Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Revelation 16:4

Then the third angel poured out his bowl into the rivers and the springs of waters; and they became blood.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Temple;   Water;   Wicked (People);   Scofield Reference Index - Resurrection;   The Topic Concordance - Wrath;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Babylon;   Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Order;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Antichrist;   Moses;   Plagues of Egypt;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Angels;   Blood;   Moses ;   River ;   Water ;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Vials;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Revelation of John:;   Sore;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

Upon the rivers and fountains of waters - This is an allusion to the first Egyptian plague, Exodus 7:20; and to those plagues in general there are allusions throughout this chapter. It is a sentiment of the rabbins that "whatever plagues God inflicted on the Egyptians in former times, he will inflict on the enemies of his people in all later times." See a long quotation on this subject from Rabbi Tanchum in Schoettgen.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Revelation 16:4". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/revelation-16.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

And the third angel poured out his vial upon the rivers and fountains of waters - This coincides also with the account of the sounding of the third trumpet Revelation 8:10-11; “And the third angel sounded, and there fell a great star from heaven, burning as a lamp, and it fell upon the third part of the rivers, and upon the fountains of waters.” As to the meaning of the phrase, “rivers and fountains of waters,” see the notes on that passage. We found, it was supposed, in the application of that passage, that the invasion of the Roman empire by Attila, king of the Huns, was referred to, affecting mainly those parts of the empire where the rivers and streams had their origin. The analogy would lead us, in the fulfillment of the passage before us, to look for some similar desolations on those portions of Europe. See the notes at the close of Revelation 16:7.

And they became blood - This would properly mean that they became as blood; or became red with blood; and it would be fulfilled if bloody battles were fought near them, so that they seemed to run blood.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Revelation 16:4". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/revelation-16.html. 1870.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

And the third poured out his bowl into the rivers and the fountains of waters; and it became blood.

And the third poured out his bowl ... The figurative nature of this is evident in the truth that with both the sea and the land already ruined, there would have been no need to bother with the rivers and fountains. What can be meant? A vast number of earth's great cities are located upon the rivers; and just as the rivers move downward to the sea, so the influences of earth's great cities flow downward from them into all mankind. We interpret the blight upon the rivers and fountains as the ultimate blight upon the urban civilizations of the world which will change the influences descending from those great cities into blood. People cannot worship self and sensuality without degrading, at last, their joys, recreations, and all creative activity and reducing them to lower and lower levels. "When the public taste grows corrupt, the literature, for example, will become so."[18]

Are not all of earth's great cities today in trouble as never before? The proliferation in many of them of a vast army of the incompetent, idle, non-productive dependents upon the public charity, the erosion of authority by the rapacious greed of godless labor unions controlled by thieving, looting bosses in league with the underworld, the spread of lawlessness, official corruption, fiscal irresponsibility, and the encroaching malignant godlessness that has spread terror like a fog over every one of them ... such things appear to have crossed a boundary between what can be contained, corrected, and reduced, and to have become a demonic engine running away. As to which it is now, we do not pretend to know; but this prophecy reveals what it will be like when the angel of the wrath of god pours his bowl upon the rivers and fountains. There are today coming out of earth's cities influences which spiritually are the blood of dead men. See comment on Revelation 11:13, above, in which the fall of urban civilization is a forerunner of the final judgment. In this context, Lenski spoke of the contamination of "such things as marriage, political science, public morals, and good taste being rivers and springs turned into blood."[19] These are only a few examples of many that could be cited.

[18] W. Boyd Carpenter, Ellicott's Bible Commentary, Vol. VIII (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, 1959), p. 607.

[19] R. C. H. Lenski, op. cit., p. 469.

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Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
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Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Revelation 16:4". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/revelation-16.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And the third angel poured his vial upon the rivers and fountains of waters,.... Which also is not to be literally understood of a stagnation of them, before the burning of the world; nor of the destruction of Popish fleets and navies, such as the Spanish armada in 1588, and others since; but rather of Popish writings, of the most learned and subtle men among them, who like rivers and fountains, which supply and fill the sea, support and keep up the Romish jurisdiction and hierarchy; and of the confutation of them by Protestant writers; and of the utter destruction of their principal orders, and chief men among them, as cardinals, archbishops, bishops, priests, Jesuits, &c. though it seems chiefly to design the places near to Rome, such as Italy and Savoy; for as the third trumpet affects the rivers and fountains, Revelation 8:10 and brings in the Huns into Italy, and issued in the destruction of the empire; so the third vial affects the same, and brings terrible wars, and great effusion of blood, where so much of the blood of the saints have been shed: hence it follows, and they became blood; these countries will be covered with blood, and a reformation will ensue upon it; the allusion is to Exodus 7:19.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
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Gill, John. "Commentary on Revelation 16:4". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/revelation-16.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

5 And the third angel poured out his vial upon the rivers and fountains of waters; and they became blood.

(5) The story of the third angel striking the rivers, in this verse, who proclaiming the justice of God, commends the same by a grave comparison of the sins of men, with the punishment of God: which is common to this place, and that which went before. Wherefore also this praising is attributed to the angel of the waters, a name common to the second and third angels, according as both of them are said to be sent against the waters, though the one of the sea, the other of the rivers, in (Revelation 16:5-6).
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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Revelation 16:4". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/revelation-16.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

(Exodus 7:20.)

angel — so Syriac, Coptic, and Andreas. But A, B, C, and Vulgate omit it.

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This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 16:4". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/revelation-16.html. 1871-8.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

Into the rivers and the fountains of waters (εις τους ποταμους και τας πηγας των υδατωνeis tous potamous kai tas pēgas tōn hudatōn). See Revelation 8:10 for this phrase. Contamination of the fresh-water supply by blood follows that of the sea. Complete again.

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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
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Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Revelation 16:4". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/revelation-16.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

The third angel

Omit angel.

They became ( ἐγένετο )

There is no necessity for rendering the singular verb in the plural. We may say either it became or there came.

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Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 16:4". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/revelation-16.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

And the third angel poured out his vial upon the rivers and fountains of waters; and they became blood.

The third poured out his phial on the rivers and fountains of water — Which were over all the earth.

And they became blood — So that none could drink thereof.

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.
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Wesley, John. "Commentary on Revelation 16:4". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/revelation-16.html. 1765.

Scofield's Reference Notes

angel

(See Scofield Hebrews 1:4).

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Scofield, C. I. "Scofield Reference Notes on Revelation 16:4". "Scofield Reference Notes (1917 Edition)". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/srn/revelation-16.html. 1917.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

4 And the third angel poured out his vial upon the rivers and fountains of waters; and they became blood.

Ver. 4. Upon the rivers, &c.] The persecutors and impostors, the Jesuits especially, who have lately added twelve new articles (by the authority of Pope Pius IV) raised out of the Council of Trent, and added to the Nicene Creed, to be received with others as the true catholic faith, to be believed by as many as shall be saved. And those that receive them not, are not suffered to live among them. This is worse than the six articles in Henry VIII’s time, that whip with six cords, as they called it. See these twelve articles in the Epist. prefixed to Bishop Jewel’s works.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Revelation 16:4". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/revelation-16.html. 1865-1868.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Mr. Mede and Dr. More both agree in interpreting this of the Jesuits and other popish emissaries, and the laws made for the execution of them in England in the time of Queen Elizabeth, not excluding those civil powers which are the upholders and maintainers of antichrist, as the Spaniard, who also within these last hundred years hath had blood enough given him to drink, both in 1588, and in the Low Countries. It seemeth a little hard to interpret a prophecy relating to the whole church, by what is done in so small a part of it. We know in what credit these emissaries are at this day, both in the empire, and in Spain, and in France, and Venice, from whence they sometime were expelled. We have, indeed, laws against them in England, but principally relating to those of them who, being native subjects of England, have apostatized. So as I had rather think this vial is not yet poured out, or that interpreters mistake the meaning of these

rivers and fountains, than agree with them in that interpretation of this prophecy. I am much disposed to believe that we are not further than the pouring out of the second vial. God, indeed, hath made the Romish clergy contemptible enough, and hath vexed and enraged them sufficiently. He hath also made their scenical religion as contemptible to, and justly abhorred by, a great part of the Christian world; but how far he hath proceeded further to the ruin of antichrist, I do not understand.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Revelation 16:4". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/revelation-16.html. 1685.

Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture

Третийчашусделалась кровь Пресная вода, которой будет недоставать из-за продолжительной засухи (11:6), подвергнется такой же участи, как и океанская (ср. Исх. 7:19 и послед.). Сторонники антихриста будут страдать от жажды, и к тому же у них не будет чистой воды, чтобы омыть раны.

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MacLaren, Alexander. "Commentary on Revelation 16:4". Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mac/revelation-16.html.

Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

The rivers and fountains-became blood; seeming to indicate a succession of bloody wars.

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Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on Revelation 16:4". "Family Bible New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/fam/revelation-16.html. American Tract Society. 1851.

Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

‘And the third poured out his bowl into the rivers and the fountains of the waters, and it became blood.’

Now it is man’s water supply that is attacked in some way. The same applies as on v. 3. Here however there is probably a reference to bloody warfare, as suggested by Ezekiel 32:6 where the blood of the armies of Egypt fill the waters. John’s world was familiar with such warfare and it is a characteristic of history. But here we learn it is among other things the sign of God’s wrath against sin. In this modern day we could see biological and chemical warfare affecting man’s drinking supply.

The phrase ‘rivers and fountains of the waters’ is repeated from Revelation 8:10. There is clearly a parallel activity in mind. These blessings, which were intended to provide man with lifegiving water and fruitfulness for his fields, will instead become a curse. In both cases there is possibly a deliberate contrast with the life-giving waters of Revelation 7:17 and Revelation 22:1. For the unbeliever there will be no soul refreshment.

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Pett, Peter. "Commentary on Revelation 16:4". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/revelation-16.html. 2013.

Foy E. Wallace's Commentary on the Book of Revelation

(3) The conversion of the rivers and fountains of waters into blood: "And the third angel poured out his vial upon the rivers and fountains of waters; and they became blood" --16:4.

The pollution of the fountains and streams of water resulted in epidemics of deadly disease. The sickening figure of the total contamination of the streams of water by the effluence of blood was symbolic of retribution for the blood of the martyrs. In chapter 6:10 the souls under the altar of martyrdom cried: How long, 0 Lord, holy and true, dost thou not judge and avenge our blood on them that dwell on the earth? This plague symbol was the answer to the martyr-cry. It was the squaring of the account in this symbolic retribution of blood, the avenging of the martyrs. And verse six so declares: For they have shed the blood of the saints and prophets, and thou hast given them blood to drink; for they are worthy. The statement "for they are worthy" means that they deserved the recompense of blood for the blood they had shed.

A similar pronouncement of judgment upon apostate Jerusalem was made by Jesus in Matthew 23:37 : "0 Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them which are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not!"

The plague meant that they were figuratively made to drink the blood which they had made to flow from the mass murder of the saints.

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Wallace, Foy E. "Commentary on Revelation 16:4". "Foy E. Wallace's Commentary on the Book of Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/foy/revelation-16.html. 1966.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

4. The third bowl16:4

All the fresh water sources (springs, rivers, lakes, etc.) become blood in this plague (cf. Revelation 8:11; Exodus 7:24; Psalm 78:43-44). If the water is literal water, should we not understand the blood as literal blood too? People cannot exist long without any water to drink. However other cataclysmic changes follow that will evidently make water available again (cf. Revelation 16:17-21).

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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 16:4". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/revelation-16.html. 2012.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

Revelation 16:4. And the third poured out his bowl into the rivers and the fountains of the waters, and they became blood. Again we see the increased potency of the third bowl as compared with the third trumpet, chap. Revelation 8:10-11. All rivers, etc., are affected, and they become more than bitter, they become blood.

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Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on Revelation 16:4". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/revelation-16.html. 1879-90.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Upon the rivers. That is, on the Roman provinces in Italy, and Rome itself. This is the last stroke employed by the Almighty for the total destruction of Rome. The divine judgment being executed, the Angel of the waters, that is, the Angel that presided over the Roman states, cries out, (ver. 5. 6.) thou art just, &c. (Pastorini)

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Revelation 16:4". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/revelation-16.html. 1859.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And the third angel poured out his vial upon the rivers and fountains of waters; and they became blood.

Angel. (Exodus 7:20.) So Syriac, Coptic, Andreas; but 'Aleph (') A B C, Vulgate, omit it.

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 16:4". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/revelation-16.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(4) And the third angel . . .—The third vial resembles the second in its effects. As it is poured out on the rivers and springs of waters, they become blood. It is not only the great sea which becomes blood, but all the merry streams and babbling brooks which carry their tribute of water seawards also turn corrupt. And this plague is acknowledged by heavenly voices as a just retribution (Revelation 16:5-7). The streams and rivers feed the sea; they are the powers and influences which go to the making up of the great popular sentiment; these are smitten by the same corruption. Men cannot worship worldliness or earthliness without degrading even those who contribute to their instruction, their recreations, and their joys, to the same level. When the public taste grows corrupt, the literature will, for example, become so in a more or less degree; the up-flowing tide will colour the down-coming stream. “The morality of a nation’s art,” writes a modern critic. “always rises to the level of morality in a nation’s manners. Morality takes care of itself, and always revenges any outrage which art may put upon its laws by either lowering the art that so offends, or extinguishing it” (Dallas, Gay Science, Vol. II., 16). It is true in even a wider sense. The loftier powers of imagination, the range of poetical elevation, are cramped and killed in a base, world-worshipping age. The streams of life grow putrid, the fresh and bright gifts of God are polluted, when the ocean of public thought is unwholesome.

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Revelation 16:4". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/revelation-16.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And the third angel poured out his vial upon the rivers and fountains of waters; and they became blood.
upon
8:10,11
and they
5; 14:7; Exodus 7:20; 8:5; Isaiah 50:2; Ezekiel 35:8; Hosea 13:15
Reciprocal: Exodus 1:22 - Every son;  Proverbs 21:1 - as;  Isaiah 34:3 - and the mountains;  Jeremiah 51:48 - the heaven

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Revelation 16:4". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/revelation-16.html.

Walter Scott's Commentary on Revelation

THIRD BOWL OF WRATH.

Revelation 16:4-7. — "And the third poured out his bowl on the rivers, and (on) the fountains of waters; and they became blood. And I heard the angel of the waters saying, Thou art righteous, Who art, and wast, the Holy One, that Thou hast judged so. For they have poured out the blood of saints and prophets, and Thou hast given them blood to drink; they are worthy. And I heard the altar saying, Yea, Lord God Almighty, true and righteous (are) Thy judgments." In the third Trumpet, to which the third Vial corresponds, the rivers and fountains come under judgment. In the former, however, they become wormwood (Revelation 8:11); here they are turned into blood. In the former all national life, character, and source of thought and action are morally poisoned; in the latter the national corruption is of a deeper kind — moral death and complete alienation from God are the results. The "rivers," the ordinary life of a nation characterised by known and accepted principles of government, social and political, its life-breath so to speak, as also "fountains of waters," the sources of prosperity and well-being, are all turned into blood, symbolically of course.{*See remarks on Revelation 8:10.} We would again remark that, allowing a certain parallelism between the Trumpets and Vials, the latter are, at the same time, of wider extent and more severe and searching than the former.

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Scott, Walter. "Commentary on Revelation 16:4". "Walter Scott's Commentary on Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/sor/revelation-16.html.

E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament

The mention of the earth and other parts of the creation are to represent them as symbols, denoting the completeness of God's judgments against evil men. That is why rivers and water fountains are named in this verse. if ‘

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Zerr, E.M. "Commentary on Revelation 16:4". E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/znt/revelation-16.html. 1952.

Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation

Revelation 16:4

Revelation 16:4-7 And the third angel poured out his vial upon the rivers and fountains of waters; and they became blood5 And I heard the angel of the waters say, Thou art righteous, O Lord, which art, and wast, and shalt be, because thou hast judged thus6 For they have shed the blood of saints and prophets, and thou hast given them blood to drink; for they are worthy7 And I heard another out of the altar say, Even Song of Solomon, Lord God Almighty, true and righteous are thy judgments.

By these mystical

rivers and fountains of waters,

we may understand the emperors, kings, princes and nobles of the Roman papal kingdom, which give their power and strength to the see of Rome; as the rivers and fountains of waters run into the sea. { Ecclesiastes 1:7} The great monarchs and kings of the earth are called the heads of their rivers, { Ezekiel 29:3-4; Ezekiel 32:2-6} that Isaiah, of their mystical waters.

And they became blood.

Which plague may bear some allusion unto that plague of Egypt, { Exodus 7:20-21} so God will give mystical Babylon blood to drink, for she hath shed the blood of the saints, and of the martyrs of Jesus. { Revelation 16:6; Revelation 17:6; Revelation 18:24; Revelation 19:2}

And the angel of the waters

and another angel acknowledged and testified God is just and righteous in judging thus.

And I heard the angel of the waters say, Thou art righteous, O Lord, which art, and wast, and shalt be, because thou hast judged thus. For they have shed the blood of saints and prophets, and thou hast given them blood to drink; for they are worthy. And I heard another out of the altar say, even so Lord God almighty, true and righteous are thy judgments.

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Knollys, Hanserd. "Commentary on Revelation 16:4". "Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hkc/revelation-16.html.

Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms

Third Vial

Revelation 16:4. And the third poured out his vial on the rivers, and on the fountains of waters, and they became blood. The water of the rivers is an image of prosperity, and good fortune; the fountains of water indicate the source of a prosperous condition. We find the same symbol also in ch. Revelation 8:10-11, where at the sounding of the third trumpet a great star falls from heaven, burning like a torch, on the rivers and fountains of water, and changes them into wormwood, so that many persons died of the waters, because they had become bitter. In unison with that passage, where the waters became wormwood, ("and the third part of the waters became wormwood,") we must also translate here: and they became blood. The correspondence between the second and third vial and the second and third trumpet is intentional. It furnishes a sort of finger-post for the internal connection between the two groups. But it is not less intentional, that the correspondence is only in part. That the rivers and fountains, which latter are also expressly named in Exodus 7:19, become blood, shews, that in the place of a prosperous and flourishing stale there has come the shedding of blood. Similar is Psalms 42:3, "My tears have been my meat day and night," instead of eating I weep; Psalms 80, "Thou feedest them with bread of tears," instead of bread with tears; Psalms 88:18, "My acquaintances, the place of darkness," q.d. the dark region of the dead has come into the place of all my acquaintances; Job 17:14, "The grave I name, my father art thou, mother and sister, the worm." In the first Egyptian plague there was a twofold symbolical element. It first points to the shedding of guilty blood as a punishment for the shedding of innocent blood. This element was brought prominently out in the preceding plague. The second element is contained in the words of Moses, Exodus 7:21, "And the river stank, and the Egyptians could not drink of the water of the river." As in the first aspect of that plague every thing was indicated, which in those that followed touched the life of the Egyptians, even to the slaying of the first-born, and the destruction of the Egyptians in the Red Sea, so in the second it contained a prophecy of all that should damage the prosperity of Egypt, of which the water of the Nile was the better fitted to serve as an emblem, since upon it the temporal well-being of Egypt wholly depended. Both the elements are found in Psalms 78:44, "he turned their streams into blood, and their waters they drank not. "How the threatening contained in the second symbolical element was fulfilled, is shewn in Psalms 78:45-48, and that of the first, Psalms 78:49-51.

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Hengstenberg, Ernst. "Commentary on Revelation 16:4". Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/heg/revelation-16.html.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

4.Rivers and fountains—Like the first plague of Egypt which ensanguined “the waters of Egypt,” “their streams,” and “their rivers, and their ponds.” Exodus 7:19. This blood was a vivid image of the slaughter of the martyrs.

 

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Bibliographical Information
Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Revelation 16:4". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/revelation-16.html. 1874-1909.

The Bible Study New Testament

4. Poured out his bowl on the rivers. All disasters which come from the land waters. (See note on Revelation 8:10.)

 

 

 

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Ice, Rhoderick D. "Commentary on Revelation 16:4". "The Bible Study New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ice/revelation-16.html. College Press, Joplin, MO. 1974.