Charles Buck Theological Dictionary
A punishment either voluntary, or imposed by authority, for the faults a person has committed. Penance is one of the seven sacraments of the Romish Church. Besides fasting, alms, abstinence, and the like, which are the general conditions of penance, there are others of a more particular kind; as the repeating a certain number of avemary's paternosters, and credos; wearing a hair shift, and giving oneself a certain number of stripes. In Italy and Spain it is usual to see Christians, almost naked, loaded with chains, and lashing themselves at every step.
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Buck, Charles. Entry for 'Penance'. Charles Buck Theological Dictionary. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/eng/cbd/p/penance.html. 1802.