Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Revelation 18:9

"And the kings of the earth, who committed acts of immorality and lived sensuously with her, will weep and lament over her when they see the smoke of her burning,
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Adultery;   The Topic Concordance - Judges;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Commerce;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Poetry of the Hebrews;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - City;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Babylon;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Debt, Debtor;   Mourning;   Smoke ;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Babylon the Great ;   Deliciously, to Live;   Fornication;   The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Babel;   Babylon;   Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Smoke;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Crime;   Deliciously;   Trade;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

The kings of the earth - Those who copied her superstitions and adopted her idolatries.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Revelation 18:9". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/revelation-18.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

And the kings of the earth - This verse commences the description of the lamentation over the fall of the mystical Babylon (see the Analysis of the chapter).

Who have committed fornication - That is, who have been seduced by her from the true God, and have been led into practical idolatry. See the notes on Revelation 14:8. The kings of the earth seem to be represented as among the chief mourners, because they had derived important aid from the power which was now to be reduced to ruin. As a matter of fact, the kings of Europe have owed much of their influence and power to the support which has been derived from the papacy, and when that power shall fall, there will fall much that has contributed to sustain oppressive and arbitrary governments, and that has prevented the extension of popular liberty. In fact, Europe might have been long since free, if it had not been for the support which despotic governments have derived from the papacy.

And lived deliciously with her - In the same kind of luxury and dissoluteness of manners. See Revelation 18:3, Revelation 18:7. The courts of Europe, under the papacy, have had the same general character for dissoluteness and licentiousness as Rome itself. The same views of religion produce the same effects everywhere.

Shall bewail her, and lament for her - Because their ally is destroyed, and the source of their power is taken away. The fall of the papacy will be the signal for a general overturning of the thrones of Europe.

When they shall see the smoke of her burning - When they shall see her on fire, and her smoke ascending toward heaven. See the notes on Revelation 14:11.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Revelation 18:9". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/revelation-18.html. 1870.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And the kings of the earth, who have committed fornication,.... Idolatry, Revelation 17:2

and lived deliciously with her; Revelation 18:3 joining with her in her sensual, as well as in her idolatrous practices:

shall bewail her, and lament for her: shall mourn inwardly, and by various gestures outwardly express their sorrow at her desolation; see Ezekiel 27:30 these will not be the ten kings who will burn the whore with fire, and then repent of what they have done, and weep over her, as Titus did at the destruction of Jerusalem, as some Popish writers have fancied, for they will hate the whore, and eat her flesh; but earthly and idolatrous kings, who will be in the communion of the church of Rome:

when they shall see the smoke of her burning: as Abraham saw the smoke of Sodom and Gomorrah go up like the smoke of a furnace; by which they will perceive that her judgment is come, and her ruin begun.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
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Gill, John. "Commentary on Revelation 18:9". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/revelation-18.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

And 8 the kings of the earth, who have committed fornication and lived deliciously with her, shall bewail her, and lament for her, when they shall see the smoke of her burning,

(8) The circumstances following the fall of Babylon, or the consequences of it (as I distinguished them in) {See (Revelation 18:4) } are two. Namely the lamentation of the wicked to (Revelation 18:5-19) and the rejoicing of the godly in (Revelation 18:20). This sorrowful lamentation, according to those that lament, has three parts: the first of which is the mourning of the kings and mighty men of the earth, (Revelation 18:9-10): The second is, the lamentation of the merchants that trade by land, to the sixteenth verse: (Revelation 18:11-16). The third is, the wailing of those that trade by sea, in (Revelation 18:16-18). In each of those the cause and manner of their mourning is described in order, according to the condition of those that mourn, with observation of that which best agrees to them.
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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Revelation 18:9". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/revelation-18.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

lived deliciouslyGreek, “luxuriated.” The faithless Church, instead of reproving, connived at the self-indulgent luxury of the great men of this world, and sanctioned it by her own practice. Contrast the world‘s rejoicing over the dead bodies of the two witnesses (Revelation 11:10) who had tormented it by their faithfulness, with its lamentations over the harlot who had made the way to heaven smooth, and had been found a useful tool in keeping subjects in abject tyranny. Men‘s carnal mind relishes a religion like that of the apostate Church, which gives an opiate to conscience, while leaving the sinner license to indulge his lusts.

bewail her — A, B, C, Syriac, Coptic, and Cyprian omit “her.”

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 18:9". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/revelation-18.html. 1871-8.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

Shall weep (κλαυσουσινklausousin). Future active of κλαιωklaiō middle κλαυσονταιklausontai in Attic, as in John 16:20.

And wail over her (και κοπσονται επ αυτηνkai kopsontai ep' autēn). Future direct middle of κοπτωkoptō old verb, to beat, to cut, middle to beat oneself (Revelation 1:7). For combination with κλαιωklaiō as here see Luke 8:52. See Revelation 17:2; Revelation 18:3, Revelation 18:7 for οι πορνευσαντες και στρηνιασαντεςhoi porneusantes kai strēniasantes).

When they look upon (οταν βλεπωσινhotan blepōsin). Indefinite temporal clause with οτανhotan and the present active subjunctive of βλεπωblepō smoke of her burning (τον καπνον της πυρωσεως αυτηςton kapnon tēs purōseōs autēs). ΠυρωσιςPurōsis is an old word (from πυροωpuroō to burn), in N.T. only 1 Peter 4:12; Revelation 18:9, Revelation 18:18. See Revelation 18:8 for other plagues on Rome, but fire seems to be the worst (Revelation 17:16; Revelation 18:8, Revelation 18:9, Revelation 18:17; Revelation 19:3).

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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
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Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Revelation 18:9". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/revelation-18.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Abbott's Illustrated New Testament

Shall bewail her. The kings are represented in Revelation 17:16, as conspiring to effect the ruin of the woman, who seems to be the same as Babylon (Revelation 17:5.) We may suppose that some of them had turned against her, while others lamented her downfall,--or we may consider it as a change in the imagery, both representations denoting, in different ways, the certainty of her overthrow.

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Abbott, John S. C. & Abbott, Jacob. "Commentary on Revelation 18:9". "Abbott's Illustrated New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ain/revelation-18.html. 1878.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

9 And the kings of the earth, who have committed fornication and lived deliciously with her, shall bewail her, and lament for her, when they shall see the smoke of her burning,

Ver. 9. Shall bewail her and lament] κοψουσι, As with the "voice of doves, tabering upon their breasts," Nahum 2:7. The chief of these mourners shall be the Spaniard likely; who yet hath no such great cause, if he look well about him; for he is yearly excommunicated by the pope, for detaining him from the kingdom of Sicily, as Baronius witnesseth. (In Respon. Apol. ad Card. Colum.) It were to be wished that he would imitate his predecessor Charles V, who upon a displeasure conceived against Pope Clement VIII, abolished the pope’s authority throughout all Spain, Exemplo ab Hispanis ipsis posteritati relicto, posse Ecclesiasticam disciplinam citra nominis Pontificii authoritatem conservari, saith mine author, i.e. The Spaniards themselves setting forth to the world that the Church may be governed without the pope’s authority. (Scultet. Annul. Decad. ii. p. 2.) But this Charles did in a passion only, and not from a settled resolution. For after this, when Pope Clement and his cardinals were imprisoned by the duke of Bourbon’s men in St Angelo, Caesar in Spain forbade all interludes to be played; and pageants prepared for the joy of the birth of his son Prince Philip to be pulled down. In France, by the court of Parliament, the duke of Bourbon was condemned of treason, his name and memorial accursed, his arms pulled down, his lands and goods confiscated. Neither would King Henry of England answer the emperor’s letters, whereby he excused himself from having any hand in the action. (Speed, 1012.)

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Revelation 18:9". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/revelation-18.html. 1865-1868.

Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament

The Spirit of God having in the former part of the chapter set forth the certainty and severity of those judgments which should come upon mystical Babylon, he next declares what wailings and bitter lamentations her downfall would occasion to her votaries and admirers, to her friends and followers; more particularly he acquaints us with three sorts of persons that shall bewail Babylon's destruction, kings, merchants, and seamen; the former we have here before us in these two verses: The kings of the earth, who have adhered to the whore, committed spiritual fornication with her, and delighted themselves in her carnal and pompous idol-worship, when they see the smoke of her burning, and understand the certainty of her destruction, they shall stand afar off, like persons astonished, and like persons afraid, amazed at the dreadfulness of the judgment, and afraid to come near, they be involved in it; and the words of their lamentation are here set down, Alas, alas! that great city Babylon; in one hour is her judgment come! As if they had said, "Notwithstanding all Babylon's grandeur, which we so admired and magnified, and which she herself put so much trust and confidence in, to our astonishment we behold, in one hour, her judgment come upon her; a great and mighty city destroyed, a gay and splendid church, politically founded, powerfully strengthened, on a sudden broken in pieces, and brought to desolation: Alas, alas! that great city Babylon!

Learn hence, That when God begins to enter into judgment with his church's enemies, the strongest arm of flesh cannot avail, but kings with their armies will flee and be discomfited, the stoutest hearts will be afraid and terrified, not daring to approach the presence of an angry God: the kings of the earth shall stand afar off for fear of her torment.

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Burkitt, William. "Commentary on Revelation 18:9". Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wbc/revelation-18.html. 1700-1703.

Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament

Revelation 18:9 sq. The lament of the kings of the earth.(3955) Cf. Revelation 14:11. The βασανισμός of the city, through which they are affected by the judgment, is its actual πυρῶσις.(3956) Accordingly the lamenting kings stand at a distance: they dread the conflagration in which the city perishes.(3957)

οὐαί, οὐαί. With the διπλώσατε, Revelation 18:6, the repetition of the cry of woe, which corresponds only to the extremity of the pain,(3958) has nothing to do.(3959)

πόλις μεγάλη, κ. τ. λ. The allusion to the greatness and power of the city(3960) makes still more forcible the impression of its destruction, which is expressly designated as the reason for the lamentation ( ὅτι, κ. τ. λ.).

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Meyer, Heinrich. "Commentary on Revelation 18:9". Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hmc/revelation-18.html. 1832.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Not all of them, for some of them shall help to burn her, Revelation 17:16; but such as God had left to their hardness of heart, that they still live in her fellowship and communion: or, if others also, it must proceed from their humanity, not being able to see so splendid a city, as that of Rome, ruined, and so many ruined as will perish by her fall, without the moving of their bowels by some pity and commiseration.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Revelation 18:9". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/revelation-18.html. 1685.

Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture

И восплачут и возрыдают о ней «Плакать» означает открыто всхлипывать. Словом «рыдать» передано греческое слово, которое всюду используется для выражения отчаяния неверующего мира при Втором пришествии Христа (1:7).

цари Политические лидеры восплачут, потому что потеря главного города будет означать обреченность империи антихриста, а значит и источника их власти. Ср. ст. 3; 17:2.

(18:9-19) В этой части описывается оплакивание не грехов, а разрушений Вавилона теми, кто был частью его системы.

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MacLaren, Alexander. "Commentary on Revelation 18:9". Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mac/revelation-18.html.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

And the kings of the earth, who committed fornication and lived wantonly with her, shall weep and wail over her, when they look upon the smoke of her burning,

Here is the great paradox, without the understanding of which there can be no explanation of these passages.

And the kings ... shall weep and wail ... Commentators have really struggled with this, for these are exactly the ones who did the burning and the eating of the harlot's flesh. How can this be? The best explanation, short of the true one, is by Lenski:

They cooled their vengeance upon the whore and then grieved that they had done so. Let the paradox remain. There is no reason ... The lover of a whore strangles her, and then weeps like a fool.[42]

Interesting as that comment is, there is nevertheless a reason, and a very good one. The humanistic kings simply failed to realize that it was the true Christianity, imperfectly taught by the harlot, that actually formed the foundation of their world. The evil, atheistic, humanist kings proudly imagined that they could get along without any religion whatever, having finally rejected even the apostate forms of it; but their stupid action in burning up the whore destroyed everything, for not even the harlot ever went as far away from God and the truth as did those kings, or governments, of the final age. Their philosophy was dogmatically stated by a member of one of the great theological seminaries fifty years ago, by Dr. George Albert Coe, who wrote:

The sovereign for this universe, that is, the sovereign for us, is just ourselves when we cooperatively assist in providing ourselves with what we want.[43]

Coe's hometown, New York city, is today virtually bankrupt; and the rising tide of violence, corruption, and irresponsibility may yet cause its utter ruin, unless there is a repudiation of the type of humanistic philosophy which has caused the decline. Clearly, it is exactly this type of thinking that will lead to the "ten kings'" destruction of the whore.

Shall weep and wail ... when they look upon the smoke of her burning ... It is of prime significance that there is prophesied here the "burning" of the harlot.

In Moses' Law (Leviticus 21:9), burning appears to have been the form of punishment for fornication only in the case of a priest's daughter, another indication that Babylon is a wicked religious person.[44]

They look upon the smoke ... Smoke is the result of fire; and that is what put the disaster upon them. There were the most diabolical repercussions which ensued when the last visible support of religion crumbled into ashes in the flames of their hatred, repercussions of such a vast and terrible nature that they bankrupted and destroyed civilization. That is the absolute climax of the present dispensation, as prophesied here! Of course, those wailing and weeping kings were not at all concerned about the whore; they made no move to assist her; they were screaming only about their business and their profits (Revelation 18:11), and the precious fruits that perished (Revelation 18:14), the desolation of so great riches (Revelation 18:17), and the loss of jobs (Revelation 18:17). Disasters such as these were indeed the sorrow of kings. No wonder they wailed.

When Babylon perishes, the economic chaos is complete. The world of the unbeliever upon which he pinned his hopes and built his trust collapses.[45]

Do we have to point out that such a complete ruin of the whole world could not be conceived of as the result of the total ruin of any single city? Berlin collapsed, but nothing like this occurred, nor did this happen even when pagan Rome fell. Those who attempt to interpret this as the fall of pagan Rome are refuted by every word in this chapter.

[42] R. C. H. Lenski, op. cit., p. 522.

[43] George Albert Coe, Educating for Citizenship (New York, 1932), p. 143. (Coe was Professor of Education at Columbia University until 1928, and Professor of Religion in Union Theological Seminary for many years thereafter.

[44] Frank L. Cox, Revelation in 26 Lessons (Nashville: Gospel Advocate Company, 1956), p. 107.

[45] William Hendriksen, op. cit., p. 210.

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Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
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Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Revelation 18:9". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/revelation-18.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

World government leaders will mourn when they see the collapse of the system that has sustained them and enabled them to live luxuriously. Committing fornication with her is a way of expressing sharing in Babylon"s luxury (cf. Ezekiel 26:16; Ezekiel 27:30-35). [Note: Johnson, p567.] Evidently fire will be the main cause of the city"s destruction (cf. Revelation 18:8; Revelation 18:18; Revelation 14:11; Revelation 17:16; Revelation 19:3). The smoke of her burning, the evidence of her fall, is what caused these rulers misery (cf. Genesis 19:28; Isaiah 34:10; Ezekiel 28:18).

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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 18:9". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/revelation-18.html. 2012.

Gary Hampton Commentary on Selected Books

-10 Even though they killed her (Revelation 17:16-17), the kings cry loudly and beat the breasts in grief, or bewail and lament. Their sorrow is for their own loss, it would seem, more than the harlots death. They would not dare to go close out of fear and expressed regret over her sudden end.

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Hampton, Gary. "Commentary on Revelation 18:9". "Gary Hampton Commentary on Selected Books". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ghc/revelation-18.html. 2014.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

have. Omit.

for = over. App-104.

shall. Omit.

see. App-133.

burning. Greek. purosis. Only here, Revelation 18:18, and 1 Peter 4:12.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Revelation 18:9". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/revelation-18.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And the kings of the earth, who have committed fornication and lived deliciously with her, shall bewail her, and lament for her, when they shall see the smoke of her burning,

Lived deliciously - luxuriated. The faithless church, instead of reproving, connived at the world's self-indulgent luxury, and sanctioned it by her practice. Contrast the world's rejoicing over the two witnesses' dead bodies (Revelation 11:10) who had tormented it by faithfulness, with its lamentations over the harlot who made the way to heaven smooth, and was a useful tool in controlling subjects. Men's carnal mind relishes the apostate church, which gives an opiate to conscience and virtual license to lusts.

Bewail her. 'Aleph (') A B C, Syriac, Coptic, Cyprian, omit "her."

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 18:9". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/revelation-18.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(9) And the kings of the earth. . . .—Read, And there shall weep and mourn over her the kings of the earth, who with her committed fornication and luxuriated, when they see the smoke of her burning, standing afar off because of the fear of her torment, saying, Woe, woe, the great city, Babylon the strong city; because in one hour is come thy judgment. Kings, merchants (Revelation 18:11-17), shippers (Revelation 18:17-19) join in lamenting the overthrow of the great city; all stand afar off, as though fearing to be involved in her ruin; all cry, “Woe” (or, Alas!) at the beginning of their lament; and at the close the words, “in one hour,” telling the suddenness of the great city’s overthrow, recur (Revelation 18:10; Revelation 18:17; Revelation 18:19) with the monotony of a passing bell heard at intervals amid the strains of sad music. The parallel passages in Ezekiel 26:15-16; Ezekiel 27:35, should be compared. The grief described is the result of fear mingled with selfishness; the mourners remember with a regret, only tempered with terror, the voluptuous life, the quick-growing profits, and the varied commercial advantages which they have lost in her overthrow.

THE LAMENT OF THE MERCHANTS (Revelation 18:11-17).—The lament proper, that is, the actual words put in the mouths of the merchants, is contained in Revelation 18:16-17. The immediately preceding verses describe the various kinds of merchandise which were dealt in.

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Revelation 18:9". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/revelation-18.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And the kings of the earth, who have committed fornication and lived deliciously with her, shall bewail her, and lament for her, when they shall see the smoke of her burning,
the kings
3,7; 17:2,12,13
shall bewail
20; Psalms 58:10; Jeremiah 50:46; Ezekiel 26:16,17; 32:9,10; Daniel 4:14; Zechariah 11:2,3
the smoke
18; 14:11; 19:3; Genesis 19:28; Deuteronomy 29:23; Isaiah 13:19; 30:33; 34:9,10; Jeremiah 50:40
Reciprocal: Joshua 8:20 - the smoke;  Job 6:21 - ye see;  Job 34:26 - in;  Proverbs 1:13 - GeneralIsaiah 3:24 - burning;  Isaiah 13:14 - they shall;  Isaiah 23:17 - shall commit;  Isaiah 24:21 - the Lord;  Isaiah 47:11 - thou shalt not be;  Jeremiah 48:39 - How is it;  Jeremiah 51:8 - howl;  Jeremiah 51:25 - and will;  Jeremiah 51:44 - the nations;  Jeremiah 51:57 - I will;  Ezekiel 16:50 - therefore;  Ezekiel 27:30 - shall cause;  Ezekiel 27:35 - their kings;  Ezekiel 28:19 - they;  Ezekiel 30:4 - pain;  Ezekiel 31:15 - I caused a;  Ezekiel 31:16 - made;  Daniel 11:39 - gain;  Joel 2:30 - pillars;  Micah 1:7 - for;  Micah 7:17 - they shall be;  Nahum 3:4 - the mistress;  Zechariah 9:5 - and be;  Revelation 2:22 - and them;  Revelation 6:15 - the kings;  Revelation 17:5 - the Mother;  Revelation 18:8 - and she;  Revelation 18:11 - the merchants;  Revelation 18:23 - for;  Revelation 19:2 - judged;  Revelation 19:19 - I saw

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Revelation 18:9". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/revelation-18.html.

E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament

Kings of the earth had been protected in their defrauding of the uninformed people. Committed fornication. Rome has been called a harlot hence those who have been intimate with her are guilty of fornication. It is natural for them to lament seeing her burning (under the fiery judgments of God.)

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Zerr, E.M. "Commentary on Revelation 18:9". E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/znt/revelation-18.html. 1952.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

c. Portraiture (mostly in prophetic form) of her mercantile and commercial desolations, Revelation 18:9-20.

It would, of course, be physically impossible for kings in their foreign capitals, and merchants beyond sea, to behold, with bodily eye, the burning metropolis, and even be obliged to withdraw to a distance (Revelation 18:10; Revelation 18:15) for fear of being scorched. This close grouping, however, gives us a very vivid conception. Yet under this poetic parable of commercial desolation it is the overthrow of the Babylonic anti-christianity of all ages that is symbolized.

9.Kings bewail the cessation of the alliance of debauchery and luxury, merchants weep for the loss of the great market for their commodities.

 

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Revelation 18:9". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/revelation-18.html. 1874-1909.