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Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Song of Solomon 1:1

The Song of Songs, which is Solomon's.

Adam Clarke Commentary

The song of songs - A song of peculiar excellence. See the Introduction. The rabbins consider this superior to all songs. Ten songs, says the Tarpon, have been sung; but this excels them all.

  1. The first was sung by Adam when his sin was pardoned.
  • The second was sung by Moses and the Israelites at the Red Sea.
  • The third was sung by the Israelites when they drank of the rock in the wilderness.
  • The fourth was sung by Moses when summoned to depart from this world.
  • The fifth was sung by Joshua when the sun and moon stood still.
  • The sixth was sung by Deborah and Barak after the defeat of Sisera.
  • The seventh was sung by Hannah when the Lord promised her a son.
  • The eighth was sung by David for all the mercies given him by God.
  • The ninth is the present, sung in the spirit of prophecy by Solomon.
  • 10. The tenth is that which shall be sung by the children of Israel when restored from their captivities. See the Targum.

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    These files are public domain.

    Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Song of Solomon 1:1". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https: 1832.

    Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

    The “Song of songs,” i. e., the best or most excellent of songs.

    Which is Solomon‘s - literally, “to” or “for Solomon,” i. e., belonging to Solomon as its author or concerning him as its subject. In a title or inscription, the former interpretation is to be preferred.

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    These files are public domain.

    Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Song of Solomon 1:1". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https: 1870.

    The Biblical Illustrator

    Song of Solomon 1:1

    The Song of Songs, which is Solomon’s.

    The Song of Solomon

    The Song of Songs is Solomon’s, as composed by the wisest of men, under the guidance of the Holy Spirit, and Solomon’s also as composed concerning the true Solomon the Prince of Peace, of whom the son of David was an eminent type. It belongs to the earthly Solomon, as the skilful work of his hands; to the heavenly Solomon, as the utterance of his heart to the Church, and of the heart of the Church towards him. (A. Moody Stuart.)

    Copyright Statement
    These files are public domain.
    Text Courtesy of Used by Permission.

    Exell, Joseph S. "Commentary on "Song of Solomon 1:1". The Biblical Illustrator. https: 1905-1909. New York.

    Coffman's Commentaries on the Bible

    The maiden here stands for all mankind before the coming of Christ. Her longing for her true love to come and take her away from that evil, hopeless place stands for the longing of all righteous people for the coming of the Messiah. The criticism of the harem women stands for the hatred of the world for those who desire to serve God. The maiden's unhappiness in the harem shows the inability of the secular world to satisfy our souls.

    Song of Solomon 1:1

    "The Song of Songs, which is Solomon's."

    It is stated in 1 Kings 4:32 that Solomon wrote a thousand and five songs; yet only one of them is found in the Bible; and through the ages there have often been questions as to whether or not this one really belongs in the Canon. Most of the interpretations (especially the allegorical explanations) are clearly designed to justify the presence of this book in the Bible; and the utter inability of the scholars of two thousand years to reach an even approximate agreement on what the book teaches leaves the question unanswered.

    The only reason that this writer accepts the Song of Solomon's place in the Holy Bible is that God Himself commissioned Israel to be the trustees of "the oracles of God" (Romans 3:2); and there can be no doubt that the unchallenged opinion of ancient Israel placed it there (in the Canon). Could Israel have made a mistake in this instance? Even if they did (and we do not charge that they did) make a mistake in this matter, it is of no consequence in reference to their major assignment of recognizing, receiving and advocating the worldwide acceptance of the Messiah in his First Advent. In the person of the holy Apostles of Christ and the righteous remnant of the apostate Israel, they gloriously achieved that assignment.

    Nevertheless, the vast majority of Israel was blind in their loving adoration of Solomon; and they considered his evil kingdom a type of the Kingdom of God that the Messiah would organize when he came. They desired nothing, either in heaven or on earth, any more than the restoration of that reprobate kingdom of Solomon; and the only reason they crucified Christ came from their recognition that Jesus Christ would never restore anything like Solomon's kingdom. There is a possibility, although we do not see it as a fact, that Israel might have included in the Bible one of Solomon's 1,005 songs merely because of their infatuation. We cannot answer this question, nor can we deny the existence of it.

    As we explore what the text says, the reader must make up his own mind.

    The literal words here are erotic; of that, there is not any doubt.

    Copyright Statement
    James Burton Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.

    Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Song of Solomon 1:1". "Coffman Commentaries on the Old and New Testament". https: Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

    John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

    The Song of songs, which is Solomon's. Wrote by Solomon, king of Israel, as the "amanuensis" of the Holy Ghost; and not by Hezekiah and his men, as the Jews sayF11T. Bab. Bava Bathra, fol. 15. 1. : or, "concerning Solomon"F12לשלמה "de Solomone", Cocceius. ; Christ, of whom Solomon was a type; see Song of Solomon 3:7; of his person, excellencies, love to his church, care of her, and concern for her; and of the nearness and communion he admitted her to, and indulged her with the Jews have a sayingF13Maimon. Yesode Hatorah, c. 6. s. 12. , that wherever the word Solomon is used in this song, the Holy One is meant, the holy God, or Messiah: it is called "the Song of songs", because the most excellent, as the Holy of holies, King of kings, &c. which, with the Hebrews, express a superlative; this being more excellent than the one hundred and five songs, written by Solomon, or than any human composure whatever; yea, preferable to all Scriptural songs, as to subject, manner of style, and copiousness of it.

    Copyright Statement
    The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rightes Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
    A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855

    Gill, John. "Commentary on Song of Solomon 1:1". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https: 1999.

    Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

    Canticle I. - (Song 1:2-2:7) - The Bride Searching for and Finding the King

    The song of songs — The most excellent of all songs, Hebrew idiom (Exodus 29:37; Deuteronomy 10:14). A foretaste on earth of the “new song” to be sung in glory (Revelation 5:9; Revelation 14:3; Revelation 15:2-4).

    Solomon‘s — “King of Israel,” or “Jerusalem,” is not added, as in the opening of Proverbs and Ecclesiastes, not because Solomon had not yet ascended the throne [Moody Stuart], but because his personality is hid under that of Christ, the true Solomon (equivalent to Prince of Peace). The earthly Solomon is not introduced, which would break the consistency of the allegory. Though the bride bears the chief part, the Song throughout is not hers, but that of her “Solomon.” He animates her. He and she, the Head and the members, form but one Christ [Adelaide Newton]. Aaron prefigured Him as priest; Moses, as prophet; David, as a suffering king; Solomon, as the triumphant prince of peace. The camp in the wilderness represents the Church in the world; the peaceful reign of Solomon, after all enemies had been subdued, represents the Church in heaven, of which joy the Song gives a foretaste.

    Copyright Statement
    These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
    This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.

    Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Song of Solomon 1:1". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https: 1871-8.

    Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament

    The title of the book at once denotes that it is a connected whole, and is the work of one author. - Song of Solomon 1:1. The Song of Songs, composed by Solomon . The genitival connection, “Song of Songs,” cannot here signify the Song consisting of a number of songs, any more than calling the Bible “The Book of books” leads us to think of the 24 + 27 canonical books of which it consists. Nor can it mean “one of Solomon's songs;” the title, as it here stands, would then be the paraphrase of שׁיר שׁירי שׁ , chosen for the purpose of avoiding the redoubled genitives; but “one of the songs” must rather have been expressed by שׁיר משּׁירי . It has already been rightly explained in the Midrash:

    (Note: Vid ., Fürst's Der Kanon des A. T . (1868), p. 86.)

    “the most praiseworthy, most excellent, most highly-treasured among the songs.” The connection is superl. according to the sense (cf. ἄῤῥητα ἀῤῥήτων of Sophocles), and signifies that song which, as such, surpasses the songs one and all of them; as “servant of servants,” Genesis 9:25, denotes a servant who is such more than all servants together. The plur. of the second word is for this superl. sense indispensable ( vid ., Dietrich's Abhand. zur hebr. Gramm . p. 12), but the article is not necessary: it is regularly wanting where the complex idea takes the place of the predicate, Genesis 9:25; Exodus 29:37, or of the inner member of a genitival connection of words, Jeremiah 3:19; but it is also wanting in other places, as Ezekiel 16:7 and Ecclesiastes 1:2; Ecclesiastes 12:8, where the indeterminate plur. denotes not totality, but an unlimited number; here it was necessary, because a definite Song - that, namely, lying before us - must be designated as the paragon of songs. The relative clause, “ asher lishlōmō ,” does not refer to the single word “Songs” (Gr. Venet. τῶν τοῦ ), as it would if the expression were שׁיר מהשּׁ , but to the whole idea of “the Song of Songs.” A relative clause of similar formation and reference occurs at 1 Kings 4:2 : “These are the princes, asher lo , which belonged to him (Solomon).” They who deny the Solomonic authorship usually explain: The Song of Songs which concerns or refers to Solomon, and point in favour of this interpretation to lxx B. ὃ ἐστι Σαλ ., which, however, is only a latent genit., for which lxx A. τῷ Σαλ . Lamed may indeed introduce the reference of a writing, as at Jeremiah 23:9; but if the writing is more closely designated as a “Song,” “Psalm,” and the like, then Lamed with the name of a person foll. is always the Lamed auctoris ; in this case the idea of reference to, as e.g. , at Isaiah 1:1, cf. 1 Kings 5:13, is unequivocally expressed by על . We shall find that the dramatized history which we have here, or as we might also say, the fable of the melodrama and its dress, altogether correspond with the traits of character, the favourite turns, the sphere of vision, and the otherwise well-known style of authorship peculiar to Solomon. We may even suppose that the superscription was written by the author, and thus by Solomon himself. For in the superscription of the Proverbs he is surnamed “son of David, king of Israel,” and similarly in Ecclesiastes. But he who entitles him merely “Solomon” is most probably himself. On the other hand, that the title is by the author himself, is not favoured by the fact that instead of the שׁ , everywhere else used in the book, the fuller form asher is employed. There is the same reason for this as for the fact that Jeremiah in his prophecies always uses asher , but in the Lamentations interchanges שׁ with asher. This original demonstrative שׁ is old-Canaanitish, as the Phoenician אש , arrested half-way toward the form asher , shows.

    (Note: From this it is supposed that asher is a pronom. root-cluster equivalent to אשׁל . Fleischer, on the contrary, sees in asher an original substantive athar = (Arab.) ithr , Assyr. asar , track, place, as when the vulgar expression is used, “The man where ( wo instead of welcher ) has said.”)

    In the Book of Kings it appears as a North Palest. provincialism, to the prose of the pre-exilian literature it is otherwise foreign;

    (Note: We do not take into view here Genesis 6:3. If בּשׁגם is then to be read, then there is in it the pronominal שׁ , as in the old proper name Mishael (who is what God is?).)

    but the pre-exilian shir and kinah (cf. also Job 19:29) make use of it as an ornament. In the post-exilian literature it occurs in poetry (Psalms 122:3, etc.) and in prose (1 Chronicles 5:20; 1 Chronicles 27:27); in Ecclesiastes it is already a component part of the rabbinism in full growth. In a pre-exilian book-title שׁ in place of asher is thus not to be expected. On the other hand, in the Song itself it is no sign of a post-exilian composition, as Grätz supposes. The history of the language and literature refutes this.

    Copyright Statement
    The Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament is a derivative of a public domain electronic edition.

    Keil, Carl Friedrich & Delitzsch, Franz. "Commentary on Song of Solomon 1:1". https: 1854-1889.

    Matthew Henry's Complete Commentary on the Bible

    We have here the title of this book, showing, 1. The nature of it; it is a song, that it might the better answer the intention, which is to stir up the affections and to heat them, which poetry will be very instrumental to do. The subject is pleasing, and therefore fit to be treated of in a song, in singing which we may make melody with our hearts unto the Lord. It is evangelical; and gospel-times should be times of joy, for gospel-grace puts a new song into our mouths, Psalm 98:1. 2. The dignity of it; it is the song of songs, a most excellent song, not only above any human composition, or above all other songs which Solomon penned, but even above any other of the scripture-songs, as having more of Christ in it. 3. The penman of it; it is Solomon's. It is not the song of fools, as many of the songs of love are, but the song of the wisest of men; nor can any man give a better proof of his wisdom than to celebrate the love of God to mankind and to excite his own love to God and that of others with it. Solomon's songs were a thousand and five (1 Kings 4:32); those that were of other subjects are lost, but this of seraphic love remains, and will to the end of time. Solomon, like his father, was addicted to poetry, and, which way soever a man's genius lies, he should endeavor to honour God and edify the church with it. One of Solomon's names was Jedidiah - beloved of the Lord (2 Samuel 12:25); and none so fit to write of the Lord's love as he that had himself so great an interest in it; none of all the apostles wrote so much of love as he that was himself the beloved disciple and lay in Christ's bosom. Solomon, as a king, had great affairs to mind and manage, which took up much of his thoughts and time, yet he found heart and leisure for this and other religious exercises. Men of business ought to be devout men, and not to think that business will excuse them from that which is every man's great business - to keep up communion with God. It is not certain when Solomon penned this sacred song. Some think that he penned it after he recovered himself by the grace of God from his backslidings, as a further proof of his repentance, and as if by doing good to many with this song he would atone for the hurt he had perhaps done with loose, vain, amorous songs, when he loved many strange wives; now he turned his wit the right way. It is more probable that he penned it in the beginning of his time, while he kept close to God and kept up his communion with him; and perhaps he put this song, with his father's psalms, into the hands of the chief musician, for the service of the temple, not without a key to it, for the right understanding of it. Some think that it was penned upon occasion of his marriage with Pharaoh's daughter, but that is uncertain; the tower of Lebanon, which is mentioned in this book (1 Kings 3:3) he thus served him with joyfulness and gladness of heart in the abundance of all things. It may be rendered, The song of songs, which is concerning Solomon, who as the son and successor of David, on whom the covenant of royalty was entailed, as the founder of the temple, and as one that excelled in wisdom and wealth, was a type of Christ, in whom are hidden all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge, and yet is a greater than Solomon; this is therefore a song concerning him. It is here fitly placed after Ecclesiastes; for when by the book we are thoroughly convinced of the vanity of the creature, and its insufficiency to satisfy us and make a happiness for us, we shall be quickened to seek for happiness in the love of Christ, and that true transcendent pleasure which is to be found only in communion with God through him. The voice in the wilderness, that was to prepare Christ's way, cried, All flesh is grass.

    Copyright Statement
    These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.

    Henry, Matthew. "Complete Commentary on Song of Solomon 1:1". "Matthew Henry Complete Commentary on the Whole Bible". https: 1706.

    Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary on the Bible

    This is “the Song of songs,” excellent above any others, for it is wholly taken up with describing the excellences of Christ, and the love between him and his redeemed people.

    Copyright Statement
    These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.

    Henry, Matthew. "Concise Commentary on Song of Solomon 1:1". "Matthew Henry Concise Commentary

    on the Whole Bible". https: 1706.

    Wesley's Explanatory Notes

    The song - The most excellent of all songs. And so this might well be called, whether you consider the author of it, who was a great prince, and the wisest of all mortal men; or the subject of it, which is not Solomon, but a greater than Solomon, even Christ, and his marriage with the church; or the matter of it, which is most lofty, containing in it the noblest of all the mysteries contained either in the Old or the New Testament; most pious and pathetical, breathing forth the hottest flames of love between Christ and his people, most sweet and comfortable, and useful to all that read it with serious and Christian eyes.

    Copyright Statement
    These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.

    Wesley, John. "Commentary on Song of Solomon 1:1". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https: 1765.

    Brian Bell Commentary on the Bible

    1. Intro:
      1. “We see our Saviors face on every page of the bible, but here we see his heart & feel his love to us.” (Spurg)
        1. I’ll tell you right up front, I’m a little nervous peering in to this book.
        2. I will not know all the interpretations (as many have struggled with some of the metaphors) but I seek to gain all God has for me. I pray you’d be open for the same.
      2. Some say Solomon wrote Eccl. For the Inquiring Mind – Proverbs for the Obedient Will - & S. of S. for the Loving Heart!
        1. Which is better? – Neither one! – We need all 3 for a balanced life!
    2. CONTENT! – See 1:1
      1. Date & Authorship:
        1. ​​​​​​​Date - 10th cent. bc.
        2. Authorship - Solomon as we see in vs.1(& in 5 others places in the book).
      2. What we have here!
        1. ​​​​​​​The Song of Songs! – The Choicest of 1005 songs he wrote(1 Kings 4:32). His moist exquisite song!
        2. As Jesus is the King of Kings – The Temple had the Holy of Holies – Here this is Solomon’s Song of Songs!
        3. (Spurgeon) “The historical books I may compare to the outer courts of the Temple; the gospels, the epistles, & the psalms bring us into the holy place, or the court of the priests; but the Song of Solomon is the most holy place – the holy of holies, before which the veil still hangs to many an untaught believer,”
          1. ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​Wow! - Doesn’t that make you want to peek through the veil? – Yes, we might not understand everything that is going on in there, but ohhhh the beauty!
        4. In Hebrew/Shir Shirim; {each refers to Song & the Song plural} In Greek/Asma Asmaton; In Latin Canticum Canticorum (Canticles=a little song).
          1. This song is made up of 13 canticles(lyrics) – [See overhead]
          2. They do not necessarily tell a “connected” story.
      3. Geography:
        1. ​​​​​​​15 geographic locations are mentioned.
          1. Spanning: From Lebanon & Syria(North) – Egypt (south).
        2. See Map! - Overhead
      4. Outline:
        1. ​​​​​​​Courtship (1-3:5)
          Marriage (3:6-5:1)
          The Joys & Trials of Marriage (5:2-8:14).
      5. Plot:
        1. ​​​​​​​Shows King Solomon’s love for a humble maiden!
      6. Be Alert:
        1. ​​​​​​​Who’s speaking? (most new translations will identify them for you)
        2. Remember this is a Poem/Love Song – Read it Poetically.
        3. It is a poem for mature people – Rated “PG” (Kids in here?)
        4. It is rich in Metaphors & Oriental Imagery & must be “felt” as well as read.
          1. How do you want your love letter to be read…Analytically & monotone? “Dear Brian, I miss you…hmmm what did she mean by “miss”(to feel the want of?)
      7. Problems:
        1. ​​​​​​​God is not mentioned anywhere in this song.
          1. Yet seems to be all about “Him” & “His” love!
        2. The Book is not quoted in the Old or New Testament.
          1. Yet has been placed confidently in the Hebrew Scriptures. And, was found in the Septuagint 150 years before Christ.
          2. It was around in the time of Christ & He never said this one book should be removed.
        3. Tradition: The Jews read this book every year at Passover.
          1. Ruth @ Pentecost – Eccl. @ Feast of Tab. – Esther @ Purim.
      8. The Main Players:
        1. ​​​​​​​The Shulamite – (6:13)
          1. Possibly Abishag of Shunem (who attended David in his last days)
          2. A young country girl.
        2. The King – Solomon.
        3. The Daughters of Israel – The palace ladies.
    3. INTENT!
      1. ​​​​​​​Interpretations!
        1. ​​​​​​​Here we seem to have a many-faceted diamond (reflecting & refracting light in all directions).
        2. [1] It’s an Allegory
          1. {1} Displaying Jehovah’s Love to Israel.
          2. {2} Shows a love triangle between: Solomon representing the world system – The maiden representing the Church - & The Shepherd King representing Jesus Christ.
          3. {3} Showing Jesus love to the Church. [most common]
        3. [2] It’s a Marriage Manual - on how to relate to each other.
          1. It reveals 3 qualities of love between a man & a woman: Self-giving; Desire; & Commitment!
          2. These reflect the greater love of God our Creator & lover of our Souls!
          3. Of course Paul tells us to liken the 2 together (Jesus’ love to church – mans love to his wife in Ephesians)
          4. This Love reaches it’s pinnacle in 8:6,7.
      2. One more Problem!
        1. ​​​​​​​What’s this self-proclaimed polygamist (6:8) doing writing a book about “Marital Love”?
        2. At this time he “only” had 140 women in his life…& a long line of virgins on the waiting list – Not the 700 wives & 300 concubines he ends up with!
        3. Doesn’t it prove Gods way from the beginning…that “1 is best?” – Solomon found true love in one! – And it is the love of this one that is promoted as “Good”!
        4. The Holy Spirit never promotes polygamy in scripture, though for some reason it was tolerated in that day, maybe as laziness, lukewarmness, & lethargy “seem to be” tolerated in Christianity today (though never “accepted” by God).
      3. My Heart in Going Through this Book:
        1. ​​​​​​​I will do my best in interpreting,…bringing out the metaphors, culture, & Imagery of Solomon’s day.
        2. Whether you’re a mystic or analytical, both or neither – if you’ll spend time quietly & patiently w/the Lord, this love letter will be precious & personal to you!
          1. Let’s not just learn “about the book”, lets read & study to hear from the Lord how he wants it to apply it to our lives today.
          2. The Lover is going to speak & pray all His Beloved will listen!
        3. We are going to deal with Courtship(Dating); Marriage; & the Joys & Problems of marriage.
        4. I’m convinced this is timely for our church today!
          1. ​​​​​​​In our singles dating/courting relationships!
            In our marriages!
            In our relationship to Jesus!

    Copyright Statement
    These files are the property of Brian Bell.
    Text Courtesy of Calvary Chapel of Murrieta. Used by Permission.

    Bell, Brian. "Commentary on Song of Solomon 1:1". "Brian Bell Commentary". https: 2017.

    John Trapp Complete Commentary

    Song of Solomon 1:1 The song of songs, which [is] Solomon’s.

    Ver. 1. The song of songs.] Not a light love song - as some profane persons have fancied, and have therefore held it no part of the sacred canon - but a most excellent Epithalamium, a very divine ditty, a heavenly allegory, a mystical marriage song, called here the Song of Songs, as God is called the God of gods, [Deuteronomy 10:17] as Christ is called the King of kings, [Revelation 19:16] as the Most Holy is called the Holy of holies, to the which the Jewish doctors liken this canticle, as they do Ecclesiastes to the holy place, and Proverbs to the court, to signify that it is the treasury of the most sacred and highest mysteries of holy Scripture. (a) It streams out all along under the parable of a marriage, that full torrent of spiritual love that is between Christ and the Church (b) "This is a great mystery," saith that great apostle. [Ephesians 5:32] It passeth the capacity of man to understand it in the perfection of it. Hence the Jews permitted none to read this sacred song before thirty years of age. Let him that reads think he sees written over this Solomon’s porch, "Holiness to the Lord." (c) Procul hinc, procul este profani, nihil hic nisi castum. If any think this kind of dealing to be too light for so grave and weighty a matter, let them take heed, saith one, that in the height of their own hearts they do not proudly censure God and his order, who in many places useth the same similitude of marriage to express his love to his Church by, and interchangeably her duty toward him, as in Hosea 2:19, 2 Corinthians 11:2, Ephesians 5:25, with Ephesians 5:22-24, where the apostle plainly alludeth and referreth to this song of songs in sundry passages, borrowing both matter and frame of speech from hence.

    Which is Solomon’s.] He was the penman, God the author. Of many other songs he was both author and instrument. [1 Kings 4:32] Not so of this, which therefore the Chaldee paraphrast here entitleth "songs and hymns," in the plural, for the surpassing excellence of it, "which Solomon the prophet, the King of Israel, uttered by the spirit of prophecy before the Lord, the Lord of all the earth." A prophet he was, and is therefore now in the kingdom of heaven, notwithstanding his foul fall, whereof he repented. For as it is not the falling into the water that drowns, but lying in it, so neither is it the failing into sin that damns, but dying in it. Solomon was also King of Israel, and surpassed all the kings of the earth in wealth and wisdom, [2 Chronicles 9:22] yea, he was wiser than all men. [1 Kings 4:31] And as himself was a king, so he made this singular song, as David did the 45th Psalm, "concerning the King," Christ and his spiritual marriage to the Church, who is also called Solomon, [Song of Solomon 3:11] and "greater than Solomon." [Matthew 12:42] If, therefore, either the worth of the writer or the weightiness of the matter may make to the commendation of any book, this wants for neither. That is a silly exception of some against this song, as if not canonical, because God is not once named in it; for as oft as the bridegroom is brought in speaking here, so oft Christ himself speaketh, who is "God blessed for ever." [Romans 9:5] Besides, whereas Solomon made "a thousand songs and five," [1 Kings 4:32] this only, as being the chief of all, and part of the holy canon, hath been hitherto kept safe when the rest are lost, in the cabinet of God’s special providence, and in the chest of the Jews, God’s faithful library keepers. [Romans 3:1-2; John 5:39] It being not the will of our heavenly Father that any one hair of that sacred head should fall to the ground.

    Copyright Statement
    These files are public domain.
    Text Courtesy of Used by Permission.

    Trapp, John. "Commentary on Song of Solomon 1:1". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https: 1865-1868.

    Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary


    The Chapter opens with giving the title of the book. The Church then takes up the subject with expressing her love to Christ, and desiring fresh manifestations of his affection to her. She compares his love to the fragrancy of the richest ointment. She prays to be drawn by him, and professeth her readiness to run after him. She describes her blackness as in herself, and comeliness as in him: complains of the unkindness of her relations; and desires to know where Jesus feeds his flock, longing to be in his and his people's company. In return to these vehement desires of the church, Jesus now takes up the subject, and distinguishing her by the title of the fairest among women, directs her in her enquiry where to find him and his fold. Jesus then enlargeth upon her beauty, and gives her many sweet and precious promises. The church, in return, commends the loveliness of Jesus, and the chapter concludes in mutual congratulations.

    Song of Solomon 1:1

    The song of songs, which is Solomon's.

    The first object which calls our attention in opening this blessed book of God, is the title of it, namely, A Song. And as it is Solomon's Song, by which is evidently meant, as will hereafter more plainly appear, Jesus Christ, (for a greater than Solomon is here); we may, without violence to the expression, call it a gospel song; for its whole contents is of salvation by Jesus Christ. When a soul is taught by the Holy Ghost to sing this song, then is that scripture fulfilled, In that day shall this song be sung in the land of Judah: we have a strong city; salvation will God appoint for walls and bulwarks. Isaiah 26:1. And Reader! when Christ is truly formed in the heart, the Lord hath put a new song in the mouth. Psalms 98:1. But it is not only a song, but the song of songs; and if it treats wholly of Jesus and his great salvation, well may it merit this distinguished name. Well, indeed, may that be called the excellency of all excellencies, which hath Jesus for its object, and his love to his Church for the subject matter. How very sweet and precious to trace in it the several marks, and testimonies of his love. And on the other hand, delightful to behold the goings forth of the Church's love, awakened by the Holy Ghost on the person of Jesus. Surely such a person as the Lord Jesus is, and such subject-matter as the mutual love and union between Jesus and his people forms, may well be called the song of songs. Oh! for grace to bear a part in it with all the redeemed of the Lord! But we must not stop here. It is not only the song of songs, but it is Solomon's. I do not deny but that Solomon king of Israel was the penman of it; nay, I have no doubt but that Solomon, David's son, was the writer of it: but I hesitate not to believe, that in the writing of it he acted only as the penman to the Holy Ghost, as his Father David had done before him in the Psalms: and in those scriptures, they, with all the other inspired writers, wrote as the Apostle tells us the prophets and holy men of old spake, as they were moved by the Holy Ghost. 2 Peter 1:21. I venture to believe, that there is not a line in it which hath the smallest reference to Solomon king of Israel. So far from being, as some impious men have said, the love-Song and Pharaoh's daughter, that it carries with it a contradiction in many places. Whoever consults the life and reign of Solomon, will discover that his marriage with Pharaoh's daughter was full twenty years before this book was written. Seven years was Solomon in building the temple, and thirteen years more in building his own house. Compare 1 Kings 6:38, with 1 Kings 7:1; after which we are told he built the house of the forest of Lebanon, which is noticed in Song of Solomon 7:4 compared with 1 Kings 7:2, and 1 Kings 3:1. And if it be proved, as I think this one view of the subject fully proves it, that it could have no reference to Solomon's marriage with Pharaoh's daughter, it will as fully prove also that it is not, as some have ventured to think, typical: for how can that be a representation by type concerning Solomon's marriage, when the subject itself could never arise out of it. Besides, Pharaoh's daughter was never what the Church is said to be, a keeper of vineyards: neither beaten by watchmen, nor running about by night in quest of her beloved. These accounts figuratively considered, have a sweet reference to the Church looking after Jesus; but would be ridiculous and false, if read with an eye to the daughter of Pharaoh. See Song of Solomon 1:6; Son_5:7; Son_3:2. But if by Solomon's Song we accept the expression as it might have been rendered, the Song of Songs concerning Solomon; meaning the true Solomon, the Lord Jesus Christ, then we shall at once enter into the proper apprehension of what is meant by the expression, and be led to a right conclusion, that it is indeed the Song of Songs, as infinitely transcending all other songs, in treating of Him, who is the altogether lovely, and the chiefest among ten thousand.

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    Hawker, Robert, D.D. "Commentary on Song of Solomon 1:1". "Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary". https: 1828.

    Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

    Song of Solomon 1:1. The song of songs, which is Solomon's This is a Hebraism, which signifies the most excellent song: the latter part of the title ought perhaps to have been rendered, which is concerning Solomon. The first day's eclogue commences at this chapter, and is continued to ch. Song of Solomon 2:7.

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    Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Song of Solomon 1:1". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https: 1801-1803.

    Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible


    A description of the earnest longing of the church after Christ, Song of Solomon 1:1-4. A confession of her deformity; prayeth for direction. Song of Solomon 1:5-7. Christ's direction and command, Song of Solomon 1:8. He showeth his love to her both for her strength and comeliness, Song of Solomon 1:9,10, and giveth her gracious promises, Song of Solomon 1:11. The church's commendation of Christ both for the sweetness of fellowship with him, and the excellency of ordinances, Song of Solomon 1:12-17.

    The song of songs; the most excellent of all songs, whether composed by profane or sacred authors, by Solomon or by any other. So this Hebrew phrase is understood in other cases, as the holy of holies signifies the most holy; and the highest King is called King of kings; and there are multitudes of such instances, as hath been oft observed. And so this might well be called, whether you consider the author of it, who was a great prince, and the wisest of all mortal men, the two Adams only excepted; or the subject of it, which is not Solomon, but a greater than Solomon, even Christ, and his marriage with the church, as hath been noted; or the matter of it, which is most lofty and mysterious, containing in it the greatest and noblest of all the mysteries contained either in the Old or the New Testament; most pious and pathetical, breathing forth the hottest flames of love between Christ and his people; most sweet, and comfortable, and useful to all that read it with serious and Christian eyes. Nor is it the worse because profane and wanton wits abuse it, and endeavour to fasten their absurd and filthy senses upon some passages in it. The truth is, this book requires a sober and pious, not a lascivious and foolish readier; for which reason some of the ancient Hebrews advised young men to forbear the reading of it, till they were thirty years old.

    Which is Solomon's; which was composed by Solomon; but whether before his fall, or after his repentance, is not easy to determine, nor necessity to be known.

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    Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Song of Solomon 1:1". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https: 1685.

    Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

    ‘The Song of songs, which is Solomon’s.’

    The ‘song of songs’ means ‘the most wonderful of songs’. It is attributed to Solomon, and opens with a young woman alone, who is aware that she is loved by her shepherd king, and is dreaming of him as her royal ‘beloved’. She is visualizing his delights, and the delights of love, and she assures him in her mind that, in a similar way to all the young women in his kingdom, she desires nothing more than for him to call her to him.

    We have to read into her situation what has previously occurred, which must have been something like this. Living in the countryside in the northern part of Palestine, she had been out wandering through her favorite haunts, when one day she came across a handsome young shepherd. There was an immediate attraction between them, but it was some time before he informed her that he was in fact Solomon, the young king of Israel, taking time off from his kingly duties by spending time with some of those who watched over his flocks. Before they separated (or later by messenger) he invited her to a feast that he was holding in his tent. It was with that feast in mind, and the thought of meeting her beloved again, that she was engaging in her initial day dreams. But she would ever think of Solomon in terms of ‘her shepherd’, and thus it would be some time before she would appreciate his splendor in full.

    Soon, after a brief and chaste courtship which is not without incident, they will be married and will together experience the joys of love, after which there are the ups and downs of marriage before they settle down to a more stable relationship of blissful love and happiness. It is thus a song in praise of purity, chasteness, love and marriage.

    So we are probably to see the song as referring to a Solomon, who is looking back romantically and rather idealistically to the time when, as a young and virile man, he first experienced true love, and that to the one who was to be his first wife, a young country maiden from the north who had won his heart. But it is probable that we should also see it as referring to God’s loving relationship with His people, and, as a result, to Christ’s relationship to His church. We must not, however, interpret everything too pedantically, for we must remember that it is an ode, and that it is written by a romantic.

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    Pett, Peter. "Commentary on Song of Solomon 1:1". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https: 2013.

    Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

    Song of Solomon 1:1. The song of songs — The most excellent of all songs. And so this might well be called, whether we consider the author of it, who was a great prince, and the wisest of all mortal men; or the subject of it, which is not Solomon, but a greater than Solomon, even Christ, and his marriage with the church; or the matter of it, which is most lofty, containing in it the noblest of all the mysteries contained either in the Old or the New Testament; most pious and pathetical, breathing forth the hottest flames of love between Christ and his people, most sweet and comfortable, and useful to all that read it with serious and Christian eyes.

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    Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on Song of Solomon 1:1". Joseph Benson's Commentary. https: 1857.

    George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

    Let. Hebrew yishakeni, (Haydock) "kiss or instruct me," as if to insinuate the we must raise our thoughts from carnal to spiritual things. --- The. Hebrew, "kisses." --- His mouth. Others I reject. (Menochius) --- The synagogue prays for Christ's coming, as the Church does for his glorious appearance. (Worthington) --- The figures of the law and predictions afford not satisfaction; only the Messias can bring it to mankind. (Origen) --- They shall all be taught by God, John vi. 45., and Hebrews i. 2. (Haydock) --- Breasts. Hebrew also, "loves." But the former is the primary signification of (Menochius) dodec. Christ, in his divine and human nature, is the source of all our good. His graces are manifested. He instructs and feeds us with the truths contained in Scripture, and in tradition, (Haydock) or in the Old and New Testament. (Ven. Bede, &c.) --- Spiritual delights are to be preferred before all terrestrial ones. From the incarnation of Christ, and sanctification of man, all other graces proceed. (Tirinus) --- At first the spouse speaks to the bridegroom in the third person, to show her respect, though he was certainly present. Her companions attend her. (Calmet) --- Wine. All seem to agree that these words are addressed to the bridegroom: which shews that they must be understood in the mystical sense. (Haydock)

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    Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Song of Solomon 1:1". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https: 1859.

    E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

    song of songs, which is Solomon"s. Hebrew title Shir Hashshirim = Song of Songs. In the Septuagint it is Asma Asmaton, and in the Vulgate it is Canticum Canticorum, all with the same meaning. Figure of speech Polyptoton (App-6), meaning the most beautiful or excellent song. It belongs to the third division of the O.T. Canon (see App-1). The order of the five "Megilloth" (or Scrolls) is the order of the festivals on which they are read. The Song is read annually at the Feast of the Passover, as Ruth is read at Pentecost; Lamentations on 9th of Ab; Ecclesiastes at the Feast of Tabernacles; and Esther at the Feast of Purim. From the most ancient times it has formed part of the Hebrew Canonical Scriptures. It is a poem based on the true facts of a story which unfolds itself as it proceeds. Various interpretations have been given of it: the literal, the allegorical, and the typical. The allegorical embrace Jehovah and Israel (which was the view of the Jewish commentators); the Roman Catholic views it of the Virgin Mary; the Protestant commentators view it of "Christ and the Church"; the typical view regards it as a type of Solomon"s nuptials, or as that of Christ and the Gentiles. The allegorical view puts the coarse flatteries and language of a seducer into the lips of "Christ", which is inconsistent with His dignity and holiness (Compare Song of Solomon 6:4-10, Song of Solomon 6:13; Song of Solomon 7:9). It is the language of seduction put into the mouth of Him "Who spake as never man spake". The number of speakers forbids all the interpretations which depend on there being only two. There are seven in all, and they can be easily distinguished by the Structures: viz. (1) the Shulamite; (2) the daughters of Jerusalem; (3) Solomon: (4) the shepherd lover of the Shulamite; (5) the brothers of the Shulamite; (6) the companions of the shepherd; (7) the inhabitants of Jerusalem. The Shulamite speaks. She has been taken into Solomon"s tents, and soliloquizes about her beloved (verses: Song of Solomon 1:2, Song of Solomon 1:3); she implores him to come and rescue her (Song of Solomon 1:4); she repels the scorn of the court-ladies (Song of Solomon 1:6); and implores her beloved to tell her where she may find him (Song of Solomon 1:7); the court-ladies ironically reply (Song of Solomon 1:8); meanwhile the king comes in and commences by expressing his admiration (verses: Song of Solomon 1:9-11).

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    Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Song of Solomon 1:1". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https: 1909-1922.

    Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

    The song of songs, which is Solomon's.

    The Song of songs - the most excellent of all songs, Hebrew idiom (Deuteronomy 10:14). A foretaste on earth of the "new song" to be sung in glory (Revelation 5:9).

    Solomon's - "King of Israel," or "Jerusalem," is not added, as in the opening of Proverbs and Ecclesiastes; not because Solomon had not yet ascended the throne (Moody Stuart), but because his personality is hid under that of Christ, the true Solomon (i:e., Prince of Peace). The earthly Solomon is not introduced, which would break the consistency of the allegory. Though the bride bears the chief part, the Song throughout is not her's, but that of her "Solomon." He animates her. He and she, the Head and the members, form but one Christ. Aaron prefigured Him as priest; Moses, as prophet; David, as a suffering king; Solomon, as the triumphant prince of peace. The camp in the wilderness represents the Church in the world; the peaceful reign of Solomon, after all enemies had been subdued, represents the Church in heaven, of which joy the Song gives a foretaste.

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    Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Song of Solomon 1:1". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https: 1871-8.

    Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

    Song of Solomon 1:1 contains the title of the book: literally, A song of the songs (Heb., Shîr hashîrîm), which to Solomon, i.e., of which Solomon is author. This has been understood as meaning “one of Solomon’s songs,” with allusion to the 1,005 songs (1 Kings 4:32) which that monarch composed. But when in Hebrew a compound idea is to be expressed definitely, the article is prefixed to the word in the genitive. So here not merely “a song of songs” (comp. holy of holies), i.e., “a very excellent song,” but “The song of songs,” i.e., the most excellent or surpassing song. For the question of authorship and date of poem, see Excursus I.

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    Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Song of Solomon 1:1". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https: 1905.

    Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

    The song of songs, which is Solomon's.
    Psalms 14:1; *title; Isaiah 5:1
    1 Kings 4:32

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    Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Song of Solomon 1:1". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https:

    Preacher's Complete Homiletical Commentary


    Son : The Song of Songs which is Solomon's. ‘The Song of Songs,' שִׁיר הַשִּׁירִים (shir hashshirim). שִׁיר (shir), a song or poem, as opposed to prose: but distinguished from מִזְמור (mizmor), a song with musical accompaniment, a psalm. EWALD, ZOCKLER in LANGE. According to some, a series. KLEUK. AUGUSTI. שירה in its original acceptation, a string or chain; Arab poets speaking of stringing their verses as pearls. GOOD. ‘Song of Songs,' a Hebrew reduplication denoting excellency. An instance of the Hebrew superlative, like Eze 16:7; Dan 9:24; the finest or most beautiful of songs, the comparison however probably not with other poetry of Solomon. NOYES. Not, as GESENIUS, a song consisting of many songs. Nor, as KIMCHI and others, a song out of many Songs of Solomon. The High Song (das Hohelied). LUTHER. The excellent song. GENEVA BIBLE. Indicates emphatically the most excellent of its kind. EWALD. The noblest and sweetest song. SANCTIUS. The most excellent song, and made up many songs; or, comprehending all the songs, not only of Solomon but of the Prophets: the sum, kernel, and marrow of all sacred songs. COCCEIUS, MERCER. The most beautiful song. DE WETTE. A song consisting of many songs, or excelling other songs; indicating also the unity of its contents. DE-LITZSCH. So called either from the excellence of the composition or the subject. LOWTH. Most excellent song of all in the sacred books; in elegance of structure, fulness of mystery, and sublimity of meaning. CARPZOV. Most important, excellent and precious of songs; reference to the subject of it; to prophets and apostles, a reservoir of the treasures of Divine love existing between the Creator and His saved and sanctified creatures; the title claimed not by Solomon, but by the Holy Spirit. WEISS. Other songs celebrate the King's victory and the deliverance wrought for His Church; this His marriage with her and His love to the Bride. THEODORET. Ten songs have been sung; but this excels them all. TARGUM. The song which is above all songs. RASHI. All the Scriptures are holy; the Song of songs, the Holy of holies. AKIBA. All the songs of Scripture are the Holy place; the Song of songs, the most holy. R. JOSHUA.

    ‘Which is Solomon's' ( אֲשָׁר לִשְׁלֹמֹה asher li-Shelomoh). The relative probably not, as GESENIUS thinks, added here on account of the article in הַשִּׁירַים as if—‘the songs which are Solomon's. The antecedent either שִׁיר or הַשִׁירִים; most likely שִׁיר, הַשִׁירִים being added as a Hebrew form of the superlative. EWALD, HITZIG, BLEEK. So the SEPTUAGINT, ὅ ἑστι, ‘which is.' לִשְׁלֹמֹה to or of Solomon.' שְׁלֹמֹה (Shelomo) from שָׁלם (shalom) peace, with the termination הֹ or וֹ, identical with וֹן, and forming the concrete from the abstract. Meaning alluded to in 1Ch . GESENIUS. DAVIDSON fancifully suggests הֹ as the representative of הוּא ‘he'; as if, ‘He is the peace' like Mic 5:5 and Eph 2:14. The ALEX. SEPTUAGINT has—to, for, or of Solomon ( τῷ σ.). The VULGATE: Solomon's. As referring to Solomon or ascribed to him. VATABLUS. Both by and concerning Solomon, i.e., Christ. COCCEIUS. Solomon as a type of Christ, both the author and the subject. AINSWORTH. Words so contrived as to mean either. PATRICK. Concerning Solomon, that is, the Messiah. MIDRASH. לְ not used here merely to indicate the authorship: = ‘devoted or delivered to;' as Psa 7:2; Jer 15:2; 1Ch 29:2. WEISS. Of Solomon as the author. MERCER, &c. As the author inspired by the Holy Ghost. CARPZOV. Belonging to Solomon, and so placed among the sacred books. ABEN EZRA. Solomon as the author: Amplifies what David his father had begun in the 45th and 68th Psalms: the Bridegroom in the song called Solomon, either from the dignity of the name (Peaceful), or as suiting the circumstances, or because Solomon was a type of Christ, which was probably known to Solomon himself. SANCTIUS. According to EWALD, the title ascribes the poem to Solomon, but was given at a later period, probably after the exile. DELITZSCH: Indicates unity of authorship. ZÖCKLER: Which is by Solomon. His title of ‘King,' assumed in Proverbs and Ecclesiastes, here laid aside in contemplating the celestial person of whom he speaks. PATRICK. Also, lest Solomon should be thought the King here intended, the book being a ‘Song of Loves.' GILL. Concerning Solomon: hence not a book of King Solomon's, but of some other inspired author. HARMER. Concerning Solomon—the true Solomon, the Lord Jesus Christ; no reference being made to King Solomon in any part of the book. HAWKER. Solomon the inspired author, yet not speaking in his own person. FRY.


    Title of the Book

    CHAPTER 1. Son

    "The Song of Songs, which is Solomon's."

    It is well, with Dr. Chalmers, to begin the study of this sacred book with the prayer: "My God, spiritualize my affections; give me intense love to Christ."

    Two parts in the Title of the book as here given:—

    1. Its name and character—"the Song of Songs."

    2. Its ascription—"which is Solomon's." The First part of the Title,

    "The Song of Songs,"


    I. The NATURE of the Book. A Song. Hence—

    1. Pleasant and joyous. Song the language of joy. Indicates joy in those who sing, and aims at awakening joy in those who hear. This one of the ‘songs in the night' given by our Maker and Saviour (Job ). The Holy Spirit the author of joy, and therefore the author of songs. This book all the more attractive from its being a song. Both old and young love songs, and are attracted by them. The subject of this book of a pleasing nature, and fit to be treated in a song. Marriage a joyful event, celebrated with festivity and music. The subject of this song a Divine and heavenly union. The song a spiritual Epithalamium, or Nuptial Ode. A song of the bride-chamber (Mat 9:15). A Gospel song, and one for Gospel times; the whole subject being the love of Jesus Christ to sinners and the salvation He brings to them. Gospel grace puts a new song in the mouth (Psa 40:3; Psa 98:1). The Gospel began with songs and ends with them. This book one of the ‘spiritual songs,' in which believers are to ‘speak one to another' (Eph 5:19; Col 3:16). A large part of the Bible taken up with songs. The Word of God intended to be attractive. The Lord's ransomed ones to ‘return and come to Zion with songs' (Isa 35:10).

    2. Profitable. A song, like poetry in general, fitted to stir and move the affections. Songs found to have the most powerful influence on the minds and morals of a people. "Give me the making of the songs and ballads of a nation, and I will leave the laws to others." By the Jews the poetical parts of Scripture were especially esteemed, and often learned by heart.

    II. Its EXCELLENCE. A ‘Song of songs A Hebrew expression denoting excellence as king of kings, heaven of heavens, &c. This not only excels all human, but all Divine songs. The Jews called other Scripture songs ‘holy,' but this the ‘holy of holies." The book worthy of this title on account of—

    1. Its Character at a Composition. The most "beautiful example of Hebrew poetry in its highest style of metaphor and arrangement." More especially, however, on account of—

    2. Its Subject. The bridal relation between the Son of God and His saved people. Christ's excellence and beauty, and His love to the Church as His bride. The Church's excellence and beauty as a reflection of His, and her happiness and honour in consequence of her bridal relation to Him. This song has the Holy Ghost for its author; the union and communion between Christ and believers for its matter; and the glory of God and the comfort of His people for its end. Here are prophecy, history, and the spiritual life, divinely woven into one symbolical robe of matchless beauty. The song a many-sided mirror reflecting the Lord's dealings with His Church, viewed both collectively and individually, as well in the Old Testament as in the New. Reveals mysteries of Divine love into which the angels desire to look. This book, next to the Gospels, the fullest of Christ, and therefore the sweetest to the Christian who is enlightened enough to understand it. A fountain at which prophets and apostles and the Lord Jesus Himself refreshed their spirits. Next to David's Psalms, the favourite book of the Bible with the Fathers of the Church. Its foundation laid in the Psalms; especially in that gem of Psalms, the forty-fifth. David sung the Bridegroom's future appearing, His conflicts, his sorrows, and his triumphs: Solomon sung His alliance and fellowship with His blood-bought bride. The song a labyrinth of exquisite flowers transplanted from heaven to earth. Wafts a perfumed breath of celestial spring from paradise to this world. The song "a maze of sweets, and a lovely obscurity." A heaven-given riddle in connection with the marriage of the Lamb, the true Samson; and only to be ploughed with His own heifer. Requires ‘the mind that hath,' not earthly but, heavenly ‘wisdom.' A mine of precious diamonds, demanding patient and prayerful labour and the Spirit's light to explore it and discover them.

    The Second part of the Title—

    "Which is Solomon's,"

    Ambiguous. Probably indicates—

    I. The AUTHOR of the Book. The literal Solomon, King of Israel and wisest of men. Best proof of wisdom, to celebrate the love of God is Christ, and to stir up ourselves and others to love Him in return. Gradation in Solomon's writings: the Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles, or the Song. In proverbs, Solomon sings of moral virtues and their benefits; in Ecclesiastes, of the vanity of earthly things; in Canticles, of Divine love and fellowship. Canticles a striking contrast to Ecclesiastes. Ecclesiastes, a mournful complaint of the disappointment found in the creature; Canticles a joyous song of the infinite satisfaction found in the Creator. Ecclesiastes points to earthly pleasure, and says: ‘Whosoever drinketh of this water shall thirst again'; Canticles points to God as revealed in Jesus Christ, and says: ‘Whosoever drinketh of this water shall never thirst.'—Solomon, with his hands full of state affairs, yet found time for spiritual meditation and the celebration of Divine love. Worldly business, and diligence in it, no hindrance to love to Christ, and due concern for the spiritual interests of ourselves and others.

    II. The SUBJECT of the Book. The spiritual Solomon, the true Prince of Peace and King of Israel,—Solomon's great antitype. The true Solomon and his love to the Church the great subject of the Song. Solomon exhibited in the Bible as one of the types of the Messiah. Is so—

    1. In his Names: ‘Jedidiah,' Beloved of the Lord: ‘Solomon.' the Peaceful.

    2. In his Wisdom.

    3. In his Riches and Magnificence.

    4. In the wide extent of his Dominions.

    5. In the peaceful character of his Reign.

    6. In the prosperous and happy condition of his Kingdom.

    7. In the erection of the Temple of God at Jerusalem.

    Christ prefigured by Aaron as a priest; by Moses as a prophet; by David and Solomon as a King,—by the one in his conquests and by the other in his peaceful enjoyment of them. Solomon not called here, as in Proverbs and Ecclesiastes, the King of Israel. His personality here lost sight of in his typical character. The type overshadowed by the antitype. Christ, in one aspect or another, the central figure in all the Books of Scripture. "Search the Scriptures; for they testify of Me." This said even of Old Testament Scripture. "The testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy." "He expounded to them in all the Scriptures the things concerning Himself" (Joh ; Rev 19:10; Luk 24:27). The Scriptures all testify of Jesus. The Song testifies of Him as the King and Bridegroom of His Church, stooping to win and wed poor fallen humanity for His Bride. By the Jews, the Song understood of their Divine King to be manifested in the Messiah, and the Israelitish nation as the Bride whom He was pleased to espouse to Himself.

    III. The DESIGN of the Book. For the true Solomon.

    1. For his Glory. The glory of Christ, and of God in Him, the end of all Scripture as of all creation (Col ). Especially true of this portion of it, so full of Himself, of His excellencies, His joys, and His love.

    2. For hit Use. All Old Testament intended for his use as the perfect man (Psa ; 2Ti 3:15-16). Probably this portion of it especially, which speaks most about him. Reason to believe that the Psalms of David and the Song of Solomon formed the principal devotional books of our Lord (Davidson). As a child, Jesus grew in wisdom and in stature. In both respects, doubtless, through ordinary means. The sincere milk of the Word his daily food. What was designed for the Head, designed also for the members. What was used by the man Christ Jesus as His spiritual aliment and refreshment, to be used also by ourselves for ours. The Rabbinical rule that this Book was only to be read by those who had reached their thirtieth year, a mere human invention,—like others, rejected by Christ and to be rejected by us. 2Ti 3:15-16, and Rom 15:4 clean against any such limitation. This Book, like the rest of Scripture, to be read with seriousness and expounded with discretion; but no argument against reading and preaching from it in the fact that evil men may abuse it. Ignorant men wrest also other Scriptures to their own destruction. "To the pure all things are pure." The holiest and most spiritually-minded have naturally delighted most in this Book, in which they find most of their Beloved and their Friend. Witness Bernard of Clairvoix, Samuel Rutherford, and Robert McCheyne. In Scotland's best times, the song of Solomon the chosen field of meditation at Sacramental seasons.

    Two things needful for the profitable reading of this remarkable book:—

    (1) A Christian experience. The song a mirror of the believer's heart. Only taught by a Divine anointing, and only learned by a spiritual experience" (Bernard). Only to be properly understood by our becoming part of the Bride whose experience it portrays.

    (2) A loving heart. Like the forty-fifth Psalm, which it greatly resembles, the Song of Solomon a ‘Song of loves' (Psalms 45 title). The mystery of the song a mystery of love. Words of earthly love employed to elevate the soul to a heavenly one. A ‘song of loves' requires a loving heart to understand, realize, and appreciate it. "Love's language a foreign tongue to one who does not love." Hence the song of Solomon pre-eminently a test for the state of the heart.

    Copyright Statement
    These files are public domain.
    Text Courtesy of Used by Permission.

    Exell, Joseph S. "Commentary on Song of Solomon 1:1". Preacher's Complete Homiletical Commentary. https: Funk & Wagnalls Company, 1892.

    Gary H. Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures

    Song of Solomon 1:1 — The Title - The opening verse of the Song of Solomon serves as its title, which is "The Song of Solomon , which is Solomon's."

    Song of Solomon 1:1 The Song of Solomon , which is Solomon"s.

    Song of Solomon 1:1 — "The song of songs" - Word Study on "song" - Strong says the Hebrew word "song" "shiyr" ( שִׁיר) (H 7892) means, "a Song of Solomon , singing." The Enhanced Strong says this word is used 90 times in the Old Testament, being translated in the KJV as " Song of Solomon 74, musick 7, singing 4, musical 2, sing 1, singers 1, song + 016971."

    Comments- The opening verse of Songs gives us a Hebrew idiom denoting the grandest superiority of this song. We call the phrase "the song of songs" a superlative expression in English grammar, which means that a phrase expresses the highest or lowest degree of the quality, manner, etc. We find other similar Hebrew idioms in the Old Testament; the phrase "holy of holies" ( Exodus 29:39), meaning "the most holy place," and the phrase "heaven of heavens" ( Deuteronomy 10:14), meaning "the highest of the heavens" ( 1 Kings 8:27), "vanity of vanities" ( Ecclesiastes 1:2) and "an ornament of ornaments" ( Ezekiel 16:7), meaning "the most beautiful ornament." We have the phrases "King of kings" and "Lord of lords" throughout the Scriptures to compare as well. Thus, we can read the phrase "the song of songs" in Song of Solomon 1:1 as "the most excellent of songs."

    We know that Solomon composed one thousand and five songs ( 1 Kings 4:32), but the Song of Songs was the most excellent of them all.

    1 Kings 4:32, "And he spake three thousand proverbs: and his songs were a thousand and five."

    Song of Solomon 1:1 — "which is Solomon"s" - Comments- The opening verse of Song of Solomon , which credits its authorship to Song of Solomon , seems to quietly leave out his title as King of Jerusalem and of Israel. While the opening verses of Proverbs and Ecclesiastes clearly state this title, it is strangely missing in the Canticles. One explanation proposed by some is that Solomon could have written his Song of Songs as a young man before he became king, when he had not title. He may have written Proverbs during the course of his kingship when he was in full control of both Jerusalem and Israel, thus he declares himself as "king of Israel," he may have written the book of Ecclesiastes during the later part of his reign, when he began to lose control of the northern kingdom of Israel, thus describing himself as "king of Jerusalem." However, the order of writing has long been debated by both Jewish and Christian scholars.

    Proverbs 1:1, "The proverbs of Solomon the son of David, king of Israel;"

    Ecclesiastes 1:1, "The words of the Preacher, the son of David, king in Jerusalem."

    Song of Solomon 1:1Comments (The Unity of the Book) - The opening verse of the Song of Solomon itself testifies to the fact that the book is one unified song and not five separate poems as some suggest. If this opening verse, which serves as a title, was added at a later date during the composition of this book as a part of the Old Testament Scriptures, then it meant the early Jews viewed it as one unified composition.

    Although this book can be divided into scenes, we find evidence of unity throughout the book as we see the repetition of similar phrases. For example, the bride says, "I am sick with love" ( Song of Solomon 2:5; Song of Solomon 5:8), and "my beloved is mine and I am his" ( Song of Solomon 2:16; Song of Solomon 6:3), and "he whom my soul loves" ( Song of Solomon 1:7; Song of Solomon 3:1-4), "his left hand is under my head, and his right hand doth embrace me," ( Song of Solomon 2:6; Song of Solomon 8:3), "I charge you, O ye daughters of Jerusalem, by the roes, and by the hinds of the field, that ye stir not up, nor awake my love, till he please," ( Song of Solomon 2:7; Song of Solomon 3:5; Song of Solomon 8:4). The phrase "daughters of Jerusalem" is also found in Song of Solomon 3:5; Song of Solomon 3:10; Song of Solomon 5:8; Song of Solomon 5:16.

    Song of Solomon 1:1Figurative Interpretation - "The song of songs" - John Westwood declares that "the name of Christ is indeed the Song of Songs." 83] "which is Solomon"s" - Westwood says no one in history served as a closer type and figure of Christ Jesus than did King Solomon. 84]

    83] John Westwood, A Short Paraphrase of the Song of Solomon (London: Simpkin, Marshall and Co, 1848), 1.

    84] John Westwood, A Short Paraphrase of the Song of Solomon (London: Simpkin, Marshall and Co, 1848), 1.

    Copyright Statement
    These files are copyrighted by the author, Gary Everett. Used by Permission.
    No distribution beyond personal use without permission.

    Everett, Gary H. "Commentary on Song of Solomon 1:1". Gary H. Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures. https: 2013.

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