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Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology


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(Gk. anthropos [ John 1:18 ) nor human (Numbers 23:19; 1 Samuel 15:29 ). They are also used to assign human characteristics to angels (Genesis 16:7; 18:1-19:1 ), Satan (1 Chronicles 21:1; Luke 13:16 ), and demons (Luke 8:32 ). Evil is also personified, depicted as slaying (Psalm 34:21 ) and pursuing (Proverbs 13:21 ). Infrequently, human qualities are attributed to animals (Numbers 22:28-30 ) or vegetation (Judges 9:7-15 ).

The use of human terminology to talk about God is necessary when we, in our limitations, wish to express truths about the Deity who by his very nature cannot be described or known. From biblical times to the present, people have felt compelled to explain what God is like, and no expressions other than human terms are able to convey any semblance of meaning to the indescribable. Thus, in Genesis alone God creates (1:1), moves (1:2), speaks (1:3), sees (1:4), divides (1:4), places (1:17), blesses (1:22), plants (2:8), walks (3:8), shuts (7:16), smells (8:21), descends (11:5), scatters (11:8), hears (21:17), tests (22:1), and judges (30:6).

Perhaps the most profound anthropomorphism is the depiction of God establishing a covenant, for the making of covenants is a very human activity. God enters into an agreement (covenant) with Israel at Sinai (Exodus 19:5-6 ), an outgrowth of an earlier covenant he had made with Abraham (Genesis 17:1-18 ). Later, this agreement is transformed into a new covenant through Jesus Christ (Matthew 26:26-29 ). Theologically, the legal compact initiated by God becomes the instrument through which he established an intimate and personal relationship with the people, both collectively and individually. Without anthropomorphic expressions, this theological reality would remain virtually inexplicable.

Anthropomorphisms also attribute human form and shape to God. God redeems Israel from Egyptian bondage with an outstretched arm (Exodus 6:6 ). Moses and his companions see God, and they eat and drink with him (Exodus 24:10-11 ). Other texts refer to the back, face, mouth, lips, ears, eyes, hand, and finger of God. The expression, "the Lord's anger burned" (Exodus 4:14 ) is interesting. A literal translation of the Hebrew is "the nose of the Lord burned."

Indirect anthropomorphic expressions also appear, such as the sword and arrows of the Lord and the throne and footstool of God.

Akin to anthropomorphisms are anthropopathisms (Gk. anthropos [ Exodus 20:5 ) who hates (Amos 5:21 ) and becomes angry (Jeremiah 7:20 ), but he also loves (Exodus 20:6 ) and is pleased (Deuteronomy 28:63 ).

Anthropomorphisms and anthropopathisms are figures of speech that transmit theological truths about God to humankind. Only when taken literally are they misconstrued. Taken as metaphorical expressions, they provide by analogy a conceptual framework by which the God who is beyond our comprehension becomes a person—a person whom we can love. In the New Testament the analogy becomes reality in the mystery of the incarnation (John 1:1-18 ).

Keith N. Schoville

Bibliography . J. Barr, HBD , p. 32; E. W. Bullinger, Figures of Speech Used in the Bible; M. Eliade, ed., The Encyclopedia of Religion, vol. 1; W. E. Miles, ed., Mercer Dictionary of the Bible .

Copyright Statement
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology. Edited by Walter A. Elwell
Copyright © 1996 by Walter A. Elwell. Published by Baker Books, a division of Baker Book House Company, PO Box 6287, Grand Rapids, Michigan 49516-6287.
All rights reserved. Used by permission.
For usage information, please read the Baker Book House Copyright Statement.

Bibliography Information
Elwell, Walter A. Entry for 'Anthropomorphism'. Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology. 1996.

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