Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Revelation 18:3

For all the nations have drunk of the wine of the passion of her immorality, and the kings of the earth have committed acts of immorality with her, and the merchants of the earth have become rich by the wealth of her sensuality."
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Angel (a Spirit);   Commerce;   Fellowship;   Merchant;   The Topic Concordance - Judges;   Partaking;   Plague;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Commerce;   Wine;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Babylon;   Poetry of the Hebrews;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - City;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Fornication;   Merchant;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Babylon;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Fornication ;   Trade and Commerce;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Babylon the Great ;   Fornication;   The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Babel;   Babylon;   Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Drunk;   Fornication;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Abound;   Babylon in the New Testament:;   Delicacy;   Trade;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

The wine of the wrath - The punishment due to her transgressions, because they have partaken with her in her sins. See the note on Revelation 14:8.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Revelation 18:3". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/revelation-18.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

For all nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her fornication - See the notes on Revelation 14:8. This is given as a reason why this utter ruin had come upon her. She had beguiled and corrupted the nations of the earth, leading them into estrangement from God, and into pollution and sin. See the notes on Revelation 9:20-21.

And the kings of the earth have committed fornication with her - Spiritual adultery; that is, she has been the means of seducing them from God and leading them into sinful practices.

And the merchants of the earth are waxed rich through the abundance of her delicacies - The word rendered “abundance” here, means commonly “power.” It might here denote influence, though it may also mean number, quantity, wealth. Compare Revelation 3:8, where the same word is used. The word rendered “delicacies” - στρῆνους strēnous- occurs nowhere else in the New Testament. It properly means rudeness, insolence, pride; and hence “revel, riot, luxury.” It may be rendered here properly as “luxury,” or “proud voluptuousness”; and the reference is to such luxuries as are found commonly in a great, a frivolous, and a splendid city. These, of course, give rise to much traffic, and furnish employment to many merchants and sailors, who thus procure a livelihood, or become wealthy as the result of such traffic. Babylon - or papal Rome - is here represented under the image of such a luxurious city; and of course, when she falls, they who have thus been dependent on her, and who have been enriched by her, have occasion for mourning and lamentation. It is not necessary to expect to find a literal fulfillment of this, for it is emblematic and symbolical. The image of a great, rich, splendid, proud and luxurious city having been employed to denote that anti-Christian power, all that is said in this chapter follows, of course, on its fall. The general idea is, that she was doomed to utter desolation, and that all who were connected with her, far and near, would be involved in her ruin.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Revelation 18:3". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/revelation-18.html. 1870.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

For all nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her fornication,.... That is, all the nations of the Roman empire, the European nations, otherwise the Pagan and Mahometan nations have not; but these have, being made to drink by her, and made drunk therewith, that is, with her idolatries; See Gill on Revelation 14:8.

And the kings of the earth have committed fornication with her; joined with her in her idolatrous worship and practices, and encouraged the same, and obliged their subjects to them in their dominions; See Gill on Revelation 17:2.

And the merchants of the earth are waxed rich through the abundance of her delicacies; or "luxury"; which is not to be understood in a literal sense; though it is true that many merchants, in all ages, have enriched themselves by sending their commodities to Rome, where, through the vast consumption and luxuriousness of the place, they have bore a good price; but this is to be interpreted of spiritual merchants; these are such who do not merchandise by sea, but are land merchants, the merchants of the earth, and are said to be the great men of the earth, Revelation 18:23 such as are equal to princes, lords, and nobles; such are the cardinals, archbishops, and bishops; though the inferior clergy of the Romish church, who are under these, may be included: to which may be added, that one part of their wares is said to be the souls of men, Revelation 18:13 which plainly shows what sort of merchants these are; they are such who make merchandise of men, and pretend to sell them heaven, and the salvation of their souls; these are they that deal in pardons and indulgences, which they sell to ignorant people, and for a sum of money say Mass to fetch souls out of purgatory: all things have been saleable at Rome, crucifixes, priests, altars, temples, prayers, heaven, Christ, yea, God himself, as the poet Mantuan expresses it; and because of these idolatries, and wicked practices, Rome will be at last destroyed.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
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Gill, John. "Commentary on Revelation 18:3". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/revelation-18.html. 1999.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

drunkRevelation 14:8, from which perhaps “the wine” may have been interpolated. They have drunk of her fornication, the consequence of which will be wrath to themselves. But A, B, and C read, “(owing to the wrath of her fornication all nations) have fallen.Vulgate and most versions read as English Version, which may be the right reading though not supported by the oldest manuscripts. Babylon, the whore, is destroyed before the beast slays the two witnesses (Revelation 11:7), and then the beast himself is destroyed.

the wine — so B, Syriac, and Coptic. But A, C, and Vulgate omit.

abundance — literally, “power.”

delicaciesGreek, “luxury.” See on 1 Timothy 5:11, where the Greek verb “wax wanton” is akin to the noun here. Translate, “wanton luxury.” The reference is not to earthly merchandise, but to spiritual wares, indulgences, idolatries, superstitions, worldly compromises, wherewith the harlot, that is, the apostate Church, has made merchandise of men. This applies especially to Rome; but the Greek, and even in a less degree Protestant churches, are not guiltless. However, the principle of evangelical Protestantism is pure, but the principle of Rome and the Greek church is not so.

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This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 18:3". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/revelation-18.html. 1871-8.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

By (εκek). “As a result of.” Some MSS. omit “of the wine” (του οινουtou oinou). Cf. Revelation 14:10; Revelation 16:10.

Have fallen (πεπτωκανpeptōkan). Perfect active third personal of πιπτωpiptō for usual πεπτωκασιpeptōkasi Some MSS. read πεπωκανpepōkan (have drunk), from πινωpinō like the metaphor in Revelation 14:8, Revelation 14:10; Revelation 16:19; Revelation 17:2. See Revelation 17:2 for the same charge about the kings of the earth.

The merchants of the earth (οι εμποροι της γηςhoi emporoi tēs gēs). Old word for one on a journey for trade (from εν ποροςenεμποριονporos), like drummers, in N.T. only Matthew 13:45; Revelation 18:3, Revelation 18:11, Revelation 18:15, Revelation 18:23. Like εμπορευομαιemporion (John 2:16) and επλουτησανemporeuomai (James 4:13).

Waxed rich (πλουτεωeploutēsan). First ingressive aorist active indicative of του στρηνους αυτηςplouteō to be rich (cf. Revelation 3:17). Here alone in the N.T. do we catch a glimpse of the vast traffic between east and west that made Rome rich.

Of her wantonness (στρηνιαωtou strēnous autēs). Late word for arrogance, luxury, here alone in N.T. See strēniaō in Revelation 18:7, Revelation 18:9, to live wantonly.

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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
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Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Revelation 18:3". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/revelation-18.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

Have drunk ( πέπωκεν or πέπωκαν )

Some, however, read πέπτωκαν havefallen. So Rev.

Of the wine ( ἐκ τοῦ οἴνου )

Thus if we read have drunk. If we adopt have fallen, ἐκ is instrumental, by. So Rev.

Of the wrath

The wine of fornication has turned to wrath against herself.

Merchants ( ἔμποροι )

The word originally means one on a journey by sea or land, especially for traffic. Hence a merchant as distinguished from κάπηλος a retailer or huckster.

The abundance of her delicacies ( τῆς δυνάμεως τοῦ στρήνους αὐτῆς )

Lit., as Rev., the power of her luxury. Στρῆνος is akin to στερεός firmhard, stubborn (see on steadfast, 1 Peter 5:9). Hence over-strength, luxury, wantonness. Only here in the New Testament. The kindred verb στρηνιάω tolive deliciously occurs Revelation 18:7, Revelation 18:9.

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Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 18:3". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/revelation-18.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

3 For all nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her fornication, and the kings of the earth have committed fornication with her, and the merchants of the earth are waxed rich through the abundance of her delicacies.

Ver. 3. For all nations] All Roman Catholics.

The merchants of the earth] καπηλευειν. The Popish emissaries that huckster the word and make merchandise of men’s souls, 2 Peter 2:3, after they have taken them prisoners, and made prizes of them, 2 Timothy 3:6, αιχμαλωτιζοντες.

Through the abundance of her delicacies] στρηνους, or, of her insolencies. Proh pudor! haec res est tote notissima caelo, sang Petrarch 200 years since, speaking of the luxury and insolency of the court of Rome.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Revelation 18:3". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/revelation-18.html. 1865-1868.

Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament

The Spirit of God is placed here to assign the reason and cause of Babylon's fatal ruin and final desolation; namely,

1. Because all nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her fornications.

All nations, that is, very many; the generality of the Roman empire have been allured to, and intoxicated by, her idolatries, which have brought all this wrath upon her and them.

Where note, 1. How idolatry is compared to wine, because very pleasing to corrupt nature, and also very enticing and ensnaring, overtaking, like wine, a person unawares; and it is called wine of wrath, because it exciteth and provoketh God's wrath against a person or people guilty of it.

2. Because the kings of the earth have committed fornication with her, that is, joined with her in her idolatrous worship.

Where note, The policy of Babylon in drawing kings and princes to the bed of her fornications, well knowing how fast their example would be followed by inferiors. The example of superiors in doing evil is strangely powerful; Jeroboam made Israel to sin, not by commanding them to worship the golden calves, but commending that idolatrous worship to them in his own person.

3. Because the merchants of the earth were waxed rich through the abundance of her delicacies. By the merchants, understand all such as trade in Babylon's wares, her pleasing and costly wares of pardons, as masses and indulgences, by which so many were enriched. All things are vendible at Rome, any sin may be forgiven for silver, and a license for any thing that is unlawful for money. These are the reasons here assigned for Babylon's ruin. The nations were made drunk by her, kings committed fornication with her, and the merchants enriched through the abundance of her delicacies.

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Burkitt, William. "Commentary on Revelation 18:3". Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wbc/revelation-18.html. 1700-1703.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

For all nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her fornication; that is, her fornications which have brought this wrath upon her.

And the kings of the earth have committed, &c.; she hath not only herself committed idolatry, but allured others to it, teaching them to break the commandments of God, and hath influenced princes to establish, and propagate, and to uphold, and maintain it; and all sorts of men have been bewitched by her, growing rich by her abundance, and being drenched in her luxury.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Revelation 18:3". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/revelation-18.html. 1685.

Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture

царикупцы От политических деятелей до руководителей корпораций все вовлечены во всемирную систему коммерции (14:8; 17:2).

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MacLaren, Alexander. "Commentary on Revelation 18:3". Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mac/revelation-18.html.

Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

Have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her fornication; see note to chap Revelation 17:2. Babylon is represented as a rich, powerful, and luxurious harlot, enriching the nations by her commerce with them, while she corrupts them by her fornications. Compare Isaiah 47:1-15; Nahum 3:4.

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Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on Revelation 18:3". "Family Bible New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/fam/revelation-18.html. American Tract Society. 1851.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

For by the wine of the wrath of her fornication all the nations are fallen; and the kings of the earth committed fornication with her, and the merchants of the earth waxed rich by the power of her wantonness.

By the wine of the wrath of her fornication all the nations are fallen ... This places the blame squarely upon the harlot herself for the universal disaster about to fall. How is this so? The essence of this wine that at last intoxicates all mankind, especially the "ten kings" who are the executioners of this judgment, is that man himself is the supreme authority. In the elevation of a human being as the head of God's church and by giving his word precedence and greater authority than the word of the Son of God himself, this harlot established the prototype of the ultimate and final rebellion of mankind against all that God said. If a man is really supreme, people can logically dispense with the whole system of Christianity; and the tragedy unfolded in this chapter is what takes place when "the kings" at last catch on to this and decide to act in accordance with the very principles the harlot herself established. This was prefigured, of course, in the pagan city, by the cult of emperor worship; but it would issue ultimately in the savage, atheistic humanism of the last days, thus applying appropriately to both situations.

And the kings of the earth committed fornication with her ... They presumed to rule by "divine right." They accepted the principle of the supremacy of a man; but, in the episode of the "ten kings" they decided themselves to be "the man," leading to their rejection and hatred of the whore through their acceptance of her principles. It is totally inadequate to view the seduction of "the kings" as being derived solely from "the vast luxury trade bringing widespread prosperity."[23] Something far more significant is indicated.

And the merchants waxed rich ... This enters into the ultimate disaster, because the proliferation of a rich class indicates a loss of spiritual values. "The English word waxed comes from the German word, "wachsen", to grow or increase."[24] The implication is that the rich, borrowing the principles of the harlot, grew selfish and unmindful of other duties.

Up through this verse, the prophecy views the fall of Babylon as in the past, having already happened, as announced in Revelation 16:19; but there were still some things to be related concerning the "hour" leading up to this; therefore, the next verses, beginning with Revelation 18:4, retrogress in order to relate it. "In Revelation 18:2,3, by means of aorists, Babylon's fall is viewed as having occurred; but the imperatives of Revelation 18:4ff present her as still standing with all her seduction."[25] Not merely by the use of different tenses, but by the introduction of another "voice from heaven" (Revelation 18:4), the transition is indicated.

[23] G. B. Caird, The Revelation of St. John the Divine (New York: Harper and Row, 1966), p. 223.

[24] James D. Strauss, op. cit., p. 223.

[25] R. C. H. Lenski, op. cit., p. 517.

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Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
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Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Revelation 18:3". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/revelation-18.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

‘For by the wine of the wrath of her fornication all the nations are fallen, and the kings of the earth committed fornication with her, and the merchants of the earth waxed rich by the power of her wanton luxurious living.’

Her love of idolatry, sexual deviancy and the occult have brought on her the wrath of God and their participation in this, with its consequences, is depicted as wine drunk by the nations. The rulers of the earth sought to please her and gain her favours and the merchants of the earth prospered by reason of her propensities. All sought to benefit from her evil ways. This applied to Rome in John’s day and it applies to many centres of ‘civilisation’ in our own. The people to whom John wrote would see the woman as Rome. We may see it as many cities, centres of great empires, for men always tend to establish their own empires. Then it was done by blatant conquest, now it is done by assimilation. They may pay lip service to God but at heart they oppose all He stands for.

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Pett, Peter. "Commentary on Revelation 18:3". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/revelation-18.html. 2013.

Foy E. Wallace's Commentary on the Book of Revelation

The repetition in verse three of the harlot's winecup, representing her multiplied forms of seduction. The reference to the kings of the earth was used in the sense of the rulers and authorities of Judea and Palestine; and the reference to the nations was a designation for the heathen.

They were all particeps criminus, having drunk of the harlot's seductive wine-cup of abominations. The language was symbolic of Jerusalem's heathen affiliations. Thus the proud capital of the Jews, once the dwelling place of God and the depository of the Oracles and the center of Judaism, by apostasy had come to destruction and was reduced to a haunt of the demon-world of heathenism, the habitat of the diabolical agents of the satanic beast.

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Wallace, Foy E. "Commentary on Revelation 18:3". "Foy E. Wallace's Commentary on the Book of Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/foy/revelation-18.html. 1966.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

This verse is very similar to Revelation 17:2. However it seems that in view of the description God gave of Babylon in the rest of chapter18 it is not exactly the same Babylon pictured in chapter17. The political, economic, commercial system that originated in Babylon and that leaves God out seems to be in view here. Her philosophy has influenced all the nations that have acted immorally as a result and grown rich at the expense of and in defiance of others. Babylon"s influence has been worldwide. Political self-interest and materialism are its chief sins (cf. Revelation 18:23). [Note: Wall, p213.]

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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 18:3". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/revelation-18.html. 2012.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

Revelation 18:3. The cause of the city’s fall is again stated in the words of this verse.

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Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on Revelation 18:3". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/revelation-18.html. 1879-90.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

nations = the nations.

wine . . . wrath = furious wine. Figure of speech. Antimereia (of Noun). App-6.

have. Omit.

are. Omit.

through = by. Greek. ek. App-104.

abundance. App-172.1; Revelation 176:1.

delicacies = luxury. Greek. strenos. Only here in NT.; its verb only in verses: Revelation 7:9. This identifies the city with that of Rev 17. In addition, it is here implied that Babylon will become the head-quarters of Spiritism, the habitation of demons, and the hold of every unclean spirit. Jer 50and Jer 51should be carefully studied in connection with these two chapters, as many of the things predicted there await fulfillment in the coming evil days.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Revelation 18:3". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/revelation-18.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

For all nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her fornication, and the kings of the earth have committed fornication with her, and the merchants of the earth are waxed rich through the abundance of her delicacies.

Drunk - Revelation 14:8; Revelation 14:10, from which "the wine" may be interpolated. They have drunk of her fornication: the consequence will be wrath to themselves. So Vulgate; but 'Aleph (') A B C, read [ peptookasin (Greek #4098) for pepookasin], '(owing to the wrath of her fornication all nations) have fallen.' The harder, so the more probable, reading. As the nations 'have fallen' through her, so she, in retribution, "is fallen" herself (Revelation 18:2). Before the beast slays the two witnesses (Revelation 11:1-19), then the beast is destroyed.

The wine. So 'Aleph (') B, Syriac, Coptic; but A C, Vulgate, omit.

Abundance - `power,' resources.

Delicacies, [ streenous (Greek #4764)]. Note, 1 Timothy 5:11, where the verb "wax wanton" is akin to the noun. 'Resources of' - i:e., subserving 'wanton luxury.' Reference is not to earthly, but spiritual wares, indulgencies, idolatries, superstitions, worldly compromises, wherewith the apostate church has made merchandise of men. This applies especially to Rome and the Greek apostasy; but even Protestant churches are not guiltless. The principle of Evangelical Protestantism is pure: the principle of Rome and the Greek churches is not so.

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 18:3". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/revelation-18.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(3) For all nations have drunk . . .—Better, Because by the wrath of her fornication (comp. Revelation 14:8, and Note there) all the nations have drunk (or, according to another reading, have fallen; the readings are akin: the drinking of it leads to their degradation and fall), and the kings of the earth committed (not “have committed”) fornication with her, and the merchants of the earth waxed rich out of the strength of her luxury. She has been an enemy to mankind viewed in three great aspects: nations, kings, and merchants. She has brought delirium upon nations; she has reduced kings; she has bribed merchants: her sins are strong sins; with both hands earnestly has she sinned.

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Revelation 18:3". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/revelation-18.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

For all nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her fornication, and the kings of the earth have committed fornication with her, and the merchants of the earth are waxed rich through the abundance of her delicacies.
all
9; 14:8; 17:2; Jeremiah 51:7
the merchants
11-17,23; Isaiah 47:15; 2 Peter 2:1-3
abundance
or, power.
Proverbs 23:1-3
her delicacies
Jeremiah 51:34; Lamentations 4:5; Luke 7:25
Reciprocal: Deuteronomy 20:18 - General2 Kings 9:22 - the whoredoms;  Proverbs 7:12 - GeneralIsaiah 2:7 - land;  Isaiah 13:11 - I will punish;  Isaiah 25:2 - palace;  Isaiah 26:14 - dead;  Isaiah 32:14 - for;  Isaiah 45:20 - escaped;  Isaiah 47:8 - given;  Isaiah 57:5 - Enflaming;  Isaiah 63:6 - make;  Jeremiah 25:16 - GeneralEzekiel 17:4 - into;  Ezekiel 27:3 - a merchant;  Ezekiel 27:33 - thy wares;  Micah 1:7 - for;  Nahum 3:4 - the mistress;  Nahum 3:19 - upon;  Habakkuk 2:15 - unto;  Acts 19:25 - ye know;  Galatians 3:1 - who;  Ephesians 4:19 - with;  1 Timothy 6:5 - supposing;  Revelation 2:22 - and them;  Revelation 9:21 - nor of their fornication;  Revelation 14:10 - drink;  Revelation 18:15 - which;  Revelation 19:2 - judged

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Revelation 18:3". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/revelation-18.html.

E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament

Wine of the wrath of her fornication. This combines several symbolical thoughts. Wine suggests drunkenness and that is used figuratively sometimes to mean being beside oneself through the influence of false doctrine, which certainly was an outstanding characteristic of Rome. It also stands for the wrath of God upon evildoers, and fornication refers to intimacy with unlawful organizations.Kings and merchants all reaped personal advantages from their subjects and customers, because they were duped into thinking they should submit to the wishes of their superiors.

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Zerr, E.M. "Commentary on Revelation 18:3". E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/znt/revelation-18.html. 1952.

Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation

Revelation 18:3

Revelation 18:3 For all nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her fornication, and the kings of the earth have committed fornication with her, and the merchants of the earth are waxed rich through the abundance of her delicacies.

All nations of the Roman papal dominion,

and all the kings of the earth,

who have given their power, strength, and kingdom, to the beast of the seventh head, the eighth king, the Pope of Rome, the Roman Church and clergy, her merchants that trade in the papal see of Rome, her prelates, and priests, who sell pardons, indulgences, dispensations; also slaves and souls of men. {as Revelation 18:11-13} Omnia sunt Rome venalia.

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Bibliographical Information
Knollys, Hanserd. "Commentary on Revelation 18:3". "Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hkc/revelation-18.html.

Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms

Revelation 18:3. For all heathen have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her fornication, and the kings of the earth have committed fornication with her, and the merchants of the earth have been made rich by her luxury. We have here only one reason for the downfall of Rome, viz. her oppression of the nations. In ch. Revelation 14:8, Revelation 17:2, also one cause only is assigned. According to Revelation 18:23 the luxury is brought into notice only in so far as by reason of extortions it was the means of contributing to that oppression. On the wine of the wrath of fornication, the canning, love-feigning policy whereby Rome compassed the destruction of the nations, see at ch. Revelation 14:8. On the committing of fornication with Babylon by the kings, which is considered as pressed on them, see on ch. Revelation 17:2. The power of her luxury, her powerful luxury.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Hengstenberg, Ernst. "Commentary on Revelation 18:3". Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/heg/revelation-18.html.