inhabiters of the ‘earth’ in its mystical sense, or upon all the ungodly.

The seven particulars of judgment are ended, and we are invited to mark the effect.

And men blasphemed God because of the plague of the hail, because great is the plague of it exceedingly. The ‘men’ spoken of are again the ungodly, nor is it possible to limit their number to that of those who survive the plague. The writer simply looks away from the fact that those struck with so great a plague die. He thinks of them as still living, but unconverted. They blaspheme; they are hardened; and, when all that ought to convert ‘men’ hardens, we have a proof that the hour of final judgment is come.

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Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on Revelation 16:21". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/revelation-16.html. 1879-90.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

And great hail like a talent came down, &c.(1) Which need not be taken literally, but only metaphorically, to signify the heavy weight of God's judgments upon sinners. (Witham)

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[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

Et grando magna sicut talentum, Greek: os talantiaia, quasi talentaris. The Protestant and Mr. N. translate hail about the weight of a talent, as if every hailstone were of that weight.

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Revelation 16:21". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/revelation-16.html. 1859.

Gary Hampton Commentary on Selected Books

Hail fell during the seventh plague (Exodus 8:18-26), but we have no indication it was this bad. A talent is thought to have weighed between 60 and 100 pounds. In the midst of a great display of God"s wrath, wicked men show how rotten they are by speaking against God"s name!

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Hampton, Gary. "Commentary on Revelation 16:21". "Gary Hampton Commentary on Selected Books". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ghc/revelation-16.html. 2014.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

talent. See App-61.

was = is.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Revelation 16:21". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/revelation-16.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And there fell upon men a great hail out of heaven, every stone about the weight of a talent: and men blasphemed God because of the plague of the hail; for the plague thereof was exceeding great.

Fell - `descends.'

Upon men - `the men.'

Men - not those struck who died, but the rest. Unlike the result in Jerusalem (Revelation 11:13), where "the remnant were affrighted, and gave glory to the God of heaven."

Was - `is.'

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 16:21". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/revelation-16.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(21) And there fell. . . .—And a great hail, as of a talent in weight, descends from the heaven on men. There is again a reference to the Egyptian plagues. But we may also call to mind the great defeat of the enemies of Israel at Beth-horon (Joshua 10:1-11), when “the Lord cast down great stones from heaven.” Such an overthrow awaits every confederacy that sets itself in array against the kingdom of the righteous King. The discomfiture and the plague works no repentance; the men blaspheme God because of the hail, for great is its plague exceedingly. The proud, hard spirit which still hates the good remains: thus is sin its own worst penalty. As an illustration of this hard, unsubdued spirit, we may call to mind Capaneus, in Dante’s Inferno, and the words in which Virgil addresses him:—

“Thou art more punished, in that this thy pride

Lives yet unquenched; no torment save thy rage

Were to thy fury pain proportioned full.

The unrepentant state of those upon whom the vials are poured is to be contrasted with the different result of the earthquake in Revelation 11:13, when men gave glory to the God of heaven.

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Revelation 16:21". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/revelation-16.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And there fell upon men a great hail out of heaven, every stone about the weight of a talent: and men blasphemed God because of the plague of the hail; for the plague thereof was exceeding great.
there fell
8:7; 11:19; Exodus 9:23-26; Joshua 10:11; Isaiah 30:30; Ezekiel 13:11,13; 38:21,22
blasphemed
9,11; Isaiah 8:21 Reciprocal: Genesis 4:13 - GeneralExodus 9:22 - GeneralLeviticus 24:11 - blasphemed;  Job 1:11 - and he will curse thee;  Job 38:23 - GeneralPsalm 18:12 - hail;  Psalm 105:32 - them hail for rain;  Psalm 148:8 - Fire;  Isaiah 28:17 - and the hail;  Zechariah 14:12 - Their flesh;  2 Timothy 3:2 - blasphemers;  Revelation 22:11 - that is unjust

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Revelation 16:21". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/revelation-16.html.

Walter Scott's Commentary on Revelation

Revelation 16:21. — But, in addition to this, the general horror is intensified by a hurricane of divine judgment, which descends upon men with irresistible and crushing force, a storm of divine wrath, which even the guilty world will have to acknowledge as heaven-sent: "A great hail as of a talent weight."{*"The Jewish talent was 125 lbs. The Egyptian and Greek talents were about 86 lbs. The former is the weight of the hail in our text, and intimates the crushing, overwhelming character of the visitation.} We have already, more than once, been told of a hailstorm, singly, and in conjunction with other destructive agencies (Revelation 11:19; Revelation 8:7).{*See remarks on Revelation 8:7; and on Revelation 11:19.} But this exceeds in weight and intensity the previous hailstorms. As hail descends from Heaven, and is sharp, sudden, and disastrous in its effects, so the judgment here. The nature of it is not explained, but its severity and its source from Heaven are truths unquestionably graven on the face of the prophecy.{*Few persons can form a conception of the terrible character of a great hailstorm. Here is an account of one which occurred at Constantinople in the month of October, 1831, written by one who witnessed it: "After an uncommonly sultry night, threatening clouds arose about six in the morning, and a noise between thunder and tempest, and yet not to be compared to either, increased every moment, and the inhabitants of the capital, roused from their sleep, awaited with anxious expectation the issue of this threatening phenomenon. Their uncertainty was not of long duration; lumps of ice as large as a man's foot, falling singly, and then like a thick shower of stones, which destroyed everything with which they came in contact. The oldest persons do not remember ever to have seen such hailstones. Some were picked up half an hour afterwards which weighed above a pound. This dreadful storm passed over Constantinople and along the Bosphorus, over Therapia, Bojukden, and Belgrade; and the fairest, nay, the only hope of this beautiful and fertile tract, the vintage, just commenced, was destroyed in a day! Animals of all kinds, and even some persons, were killed, an innumerable number are wounded, and the damage done to the houses is incalculable. The force of the falling masses of ice was so great that they broke to atoms all the tiles on the roofs, and, like musket balls, shattered planks."} {"What would it have been if the ice masses had been fifty or one hundred times larger?" — From "Seiss on the Apocalypse," page 101. }

Has this crowning act of divine judgment wrought repentance? Is the will broken and the heart crushed under the mighty hand of God? No! Man is unchanged, unless the Spirit of God, in mighty sovereign grace, converts and saves. The moral effect of this awful judgment is stated in the plainest terms, "men blaspheme God" — not glorify Him, as we might naturally expect — "because of the plague of hail, for the plague of it is exceeding great." How patient is God! How perverse the creature!

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Scott, Walter. "Commentary on Revelation 16:21". "Walter Scott's Commentary on Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/sor/revelation-16.html.

E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament

Weight of talents varied according to the different standards and they were at least fifty pounds on an average. To drop a hail stone of that weight as a symbol of God"s wrath would give some impression of the greatness of that wrath. Blasphemed God means they spoke very evil words against Him, because of their disappointment and humiliation over the loss of their political power.

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Zerr, E.M. "Commentary on Revelation 16:21". E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/znt/revelation-16.html. 1952.

Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation

Revelation 16:21

Revelation 16:21 And there fell upon men a great hail out of heaven, every stone about the weight of a talent: and men blasphemed God because of the plague of the hail; for the plague thereof was exceeding great.

And there fell upon men a great hail

Revelation 16:21 as Joshua 10:11 or thereby is signified Gods just and righteous judgments, as upon Gog in the land of Magog. { Ezekiel 38:2-19; Ezekiel 38:22-23}

And men blasphemed God because of the plague of the hail

By those men, we are to understand (as before) those whose names are not written in the Lamb's Book of Life, who worship the beast or his image, and receive his mark or name in their forehead or right hand. See Revelation 13:9; Revelation 13:11. They repented not, to give glory to God, but blasphemed God, because he plagued them for their idolatry, false worship, after the commandments and doctrines of men, and not according to the institutions of our Lord Jesus Christ.

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Knollys, Hanserd. "Commentary on Revelation 16:21". "Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hkc/revelation-16.html.

Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms

Revelation 16:21. And a great hail as an hundred-weight fell from heaven on the men; and the men blasphemed God upon the plague of hail, for its plague is very great. On the hail comp. on ch. Revelation 11:19. Instead of: as an hundred- weight, properly, as large as a talent.[Note: Comp. Josephus de Bel. Jud. Revelation 16:6, ταλαντιαῖ οι μὲ ν ἦ σαν βαλλό μενοι πέ τροι, which were thrown by machines for the purpose.] The talent weighed between fifty and sixty pounds. They still blaspheme, therefore, dying. For this hail leaves no one in life who is struck by it. It brings destruction to all that had been still left to the enemies of God by the other plagues. The deadly character of the hail is clear also from this, that here no mention is made, as in the parallel passages, of their repenting of their works along with their blaspheming. They no longer have time to repent. But even when dying they can still blaspheme. Bengel: "The blaspheming of God had twice already been mentioned under these plagues, and along with that it was said they did not repent; but here, when the blaspheming of God is delineated the third time, no notice is taken of the other point, whether they repented or not; from which we may infer that the men were killed by this hail as the Amorites in Joshua 10:11. Men cannot receive the punishment due to this blasphemy in time. But the more on that account must we suppose a respect had to the judgment of God in eternity. We have here the end of God's judgment on the earth, though still not the end of all things." Under the seventh trumpet "the time for the dead to be judged" had also come; comp. ch. Revelation 11:18. But this is not said in respect to the seventh vial, however nearly it otherwise touches on the seventh trumpet. For the seven vials or plagues, after the example of those of Egypt, do not alight on individuals as such, but on the powers of the world; they all, therefore, belong to the earth (comp. ch. Revelation 16:1). Hence, in this group the wicked feeling that prompted the still unpunished blasphemy cannot be met. We are thus pointed forwards to the following group, at the close of which, in ch. Revelation 20:12, ss., the dead who have not died in the Lord shall be judged according to their works. Bengel remarks, "In the midst of all, the saints, who are found among the ungodly mass, are preserved in safety. God distinguished in the plagues of Egypt between the Egyptians and the children of Israel, and a similar thing takes place in the seven vials." But we must not understand the distinction too outwardly. When two suffer the same thing, it is still not the same.

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Hengstenberg, Ernst. "Commentary on Revelation 16:21". Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/heg/revelation-16.html.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

21.Fell’ out of heaven—As if to leave a full, last impression that the destruction was from Jehovah, a new form of judgment came out of heaven. These were icebergs, sixty pounds in weight, hailed down from the sky. These fell upon men, crushing them with their cold, solid, remorseless weight. Note Revelation 18:21. Yet, though the divine hand was so apparent, the survivors repented not, but blasphemed God. They persisted in their adherence to antichrist until the battle of Revelation 19:11-21.

By our interpretation of this triad of chapters thus closed, it may be truly said that “we are living under the period of the vials;” apparently under the fifth. The Roman spiritual world-power, which succeeded the imperial Roman world-power, is smitten with serial plagues, and declines. Yet it grows spiritually more impenitent, self-asserting, and defiant with every successive smite. This world-wide Babylon presents itself before us here in America, claiming absolute supremacy over us, and ready for the battle; moral battle as long as the physical battle is not in its power; physical battle as soon as a sufficiency of the moral battle is won. How long this vial-period will endure we have no chronometer or almanac that can tell us. But every man of us would do well to be alert in duty so long as the contest lasts.

 

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Revelation 16:21". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/revelation-16.html. 1874-1909.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

Revelation 16:21. Even an abnormal hail-ahower (cf. the fourth Egyptian plague) fails to bring pagans to their senses. , i.e., literally about sixty times the weight of even the enormous hailstones ( ) which Diodorus Siculus (19:45) records. In En. lx. 17 the “spirit of the hail is a good angel,” i.e., amenable to God’s orders.

The obscurity of chapter 17 springs mainly from the differences of tradition and outlook which are reflected in the canonical text. The threefold interpretation of the Beast as the Imperial power (so 13), as Nero redivivus (Revelation 16:8) and as (11) the eighth king (the two latter being applications of the same idea) is accompanied by a twofold explanation of the seven heads (geographical = 9, historical =10), and of the woman’s support (Revelation 16:1; Revelation 16:3; Revelation 16:15). The eschatological tradition of Babylon as the supreme anti-divine world-power is applied to Rome, and this involves the reinterpretation of some details (e.g. 15, 18), while the tradition of the Beast as antichrist is further overlaid by the special tradition of Nero redivivus in that capacity. This dual Beast (as Völtei first recognised; cf. Charles’s Ascensio Isaiæ, pp. lx.–lxi.) is not merely the Imperial power (as in Revelation 13:3) but incarnate in an Imperial personality of infernal and supernatural character, which attacks not only the Christian messiah (14) but Rome itself (Revelation 16:16-17). The latter trait is unmistakably due to the legend of Nero redivivus, apart from which the oracle is unintelligible. Such variations have left traces in the structure of the passage, which point to some process of editorial revision, but it is difficult to disentangle the original source or sources, or even to determine their precise character and period. Revelation 16:14 is certainly out of place, for the allies of the Beast could not destroy Rome after they themselves had been destroyed by the messiah and his allies. It is thus either proleptic or inserted by the Christian writer in his (Jewish) source (so e.g., Vischer, Charles, Briggs, von Soden). Other traces of this editor might be found in 6 b, 8 (9 a?), and 15, and the Jewish character of the source (so Vischer, Weyland, Schmidt, Sabatier, Ménégoz, etc.), would be confirmed by the absence of any polemic against the Imperial cultus. It would be a Vespasianic oracle, inspired by a passion for revenge on Rome for her cruel, recent treatment of the Jewish people. When the source is regarded as Christian (as e.g., by Erbes, Völter, and Schön), Revelation 16:11 would be an addition inserted under Domitian to bring it up to date (so Harnack, Texte u. Unters. II. iii. 134 f.; Chronologie, 245, 246, followed by Briggs, Gunkel, J. Weiss, etc.; cf. Introd. § 7). But even so, the structure of the passage is involved. Revelation 16:9-11 are not vision but calculation or exposition (cf.Revelation 13:18). The waters of Revelation 16:15 are never seen (cf. Revelation 16:1; Revelation 16:3), and the professed explanation (Revelation 16:7) follows a loose order (beast = 8, heads = 9–11, horns=12–14, waters = 15, horns again = 16–17, and finally the woman = 18). The reference to the woman, however, is thrown late in order to introduce the following doom-song (cf. kings in 18, Revelation 18:3; Revelation 18:9, and great in 18, Revelation 18:2), and a similar motive accounts for the irregular position of 16–17 after 14, Rome’s fall, though viewed from different angles, being the main object before the writer’s mind at the moment. The defeat of 14 is taken up, in its true position, afterwards (Revelation 19:11-21). Revelation 16:15 (an echo of Revelation 16:19 b) is probably thrown in at this point, to contrast dramatically the revolt [16] of Rome’s supporters against her. Thus, except for 9–11, there are sufficient psychological reasons to account partially for the order and contents of the oracle; but source-criticism is required to clear up the passage, in the more or less extensive theories of one source (edited in 6, 9 a, 14–15, so J. Weiss; or variously in 8, 12–14, with some words in 6, 9, 11, so e.g. Pfleiderer, Baljon, Bousset and Forbes) or even two sources (Jewish, A = 3–4, 6–7b, 10, [919]=11–13, 16 b–17, Wellhausen’s Analyse, 26 f.), for which the linguistic idiosyncrasies (double use of , 3–4, precedence of object over verb 13, 16, 18, . . . 2, and the construction . . . , 8) afford some basis. The main problem is to explain how the various strata of tradition overlap; e.g., in 8, 12 f., the beast is Nero redivivus, an infernal power of evil, whereas in 11 Domitian seems identified with Nero the beast. It is hard to believe that one and the same writer could simultaneously regard Domitian as a second Nero and expect Nero redivivus as a semi-supernatural power. In any case the stress falls on the Beast rather than on the woman, and on the eschatological prediction, not on the historical application. It is a fairly open question whether 8 or 11 is the editorial mortar super-imposed upon the earlier tradition. Upon the whole, one of the least unsatisfactory solutions is to take 11 as a Domitianic gloss by the Christian editor, who has also added 6 b (if not all of 6) and 14 to a Vespasianic oracle (possibly of Jewish origin) in Revelation 17:4 f. which anticipated the downfall of persecuting Rome at the hands of Nero redivivus and his Eastern allies. No hypothesis is free from difficulties. But the general Domitianic reference of the Apocalypse and the presence of the Nero redivivus saga must be worked in somehow, and some hypothesis on the above lines seems to do most justice to the literary structure of this chapter as well as to the data of the book in general. It is impossible to determine how far the Christian editor worked over his source. That the difficulties of the oracle arise mainly from the presence of an earlier source (cf. Introd. § 7), which John has revised slightly and brought up to date, is axiomatic, however.

[919] Codex Vaticanus (sæc. iv.), published in photographic facsimile in 1889 under the care of the Abbate Cozza-Luzi.

The double object of the oracle is (a), by a re-editing of the tradition of 13 to represent Rome in her Imperial pride, before describing her downfall, and (b) to define more precisely the final appearance of the last foe. The chapter could readily be spared as isolated (Simcox), but this only proves that the author is again working upon disparate materials which he inherited. The oracle contains (Revelation 16:1-6) a vision of the Harlot (by way of foil to Revelation 12:1-6 and especially Revelation 21:9 f.) and the Beast, with (Revelation 16:7-18) an explanation of the vision.

 

 

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Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on Revelation 16:21". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/revelation-16.html. 1897-1910.