Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Revelation 18:5

for her sins have piled up as high as heaven, and God has remembered her iniquities.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Wicked (People);   The Topic Concordance - Judges;   Partaking;   Plague;   Rendering;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Commerce;   Sin;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Babylon;   Poetry of the Hebrews;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - City;   Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Antichrist;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Babylon;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Debt, Debtor;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Babylon the Great ;   Zechariah, Prophecy of;   The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Babel;   Babylon;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

Her sins have reached unto heaven - They are become so great and enormous that the long-suffering of God must give place to his justice.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Revelation 18:5". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/revelation-18.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

For her sins have reached unto heaven - So in Jeremiah 51:9, speaking of Babylon, it is said, “For her judgment reacheth unto heaven, and is lifted up even to the skies.” The meaning is not that the sins of this mystical Babylon were like a mass or pile so high as to reach to heaven, but that it had become so prominent as to attract the attention of God. Compare Genesis 4:10, “The voice of thy brother‘s blood crieth unto me from the ground.” See also Genesis 18:20.

And God hath remembered her iniquities - He had seemed to forget them, or not to notice them, but now he acted as if they had come to his recollection. See the notes on Revelation 16:19.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Revelation 18:5". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/revelation-18.html. 1870.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

For her sins have reached unto heaven,.... Or "have followed unto heaven"; one after another, in one age after another, until they have been as it were heaped up together, and have reached the heavens; the phrase denotes the multitude of them, God's knowledge and notice of them, and the cry of them to him; see Genesis 18:20 the Alexandrian copy and Complutensian edition read, "have cleaved", or "glued", and so the Syriac and Arabic versions seem to have read; her sins were as it were soldered together, and stuck fast to her, and being joined and linked together, made a long chain, and reached to heaven, and cleaved to that, and cried for vengeance:

and God hath remembered her iniquities; and is about to punish her for them; for as forgiveness of sin is signified by a non-remembrance of it, so punishment of sin by a remembrance of it, and of the persons that commit it; see Revelation 16:19.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
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Gill, John. "Commentary on Revelation 18:5". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/revelation-18.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

For her sins have a reached unto heaven, and God hath remembered her iniquities.

(a) He uses a word which signifies the following of sins one after another, and rising one of another in such sort, that they grow at length to such a heap, that they come up even to heaven.
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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Revelation 18:5". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/revelation-18.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

her sins — as a great heap.

reachedGreek, “reached so far as to come into close contact with, and to cleave unto.”

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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 18:5". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/revelation-18.html. 1871-8.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

Have reached (εκολλητησανekollēthēsan). First aorist passive (deponent) indicative of κολλαωkollaō old verb (from κολλαkolla gluten, glue), to cleave to, to join one another in a mass “up to heaven” (αχρι του ουρανουachri tou ouranou). Cf. Jeremiah 51:9; Zechariah 14:5.

Hath remembered (εμνημονευσενemnēmoneusen). First aorist (prophetic) active indicative of μνημονευωmnēmoneuō here with the accusative (αδικηματαadikēmata iniquities) instead of the genitive (Colossians 4:18).

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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
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Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Revelation 18:5". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/revelation-18.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

Have reached ( ἠκολούθησαν )

Lit., followed. But the best texts read ἐκολλήθησαν claveCompare Jeremiah 51:9. For different applications of the verb see on Matthew 19:5; see on Luke 15:15; see on Acts 5:13. Compare the classical phrase for following up closely a fleeing foe, hoerere in terga hostium, to cleave to the backs of the enemy. See also Zechariah 14:5(Sept.), “The valley of the mountains shall reach ( ἐγκολληθήσεται ) unto Azal.” The radical idea of the metaphor is that of following or reaching after so as to be joined to.

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Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 18:5". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/revelation-18.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

For her sins have reached unto heaven, and God hath remembered her iniquities.

Even to heaven — An expression which implies the highest guilt.

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Wesley, John. "Commentary on Revelation 18:5". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/revelation-18.html. 1765.

Scofield's Reference Notes

sins

Sin

(See Scofield Romans 3:23).

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Scofield, C. I. "Scofield Reference Notes on Revelation 18:5". "Scofield Reference Notes (1917 Edition)". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/srn/revelation-18.html. 1917.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

5 For her sins have reached unto heaven, and God hath remembered her iniquities.

Ver. 5. For her sins have reached] Gr. ηκολουθησαν, have followed thick or been thwacked one upon another, thick and threefold, as they say: there hath been a concatenation, or a continued series of them, εκολληθησαν. Others read, Her sins are glued and soldered together; or they cleave and are glued to heaven. Matthew Paris speaking of the court of Rome, saith, Huius foetor usque ad nubes fumum teterrimum exhalabat: Her filthiness hath sent up a most noisome stench to the very clouds of heaven, as Sodom’s did; therefore shall Babel (the glory of kingdoms) be as the destruction of God in Sodom and Gomorrha, Isaiah 13:19.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Revelation 18:5". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/revelation-18.html. 1865-1868.

Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament

Observe here, 1. The reason assigned why Almighty God inflicted such severe punishments upon Babylon, because her sins, that is, the cry and clamour of her sins, had reached up to heaven, the measure of her sins was filled up, and God had remembered her iniquities, that is, manifested his rememberance of them, by inflicting on her so great, so just, a punishment for them, viz. for her idolatry and persecution.

Learn hence, That although sins be transient actions, yet they have a permanent pleading before the Lord's tribunal, to bring down judgments upon incorrigible sinners.

And, 2. That although the justice of God may be thought to be asleep, and he may seem to be forgetful of sin and sinners, yet he will take his own time to manifest that he remembers them, by inflicting the heaviest of his judgments upon obdurate sinners: Her sins reached unto heaven, and God hath remembered her iniquities.

Observe, 2. The injunction and command given by God unto his people, to every one of them in their place and station, to contribute regularly all they can towards Babylon's downfall and destruction, Reward her as she rewarded you, yea, double; this is required, not from a private spirit of revenge, which Christianity expressly forbids, but as a public work, in an authoritative way and manner, out of an ardent zeal for the glory of God, and from a just indignation against her tyranny and idolatry; and the command to double unto her double, implies that a double punishment is due unto her, yea, a just one, according to her works.

Behold here! what bloody persecutors may at length expect, namely, to receive at the Lord's hand double for all their sins. Babylon's punishment shall be double, respecting what she has acted, but not double in respect of what she has deserved; if possible, let her have as much blood again to drink as ever she spilt, for one drop of the blood of Sion is more worth than an ocean of the blood of Babylon: give her therefore double, for though it be more in quantity, it is nothing so much in value.

Observe, 3. How suitable and unanswerable Babylon's punishment inflicted will be to her sin committed; her sins were pride and insolence, luxury and voluptuousness.

Note, 1. Her pride; she said in her heart, I sit as a queen.

Mark, she did not barely say, I am a queen, but I sit as a queen; as if she had said, "I am not only in a high place, but in a sure place: I have a warm and a firm seat, I am well settled, I have a great command, yea, an uncontrollable command, I am no widow; no desolate widow, no disconsolate widow, for I have many children to comfort me, many sons and daughters to support me; I shall see no sorrow, I neither feel nor fear any." Behold how worldly men fancy to themselves an everlastingness in worldly things; they fancy themselves sitting as upon down pillows for ease and softness, and as upon rocks of adamant for sureness and unmovableness, I sit as a queen, and shall see no sorrow.

Note, 2. Her luxury and voluptuousness, she lived deliciously, in pompous palaces, pleasantly situated, plentifully furnished, and her judgment bears a strict proportion to her sin, How much she hath glorified herself, and lived deliciously, so much torment and sorrow give her; the justice of God will exact all the arrears of abused mercy. Sinners that now fare deliciously every day, shall pass from their good things here, to the flames which live by the breath of God's revenging wrath. Ah! doleful exchange! one hour's feeling of that fire will be more tormenting than an age's enjoyment of this world's delight can be pleasing.

Observe, 4. The equity, the celerity, and multiplicity of Babylon's punishments; their equity is intimated in the illative particle therefore, that is, because of her former sins her plagues shall come; the celerity and swiftness of her punishment is intimated, they shall come upon her in one day, as did Sodom's plagues, suddenly and unexpectedly; and the multiplicity and variety of her plagues is particularly here expressed; death, for putting the saints to death; mourning, for her former rejoicing; famine, for famishing God's people; and burning, for having burnt so many of the bodies of the holy martyrs to a coal. Righteous art thou, O Lord, and just are thy judgments.

Observe lastly, The reason here assigned for the unavoidableness of all these plagues coming upon Babylon-- for strong is the Lord who judgeth her. True, Babylon has all natural power and all civil strength on her side; but the strong God is against her, it is his controversy with her, and he is able to effect what he pleaseth, how incredible soever the thing may seem to us: sooner may the ark and Dagon be reconciled, and cease to be adverse, than God can be at peace with Babylon; Strong is the Lord who judgeth her.

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Burkitt, William. "Commentary on Revelation 18:5". Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wbc/revelation-18.html. 1700-1703.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

Revelation 18:5. (197) ἐκολλήθησαν) Wolf says, this reading is suspected by me.(198) For the verb κολλᾶσθαι is said only of those, who adhere to any object or person, as pleasing to themselves; but I do not perceive how this can be said of sins, and moreover of sinners, with reference to the heavens. But the verb κολλᾶσθαι is used in a wider sense, Zechariah 14:5, καὶ ἐγκολληθήσεται φάραγξ ἓως ἀσαής. Lamentations 2:2, τὰ ὀχυρώματα τῆς θυγατρὸς ἰούδα ἐκόλλησεν ( κύριος) εἰς τὴς γῆν. Passages might be added, in which דבק and κολλᾶσθαι correspond with each other. But the two former passages prove the matter: for ἕως and εἰς in them, and ἄχρι in the Apocalypse, render the expression altogether similar; and the word הגיע is found in them, which word is used, 2 Chronicles 28:9, to denote a slaughter reaching to the heaven: LXX., ἔφθακε. The Apocalyptic phrase answers to that passage of Jeremiah 51 (in the Greek 28) 9, ὅτι ἤγγισεν εἰς οὐρανὸν τὸ κρί΄α αὐτῆς ( βαβυλῶνος); in Hebr. it is נגע, of which word John undoubtedly had an idea in his mind. But ἀκολουθέω is never used to express this word; the synonymous words, φθάνειν, ἐγγίζειν, κολλᾶσθαι, are used. The MSS., with general consent, have ἐκολλήθησαν: Erasmus, ἠκολούθησαν, from mere conjecture, as it seems; for not even does Andreas thus read it. Whether αἱ ἁ΄αρτίαι here denote sins, or rather punishments, the passage in Ap. ch. Revelation 16:13 is different; for the works follow with those who die in the Lord the sins do not follow with Babylon even to the heaven.

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Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Revelation 18:5". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/revelation-18.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

For her sins have reached unto heaven; that is, the cry of her sins; according to what is said of Sodom, (one of the types of antichrist), Genesis 18:20,21.

And God hath remembered her iniquities; the time is come when God will punish her for her idolatry and persecution, and all the abominable things done and committed by her.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Revelation 18:5". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/revelation-18.html. 1685.

Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture

воспомянул См. 16:19. Бог вспомнил не прегрешения Своих людей (Иер.31:34), но то, что их надо защитить (Мал. 3:16-4:2). Нераскаявшемуся Вавилону не будет прощения, только суд.

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MacLaren, Alexander. "Commentary on Revelation 18:5". Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mac/revelation-18.html.

Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

Have reached unto heaven; compare Jeremiah 51:9.

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Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on Revelation 18:5". "Family Bible New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/fam/revelation-18.html. American Tract Society. 1851.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

for her sins have reached even unto heaven, and God hath remembered her iniquities.

For her sins have reached even unto heaven ... There is something resembling the quality of "glue" in the metaphor here. As Beckwith said, "The thought is not that the sins cleave to the skies, but that they cleave to each other, forming a mass reaching to heaven."[29] Moffatt saw it as a "gluing together of the leaves comprising a roll";[30] Rome's sins would make a roll reaching all the way to heaven! No catalogue of these could be complete.

And God hath remembered her iniquities ... God remembers all sins, unless they are forgiven, in which case they are forgotten. This indicates that the harlot church was not only powerless to forgive the sins of her followers, but that she was also utterly unable to procure forgiveness even for her own sins. As Spurgeon once admonished his church:

Therefore, if some shaveling priest shall lift his hand to absolve thee, even upon thy deathbed, lift thy bony hand and absolve him; thou hast the same right!

[29] Isbon T. Beckwith, op. cit., p. 714.

[30] James Moffatt, Expositor's Greek New Testament, Vol. V (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1967), p. 457.

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Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
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Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Revelation 18:5". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/revelation-18.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

Another reason for abandoning Babylon and Babylonianism is that God is about to judge her. Her sins, like the bricks used to build the tower of Babel ( Genesis 11:3-4), have accumulated so they finally reach heaven. She has exhausted God"s patience (cf. Jeremiah 51:9). God has noticed and remembered her sins, and because He is righteous, He must judge them.

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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 18:5". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/revelation-18.html. 2012.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

Revelation 18:5. So multiplied were her sins that they were heaped together as a mass reaching even unto heaven. The figure is taken from Jeremiah 51:9 (comp. Genesis 18:20).

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Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on Revelation 18:5". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/revelation-18.html. 1879-90.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

have, hath. Omit.

reached. The texts read "joined" or "built together".

unto = up to.

God. App-98.

iniquities. App-128.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Revelation 18:5". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/revelation-18.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

For her sins have reached unto heaven, and God hath remembered her iniquities.

Her sins - as a great heap.

Reached - `so far as to cleave unto' [ ekolleetheesan (Greek #2853), 'Aleph (') A B C, for eekoloutheesan (Greek #190)].

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 18:5". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/revelation-18.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(5) For her sins have reached . . .—Better, For her sins have reached as far as heaven. The idea is of a great heap firmly fastened, and towering, like another Babel, as far as heaven. (Comp. 2 Chronicles 28:9, and Ezra 9:6.) The idea is more than that of the cry of sin reaching heaven, as in the case of Sodom (Genesis 18:20-21); the sins themselves, many and imperial, have touched the face of heaven. God hath remembered her. (Comp. Revelation 16:19). Sometimes the oppressed have thought that God had forgotten the voice of the enemy (Psalms 74:10-23); but the long-suffering of the Lord is salvation (2 Peter 3:8-18.

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Revelation 18:5". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/revelation-18.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

For her sins have reached unto heaven, and God hath remembered her iniquities.
reached
Genesis 18:20,21; 2 Chronicles 28:9; Ezra 9:6; Jeremiah 51:9; Jonah 1:2
and
16:19
Reciprocal: Genesis 8:1 - God remembered;  Judges 20:13 - would not;  Psalm 16:4 - Their;  Psalm 79:8 - remember;  Isaiah 1:4 - Ah sinful;  Isaiah 14:4 - How;  Isaiah 47:3 - I will take;  Jeremiah 44:21 - did;  Jeremiah 51:6 - for this;  Jeremiah 51:49 - As Babylon;  Jeremiah 51:56 - the Lord;  Ezekiel 24:8 - I have set;  Daniel 4:22 - thy greatness;  Zechariah 5:2 - the length;  Acts 2:40 - Save

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Revelation 18:5". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/revelation-18.html.

E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament

Sins have reached unto heaven means the corruptions of Rome were an offense to heaven, and also had become notoriously public so that God remembered (took unfavorable notice of) her iniquities.

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Zerr, E.M. "Commentary on Revelation 18:5". E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/znt/revelation-18.html. 1952.

Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation

Revelation 18:5

Revelation 18:5 For her sins have reached unto heaven, and God hath remembered her iniquities.

For her sins have reached unto heaven, and God hath remembered her iniquities;

that Isaiah, her sins of spiritual fornications, blasphemies, and bloody massacrees and persecutions. See Revelation 16:5-17 and See KNOLLYS: Revelation 16:17

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Knollys, Hanserd. "Commentary on Revelation 18:5". "Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hkc/revelation-18.html.

Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms

Revelation 18:5. For her sins reach to heaven, and God remembers her iniquities. It marks the highest degree of sin, when it is spoken of as reaching to heaven, pressing in before God's throne and calling down his vengeance—comp. 2 Chronicles 28:9, where the prophet Obed says of a heinous transgression, that "it reaches to the heavens," Ezra 9:6, "our guilt is great unto the heavens," Genesis 4:10, Genesis 18:21, Genesis 19:13; Jonah 1:2. The fundamental passage is Jeremiah 51:9, "for her judgment reaches unto heaven, and extends even to the clouds." It has been in vain tried to explain away the difference between this passage and the verse before us. By sins here punishments can as little be denoted, as the judgment in Jeremiah can denote sins. In Jeremiah himself, however, the foundation is laid for substituting sins here in the place of judgment. For the otherwise somewhat anomalous reaching up of judgment to heaven, presupposes the reaching up of sins thither, precisely as in the fundamental passage, Psalms 36:6 (comp. Psalms 57:10), the goodness and faithfulness of God reaching to the clouds and to heaven, forms the contrast to the arrogance of the wicked, which strives to scale the very heavens. Where sins are found piercing through even to heaven, there infallibly the judgment of God presses down to the earth, and thence again rises up giant-like to the heaven. It is said here literally, her sins have adhered even to heaven. This is a pregnant construction for: they reach to the heaven and adhere to it.[Note: A quite similar abbreviation with the same verb occurs in Lamentations 2:2 : τὰ ὀχυρώματα ἐκόλλησεν εἰς τὴν γῆν, Psalms 43:25: ἐκολλήθη εἰς τὴν γῆν ἡ γαστὴρ ἡμῶν; comp Psalms 118:25, ἐκολλήθη τῷ ἐδάφει ἡ ψυχή μου. Then in Baruch 1:20, ἐκολλήθη εἰς ἡμᾶς τὰ κακὰ, the evils that have come upon us and cleave to us. Also Zechariah 14:5, καὶ ἐγκολληθήσεται φάραγξ ὀρέων ἕως ἀ ζαή λ, is only to be explained as an abbreviation, if we would not force on the verb the sense of reaching: it will join itself, reaching even to it.

The harshness of the construction has occasioned the reading ἠ κολού θησαν.] The sticking fast of guilt to heaven is an aggravating mark of its greatness.

The second clause serves as an explanation of the first. Even in ch. Revelation 16:9 it is said, "and Babylon the great was remembered before God, to give to her the cup," etc.

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Hengstenberg, Ernst. "Commentary on Revelation 18:5". Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/heg/revelation-18.html.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

5.Reached unto heaven—Not merely in their “cry,” or rumor, but in their accumulating heap, rising, like the tower of Babel, with a “top unto heaven.” Genesis 11:4.

Remembered—A clear reference to Revelation 16:19; another reference to the past event.

 

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Revelation 18:5". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/revelation-18.html. 1874-1909.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

Revelation 18:5. Plutarch (de sera uindict. 15) is strong upon the solidarity of a city, which is liable to be punished at any time for past offences.— (“Heaped up to the sky are her sins”) in the familiar sense of haerere = to follow close upon, or to cleave, the idea being that the mass of sins actually presses on the roof of heaven. The figure would be different if, as Holtzm. conjectures, . referred to the gluing together of the leaves composing a roll; the record of Rome’s sins would form so immense a volume that when unrolled it would reach the very heavens. “Etascendit contumelia tua ad altissimum, et superbia tua ad fortem” (4 Esd. 11:43).

 

 

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Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on Revelation 18:5". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/revelation-18.html. 1897-1910.

The Bible Study New Testament

5. And God remembers her wicked ways. It may look like God has forgotten, but he has not!

 

 

 

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Bibliographical Information
Ice, Rhoderick D. "Commentary on Revelation 18:5". "The Bible Study New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ice/revelation-18.html. College Press, Joplin, MO. 1974.