Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Revelation 19:19

And I saw the beast and the kings of the earth and their armies assembled to make war against Him who sat on the horse and against His army.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Animals;   Horse;   Vision;   Wicked (People);   Scofield Reference Index - Armageddon;   Day (of Christ);   Day (of Destruction);   Day (of Jehovah);   Day of the Lord;   Lord;   Summary;   The Topic Concordance - Deception;   Hell;   War/weapons;   Worship;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Birds;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - War;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Armageddon;   Dead Sea Scrolls;   Nahum, Theology of;   War, Holy War;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Antichrist;   Armageddon;   Babylon, Mystical;   War;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Armageddon;   Army;   Birds;   Esdraelon;   Revelation, the Book of;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Antichrist;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Angels;   Army;   Horse;   King;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Horse;   Prophets, the;   39 War Fighting;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Antichrist;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Army;   Parousia;   Peter, Simon;   Revelation of John:;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

I saw the beast - See the notes on Revelation 12 (note), Revelation 13 (note) and Revelation 17 (note).

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Revelation 19:19". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/revelation-19.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

And I saw the beast - notes on Revelation 13:1, Revelation 13:11. Compare Revelation 17:13.

And the kings of the earth, and their armies, gathered together - There is allusion here to the same assembling of hostile forces which is described in Revelation 16:13-14, for the great decisive battle that is to determine the destiny of the world - the question whether the Messiah or antichrist shall reign. There can be no doubt that the writer in these passages designed to refer to the same events - the still future scenes that are to occur when the Roman, the pagan, and the Muhammedan powers shall be aroused to make common cause against the true religion, and shall stake all on the issue of the great conflict. See the notes on Revelation 16:13-14.

Against him that sat on the horse - The Messiah - the Son of God. notes on Revelation 19:11.

And against his army - The hosts that are associated with him - his redeemed people. See the notes on Revelation 19:14.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Revelation 19:19". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/revelation-19.html. 1870.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And l saw the beast,.... Not the devil, for after this he is taken and bound for a thousand years, and then loosed, and laid hold on again, and cast into the lake of fire; not but that this war will be by his instigation, and under his influence, Revelation 16:14 not the Roman Pagan empire, which has been destroyed long ago, under the sixth seal, and was the issue of the battle between Michael and his angels, and the dragon and his; but the antichristian civil powers, or antichrist in his civil capacity; and which, though it may chiefly regard the western antichrist, and the remains of the Latin idolatry, yet may take in the eastern antichrist, or the Mahometan powers, which may all join together in this battle; the beast will survive for a while the downfall of his seat, Babylon or Rome.

And the kings of the earth; these, as they stand distinguished from the beast, or the antichristian kings, and civil states, may design as many of the Pagan kings and princes, as the pope and Turk by their emissaries can persuade to assist them in this war; See Gill on Revelation 16:14.

And their armies gathered together; at Armageddon, or in the valley of Jehoshaphat, Revelation 16:16

to make war against him that sat on the horse; the white horse, Revelation 19:11 as the Arabic and Ethiopic versions read, which must be downright folly and madness, since he is the Word of God, the great God, the King of kings, and Lord of lords:

and against his army, Revelation 19:14 who, though unarmed, and only clothed in fine linen, have nothing to fear, since Christ, the Captain of their salvation, is at the head of them.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on Revelation 19:19". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/revelation-19.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

20 And I saw the beast, and the kings of the earth, and their armies, gathered together to make war against him that sat on the horse, and against his army.

(20) The third part (as was said in) (Revelation 19:11) by the victory obtained by Christ. Two things pertain to this: his fighting with the beast and his forces, in this verse: and the event most magnificent, described after the manner of men, in the verses following. All these things are plain.
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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Revelation 19:19". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/revelation-19.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

gathered together — at Armageddon, under the sixth vial. For “their armies” in B and Andreas, there is found “His armies” in A.

war — so Andreas. But A and B read, “the war,” namely, that foretold, Revelation 16:14; Revelation 17:4.

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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 19:19". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/revelation-19.html. 1871-8.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

Gathered together (συνηγμεναsunēgmena). Perfect passive participle of συναγωsunagō In battle array.

To make war against (ποιησαι πολεμον μεταpoiēsai polemon meta). First aorist active infinitive of ποιεωpoieō to express purpose. See πολεμεω μεταpolemeō meta in Revelation 12:7 and the use of συναγω εις πολεμονsunagō eis polemon in Revelation 16:14; Revelation 20:8. The beast (for his army see Revelation 16:13.) led a league of ten kings against Babylon in Revelation 17:16., but with the purpose also of fighting the Lamb (Revelation 17:14).

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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
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Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Revelation 19:19". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/revelation-19.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

And I saw the beast, and the kings of the earth, and their armies, gathered together to make war against him that sat on the horse, and against his army.

And I saw the kings of the earth — The ten kings mentioned Revelation 17:12; who had now drawn the other kings of the earth to them, whether Popish, Mahometan, or pagan.

Gathered together to make war with him that sat upon the horse — All beings, good and evil, visible and invisible, will be concerned in this grand contest. See Zechariah 14:1, etc.

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Wesley, John. "Commentary on Revelation 19:19". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/revelation-19.html. 1765.

Scofield's Reference Notes

make war

The day of Jehovah (called, also, "that day," and "the great day") is that lengthened period of time beginning with the return of the Lord in glory, and ending with the purgation of the heavens and the earth by fire preparatory to the new heavens and the new earth Isaiah 65:17-19; Isaiah 66:22; 2 Peter 3:13; Revelation 21:1. The order of events appears to be:

(1) The return of the Lord in glory Matthew 24:29; Matthew 24:30

(2) the destruction of the Beast and his host, "the kings of the earth and their armies," and the false prophet, which is the "great and terrible" aspect of the day Revelation 19:11-21.

(3) the judgment of the nations Zechariah 14:1-9; Matthew 25:31-46.

(4) the thousand years, i.e, the kingdom-age Revelation 20:4-6.

(5) the Satanic revolt and its end Revelation 20:7-10.

(6) the second resurrection and final judgment Revelation 20:11-15 and

(7) the "day of God," earth purged by fire 2 Peter 3:10-13.

The day of the Lord is preceded by seven signs:

(1) The sending of Elijah Malachi 4:5; Revelation 11:3-6

(2) cosmical disturbances Joel 2:1-12; Matthew 24:29; Acts 2:19; Acts 2:20; Revelation 6:12-17

(3) the insensibility of the professing church 1 Thessalonians 5:1-3

(4) the apostasy of the professing church, then become "Laodicea" 2 Thessalonians 2:3

(5) the rapture of the true church 1 Thessalonians 4:17.

(6) the manifestation of the "man of sin," the Beast 2 Thessalonians 2:1-8

(7) the apocalyptic judgments (Revelation 11-18.).

make war Armageddon (battle of). See note, Revelation 16:14; Revelation 19:17 (See Scofield "Revelation 19:17")

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Scofield, C. I. "Scofield Reference Notes on Revelation 19:19". "Scofield Reference Notes (1917 Edition)". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/srn/revelation-19.html. 1917.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

19 And I saw the beast, and the kings of the earth, and their armies, gathered together to make war against him that sat on the horse, and against his army.

Ver. 19. And I saw the beast] The Church’s enemies are even ambitious of destruction. Judgments need not go to find them out; they run to meet their bane.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Revelation 19:19". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/revelation-19.html. 1865-1868.

Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament

Observe here, 1. The final issue of this great battle, namely, The total ruin of all the enemies of the church: the beast and false prophet were taken, and cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone. Behold the punishment of idolaters and idolatry; the false prophet had cheated credulous princes and peoples, with his pretended miracles, into idolatry; he had cast others into a bed of fornication, and God casts him into a bed of flames.

Lastly, It is added concerning the remnant, that they were slain with the sword of his mouth: that is, by Christ's judicial sentence they were righteously adjudged to be slain, and, when they were so, all the fowls were filled with their flesh.

Where note, That these persons were not excused because they followed their leaders, and did what they bade them; Christ commands, for all that, that they also should be slain.

Lord! how vain will the plea of many sinners be at the great day; we followed our guides, we did as we saw others do before us; Remember we, that God has given us a rule to walk by, the infallible and inflexible rule of his word; and neither the example of the most, nor of the best, must influence us to act contrary thereunto; for if we will do as the most do, we must be contented to go where the most go, even into the lake of fire burning with brimstone.

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Burkitt, William. "Commentary on Revelation 19:19". Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wbc/revelation-19.html. 1700-1703.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

The beast, whether by it be understood the dragon, or the beast with seven heads and ten horns, or the beast with two horns, or all of them, shall before this time be all destroyed, that is, as to their power and dominion; but there will be relics left, both of pagans, and Turks, and papists, of whom it is probable that this is to be understood; viz. that after God, upon the pouring out of the fifth vial, shall have deprived the papacy of their dominion; and by the pouring out of the sixth vial, shall have deprived the Turk of his dominion; that yet such pagans, Turks, and papists, as shall be left, shall be gathered together, and make one or more great armies, with whom the Jews and Gentiles (now united in one church) shall fight under the conduct of Christ, as the Captain general of his church, by whom they shall be overcome; and that this shall be the great battle in Armageddon, mentioned Revelation 16:16.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Revelation 19:19". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/revelation-19.html. 1685.

Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture

царей земных См. 17:12-17.

воинства их См. 16:13, 14.

воинством Его Захария называет эту армию Господа «все святые» (14:5).

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MacLaren, Alexander. "Commentary on Revelation 19:19". Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mac/revelation-19.html.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

And I saw the beast, and the kings of the earth, and their armies, gathered together to make war against him that sat upon the horse, and against his army.

I saw the beast ... kings ... armies ... These are the same. This is the scarlet sea-beast of the seven heads and ten horns (Revelation 13:1). Note the mention of "the kings"; these are the "ten kings" (Revelation 17:11-17) who hate and burn the harlot (the seventh head of the beast), becoming themselves the eighth head; but this phase of the scarlet beast is relatively short, "one hour" symbolizing an indefinite but short time. There is no way to know whether such a symbol means years, decades, or centuries. All time with reference to eternity is only a day. The total and final end of the scarlet sea-beast is depicted here.

How strange, how tragic is this situation in which the kings of earth unite in one terrible effort to destroy the anointed of God. How contrary this revelation is to the dreams of men and the foolish statements of their false prophets, that human society is ever progressing.[56]

It appears certain that the prophecy here is of the near endtime, in which period it is prophesied here that wickedness will become very aggressive against righteousness. We find it impossible to disagree with the comment that:

Never before has there been such a widespread revolt against all standards of decency and honesty. Never before have religious leaders advocated not only a "new theology" but a "new morality" which flouts God's laws. The stage is being rapidly set for the end of the age.[57]

It is this final, terminal opposition of evil to God's will which is here styled a "battle." It will not be a "battle" in any ordinary understanding of the word; but the final conflict will be so severe that it fully deserves the title. This is not the struggle that takes place after Christ comes, but the one that is going on now. "The warfare takes place while Christians are upon earth."[58]

[56] Wilbur M. Smith. Wycliffe Bible Commentary, New Testament (Chicago: Moody Press, 1971). p. 1092.

[57] Ralph Earle. Beacon Bible Commentary, Vol. 10 (Kansas City: Beacon Hill Press, 1967), p. 608.

[58] A. Plummer, op. cit., p. 450.

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Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
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Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Revelation 19:19". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/revelation-19.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

‘And I saw the beast, and the kings of the earth, and their armies, gathered together to make war against him that sat on the horse and against his army.’

There is no doubt about the aim of the forces of evil. Possibly in some way they still believe that they can prevent the coming of Christ and His final judgment. But probably it is just to indicate their defiance. There is no mention of an actual battle for their Enemy is irresistible. They are just floundering in their folly.

In Revelation 20:9 we are informed how these forces of evil warred against Him Who sat on the horse and against His army. They did it by attacking His people on earth. ‘They went up over the breadth of the earth, and surrounded the camp of the saints and the beloved city’. In other words they turned their vicious attentions on His people (Revelation 12:17). The camp of the saints has in mind God’s people worldwide, depicted as though they were all together in one place. They are in tents because they are strangers and pilgrims on the earth. The beloved city (Psalms 78:68; Psalms 87:2) represents the true, believing Israel who are of course a part of the people of God (compare Revelation 11:1-12; Revelation 12:13; also Revelation 21:12-14).

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Pett, Peter. "Commentary on Revelation 19:19". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/revelation-19.html. 2013.

Foy E. Wallace's Commentary on the Book of Revelation

(5) The complete destruction of the persecuting power of the Roman beast and his subordinate false prophet-- 19:19-21.

The fact that these visions anticipated events before, during and after the destruction of Jerusalem, should be observed and retained in the mind, as the considerations advance from one stage and scene to another.

The scene of verses nineteen to twenty-one reverted to the spiritual battle between the heavenly armies of the Rider, and the armies of the Roman beast--the heathen persecutor. It was after the destruction of Jerusalem; and after the evil forces of heathenism were diverted from the scene of Jerusalem and Judaism to converge on the church.

But the vision saw the triumph of Christianity. It was declared in verse twenty that the beast was taken, and with him the false prophet . . . with which he deceived them that received the mark of the beast, and them that worshipped his image. This beast was the original first sea-beast of chapter 13--personified in the emperor, the source of authority for all the persecutions. The false prophet was identical with the second land-beast, of Judea and Palestine, described in chapter 13, as the subordinate of the imperia1 beast who seduced the inhabitants of Judea to worship the emperor. As previously postulated, the mark of the beast was submission to the decree for emperor worship and acceptance of the image of the emperor as deity and the worship of the Roman image in acts of idolatry for the emperor.

After accomplishing the destruction of Jerusalem and the obliteration of the Jewish state, the vision represents the beast as having lost the battle against the church. The invincible spiritual forces of Christianity prevailed against all powers of heathenism, and both the beast and his satellite false prophet were taken; that is, captured and consigned to the bottomless pit of banishment, symbolized by the lake of fire burning with brimstone. The object of this vision was to symbolize the war of righteousness led by Christ Himself, the Head of the church, against the wickedness of heathenism. It described the progress of the persecution of the church, after the fall of Jerusalem, through the period of tribulation of chapter 2:10; and of the hour of trial in chapter 3:10; in the deadly conflict with the heathenism of the Roman world.

The entire second psalm is a magnificent prophecy of the defeat of all the cohorts of heathenism by the King whom God had set "upon the holy hill of Zion," and is worthy of insertion here in its entirety: "Why do the heathen rage, and the people imagine a vain thing? The kings of the earth set themselves, and the rulers take counsel together, against the Lord, and against his Anointed, saying, Let us break their bands asunder, and cast away their cords from us. He that sitteth in the heavens shall laugh: the Lord shall have them in derision. Then shall he speak unto them in his wrath, and vex them in his sore displeasure. Yet have I set my King upon my holy hill of Zion. I will declare the decree: the Lord hath said unto me, Thou art my Son; this day have I begotten thee. Ask of me, and I shall give thee the heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession. Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron; thou shalt dash them in pieces like a potter's vessel. Be wise now therefore, 0 ye kings: be instructed, ye judges of the earth. Serve the Lord with fear, and rejoice with trembling. Kiss the Son, lest he be angry, and ye perish from the way, when his wrath is kindled but a little. Blessed are all they that put their trust in him."

This psalm was quoted more than once in the New Testament as having fulfillment in the universal expansion of the kingdom of Christ. The messianic psalm finds its climax in these visions of Revelation where the "heathen raged" and "the kings of the earth set themselves . . . against his Anointed." The rulers did "take counsel together," and determined to "break their bands asunder," and thus to scatter the forces of the Anointed; but "the Lord shall have them in derision" and "shall break them with a rod of iron" which was done in the descriptions and fulfillment of these visions. In this imagery the Psalmist foresaw the establishment of the kingdom of Christ, and the defeat of all heathen opposition by the gospel's rod of iron--the invincible Word of Truth.

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Wallace, Foy E. "Commentary on Revelation 19:19". "Foy E. Wallace's Commentary on the Book of Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/foy/revelation-19.html. 1966.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

John now saw another scene on earth. The beast at this time will have10 allies ( Revelation 17:12-14; cf. Psalm 2:2). Their armies will represent the worldwide population of earth-dwellers. These armies will unite to oppose Christ ( Revelation 16:13-16). The battle will be over world leadership. When Jesus Christ returns, the beast"s10 allies that will have been fighting each other ( Ezekiel 38:21; Daniel 11:40-44) will unite against Christ ( Revelation 16:14). This is a description of the judgment portrayed proleptically in Revelation 14:14-20. It is surprisingly brief in view of its importance in history. This probably indicates that the battle will not last long (cf. Matthew 24:13-45).

"The Seer is not describing the gradual conquest of evil in the spiritual struggles of the faithful, but a great historic event which brings to an end the Antichrist and his forces and ushers in the long-awaited era of righteousness." [Note: Mounce, p349.]

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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 19:19". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/revelation-19.html. 2012.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

Revelation 19:19. And I saw the beast and the kings of the earth and their armies gathered together to make war against him that sat on the hone and against his army. No doubt the ‘war’ is that of chap. Revelation 16:14. It is the final war waged by the beast and his ten kings and their armies against Jesus and His army. The ‘army’ of the latter is in the singular; the ‘armies’ of the former are in the plural. The thought of the unity of the one compared with the inner dissensions of the other lies at the bottom of the change (comp. chap. Revelation 11:8).

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Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on Revelation 19:19". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/revelation-19.html. 1879-90.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

have just now seen the heavenly captain on horseback, at the head of his holy troop, marching to battle; and now we see who are the enemies he comes to encounter. Here is the beast, or antichrist, with prodigious armies gathered from all parts of the earth, and headed by their kings and princes. (Pastorini)

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Revelation 19:19". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/revelation-19.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

gathered together. Greek. sunago, as Revelation 19:17.

war. The texts add "the". See Revelation 16:14.

against = with. Greek. meta. App-104.

That sat = Who sitteth.

on. App-104.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Revelation 19:19". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/revelation-19.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And I saw the beast, and the kings of the earth, and their armies, gathered together to make war against him that sat on the horse, and against his army.

Gathered together - at Armageddon, under the sixth vial. For "their armies," in 'Aleph (') B, Andreas, there is 'His armies' in A.

War. So Andreas; but 'Aleph (') A B, 'the war'-namely, that foretold, Revelation 16:14; Revelation 17:4.

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 19:19". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/revelation-19.html. 1871-8.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And I saw the beast, and the kings of the earth, and their armies, gathered together to make war against him that sat on the horse, and against his army.
I saw
13:1-10; 14:9; 16:14,16; 17:12-14; 18:9; Ezekiel 38:8-18; Daniel 7:21-26; Daniel 8:25; 11:40-45; Joel 3:9-14
him
11-14
Reciprocal: Joshua 8:16 - drawn away;  Judges 5:19 - kings;  Judges 8:12 - took;  2 Samuel 10:15 - gathered;  Job 12:19 - GeneralPsalm 18:37 - GeneralPsalm 83:5 - For;  Psalm 118:10 - All nations;  Isaiah 26:14 - dead;  Isaiah 44:11 - let them all;  Isaiah 54:15 - they shall;  Jeremiah 1:10 - to root out;  Jeremiah 25:35 - the shepherds;  Ezekiel 14:10 - the punishment;  Daniel 11:44 - east;  Daniel 11:45 - he shall come;  Joel 3:2 - also;  Joel 3:11 - Assemble;  Joel 3:14 - multitudes;  Zechariah 1:8 - riding;  Zechariah 12:3 - though;  Zechariah 12:6 - they;  Matthew 22:44 - till;  Acts 2:35 - thy foes;  Acts 14:15 - why;  2 Corinthians 11:15 - his;  Revelation 11:7 - the beast;  Revelation 11:18 - the nations;  Revelation 12:17 - to make;  Revelation 19:20 - the beast;  Revelation 22:8 - I fell

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Revelation 19:19". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/revelation-19.html.

Walter Scott's Commentary on Revelation

TOTAL OVERTHROW OF THE BEAST AND CONFEDERATE KINGS AND ARMIES.

Revelation 19:19-21. — "And I saw the Beast, and the kings of the earth, and their armies gathered together to make war against Him that sat upon the horse, and against His army. And the Beast was taken, and the False Prophet that (was) with him, who wrought the signs before him by which he deceived them that received the mark of the Beast, and those that worshipped his image. Alive were both cast into the lake of fire which burns with brimstone. And the rest were slain with the sword of Him that sat upon the horse, which goes out of His mouth: and all the birds were filled with their flesh." We are now about to witness the most gigantic confederation of kings and peoples ever beheld. The Beast is first named as being the centre and soul of the movement. All the material strength and resources of the mighty revived empire are embraced in the term the Beast. Then we have mentioned "the kings of the earth," the very kings who wailed over the destruction of Babylon. The political and social authorities of Christendom combine with the Beast in this insensate war.{*The ten kings had already given themselves over to the Beast (Revelation 17:17). They are of course active in this war, for we read, "These shall make war with the Lamb" (Revelation 17:14), but they are not specifically mentioned in this, the fuller account of the war, their identity being lost, so to speak, in that of the Beast.}

Next, "their armies," that is, the armies of the Beast and of the kings.

All are "gathered together." It may be supposed that this almost universal assemblage of powers is effected by human agency. But no Caesar or Napoleon could bring about such a vast combination, and for such a purpose as we have here. Satan is behind the movement. In Revelation 16:13-14; Revelation 16:16 we have the veil lifted and the true character of it exposed. Three unclean spirits, satanic in source and character, endowed with miraculous power, "go forth unto the kings of the earth, and of the whole world to gather them to the battle (war) of that great day of God Almighty." The gathering place is also named, Armageddon (Revelation 16:16).{*See remarks on Revelation 16:16.}

After a statement of the forces in opposition by whom they were gathered, and where they were gathered to, we are next directed to the plainly-stated but startling fact that the hosts of earth are assembled "to make war against Him that sat upon the horse, and against His army." Can history furnish a parallel to this? The nations of Europe, and even of a wider area, enlightened and christianised, so deluded by Satan that they dare to enter the lists with "The King of kings and Lord of lords!" What madness! What folly! The sovereignty of the earth is really the question of that day, and is decided once and for ever by the impending battle. Their hatred is expressed against the Rider upon the white horse, the Lamb and King, the former title sacrificial, the latter regal; for whether as the Lamb slain or the King to reign, Christendom hates Him. Then comes the opposition to those who are His. They make war also "against His army." We have here the contrast between "their armies" and "His army," consisting of called, chosen, and faithful followers. One army as having but one mind and purpose with their renowned Leader. No details are furnished, for actual conflict there could not be. The result alone is disclosed; the awful slaughter had been already anticipated (vv. 17, 18).

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Scott, Walter. "Commentary on Revelation 19:19". "Walter Scott's Commentary on Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/sor/revelation-19.html.

E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament

Beast is Babylon and the kings are the inferior rulers under her. All mustered their forces to resist the attack of Christ through the Reformation.

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Zerr, E.M. "Commentary on Revelation 19:19". E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/znt/revelation-19.html. 1952.

Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation

Revelation 19:19

Revelation 19:19-21 And I saw the beast, and the kings of the earth, and their armies, gathered together to make war against him that sat on the horse, and against his army20 And the beast was taken, and with him the false prophet that wrought miracles before him, with which he deceived them that had received the mark of the beast, and them that worshipped his image. These both were cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone21And the remnant were slain with the sword of him that sat upon the horse, which sword proceeded out of his mouth: and all the fowls were filled with their flesh.

In these three verses are declared, first, who are the enemies of Christ and his armies, namely,

the beast, the kings of the earth, and their armies

Revelation 19:19. See the exposition of Revelation 11:7, See KNOLLYS: Revelation 11:7

Revelation 13:1-11, See KNOLLYS: Revelation 13:1 [ff]

Revelation 16:13-14. See KNOLLYS: Revelation 16:13 & See KNOLLYS: Revelation 16:14

and Revelation 17:8-12 See KNOLLYS: Revelation 17:8 See KNOLLYS: Revelation 17:9 See KNOLLYS: Revelation 17:10 See KNOLLYS: Revelation 17:11 See KNOLLYS: Revelation 17:12

and Revelation 12:13-14. See KNOLLYS: Revelation 12:13 & See KNOLLYS: Revelation 12:14

Secondly, the effect of this great battle. { Revelation 19:20} The beast and the false prophet (the Roman papal hierarchy, clergy and priesthood) were taken as prisoners of war.

Both these were cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone;

that Isaiah, into hell fire, { Revelation 19:21}

And the remnant,

that Isaiah, the kings, captains, and great men, and their armies, soldiers, both small and great, were slain with the sword, that Isaiah, the Word of God, and commands of Christ, written in the holy scripture.

And all the fowls were filled with their flesh.

Jeremiah 51:19-24. The portion of Jacob is not like them, for he is the former of all things, and Israel is the rod of his inheritance: the Lord of hosts is his name. Thou are my battle ax and weapons of war: for with thee will I break in pieces the nations, and with thee will I destroy kingdoms: And with thee will I break in pieces the horse and his rider, and with thee will I break in pieces the chariot and his rider: With thee also will I break in pieces man and woman, and with thee will I break in pieces old and young, and with thee will I break in pieces the young man and the maid: I will also break in pieces with thee the shepherd and his flock, and with thee will I break in pieces the husbandmand and his yoke of oxen, and with thee will I break in pieces captains and rulers. And I will render unto Babylon, and to all the inhabitants of Chaldea, all their evil that they have done in Zion, in your sight, saith the Lord. { Psalm 149:1-9} Praise ye the Lord, sing unto the Lord a new Song of Solomon, and his praise in the congregation of saints. Let Israel rejoice in him that made him: let the children of Zion be joyful in their king. Let them praise his name in the dance: let them sing praises unto him with the timbrel and harp. For the Lord taketh pleasure in his people: he will beautify the meek with salvation. Let the saints be joyful in glory: let them sing along upon their beds. Let the high praises of God be in their mouth, and a two-edged sword in their hand; To execute vengeance upon the heathen, and punishment upon the people; To bind their kings with chains, and their nobles with fetters of iron; To execute upon them the judgement written: this honour have all his saints. Praise ye the Lord. As God stirred up the spirit of the Medes, { Jeremiah 51:11-28} so God will raise up the spirit of kings to hate the whore, and to eat her flesh, and to burn her with fire, { Revelation 17:6} and so make mystical Babylon an utter desolation. { Revelation 18:21-24}

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Bibliographical Information
Knollys, Hanserd. "Commentary on Revelation 19:19". "Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hkc/revelation-19.html.

Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms

Revelation 19:19. And I saw the beast and the kings of the earth and their armies gathered together to fight with him who sat upon the horse, and with his army. The kings stand under the direction of the beast—comp. on ch. Revelation 17:13, "These have one mind, and give their power and authority to the beast." The kings of the earth are so named in Revelation 19:11, in contrast to the King of kings, who is of heaven, as worthy associates of the beast (see on ch. Revelation 13:12-13), on account of their earthly disposition.

The kings are bound together only by the common feature of their earthly temperament; apart from this there is no tie amongst them; and hence mention is made of armies. On the other hand, Christ has with him only one army.

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Hengstenberg, Ernst. "Commentary on Revelation 19:19". Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/heg/revelation-19.html.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

19.And—Though the adverse armament and array seem to be fearfully great, the battle seems to be no battle.

Make war—Nobody seems to be slain of the armies of heaven.

 

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Revelation 19:19". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/revelation-19.html. 1874-1909.

The Bible Study New Testament

19. Gathered to fight against. This is “Armageddon.” We meet this battle four times in Revelation (see also Revelation 11:7-13; Revelation 16:12-16; Revelation 20:7-10). Note that the armies of heaven do not wear armor or carry weapons (Revelation 19:14). No battle is fought. When the forces of evil are all prepared to destroy the forces of heaven (the church), “fire came down from heaven and destroyed them” (Revelation 20:9). See note on Revelation 16:12.

 

 

 

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Bibliographical Information
Ice, Rhoderick D. "Commentary on Revelation 19:19". "The Bible Study New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ice/revelation-19.html. College Press, Joplin, MO. 1974.