Charles Buck Theological Dictionary
A sect of the Jews which arose in Judea some years after the birth of our Saviour. They sprang from one Judas, a native of Gaulam, in upper Galilee, upon the occasion of Augustus appointing the people to be mustered, which they looked upon as an instance of servitude which all true Israelites ought to oppose. They pretended that god alone should be owned as master and lord, and in other respects were of the opinion of the Pharisees; but as they judged in unlawful to pray for infidel princes, they separated themselves from the rest of the Jews, and performed their sacrifices apart. As our Saviour and his apostles were of Galilee, they were suspected to be of the sect of the Galileans; and it was on this principle, as St. Jerome observes, that the Pharisees laid a snare for him, asking, Whether it were lawful to give tribute to Caesar? that in case he denied it, they might have an occasion of accusing him.
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Buck, Charles. Entry for 'Galileans'. Charles Buck Theological Dictionary. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/eng/cbd/g/galileans.html. 1802.