American Tract Society Bible Dictionary
The Hebrews always had years of twelve months. But at the beginning, as some suppose, they were solar years of twelve months, each month having thirty days, excepting the twelfth, which had thirty-five days. We see, by the enumeration of the days of the deluge, Genesis 7:1-8:22 , that the original year consisted of three hundred and sixtyfive days. It is supposed that they had an intercalary month at the end of one hundred and twenty years, at which time the beginning of their year would be out of its place full thirty days. Subsequently, however, and throughout the history of the Jews, the year was wholly lunar, having alternately a full month of thirty days, and a defective month of twenty-nine days, thus completing their year in three hundred and fifty-four days. To accommodate this lunar year to the solar year, (365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, and 47.7 seconds,) or the period of the revolution of the earth around the sun, and to the return of the seasons, they added a whole month after Adar, usually once in three years. This intercalary month they call Ve-adar. See MONTH .
The ancient Hebrews appear to have had no formal and established era, but to have dated from the most memorable events in their history; as from the exodus out of Egypt, Exodus 19:1 Numbers 33:38 1 Kings 6:1; from the erection of Solomon's temple, 1 Kings 8:1 9:10; and from the Babylonish captivity, Ezekiel 33:21 40:1 . See SABBATICAL YEAR , and JUBILEE .
The phrase, "from two years old and under," Matthew 2:16 , that is, "from a child of two years and under," is thought by some to include all the male children who had not entered their second year; and by others, all who were near the beginning of their second year, within a few months before or after. The cardinal and ordinal numbers are often used indiscriminately. Thus in Genesis 7:6,11 , Noah is six hundred years old, and soon after in his six hundredth year; Christ rose from the dead "three days after," Matthew 27:63 , and "on the third day," Matthew 16:21; circumcision took place when the child was "eight days old," Genesis 17:11 , and "on the eighth day," Leviticus 12:3 . Compare Luke 1:59 2:21 . Many slight discrepancies in chronology may be thus accounted for.
These files are public domain and are a derivative of the topics are from American Tract Society Bible Dictionary published in 1859.
Rand, W. W. Entry for 'Year'. American Tract Society Bible Dictionary. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/eng/ats/y/year.html. 1859.