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Holman Bible Dictionary
Community of Goods
“Common” (koina ) in Acts 2:44 and Acts 4:32 has the same root as koinonia (“fellowship” in Acts 2:42 ); thus the issue was not economic theory but the common life together (“daily” in Acts 2:46 ) with no separation between physical and spiritual needs. (See Acts 6:1 . which depicts the investment in care for the needy.) The parallel between Acts 4:34 and Deuteronomy 15:4 indicates that the early church fulfilled God's intention for Israel to be generous.
The Jerusalem church chose to practice the selfless generosity in a form which closely resembled the life-style of Jesus and the twelve. Other early churches practiced sacrificial generosity in different forms (Acts 11:27-30; 1 Corinthians 16:1-4; Romans 12:13; 1 John 3:17 ), for Jesus' call to set aside possessions took more than one form. Compare Matthew 19:16-22 with Luke 19:1-10 . What these incidents have in common is an emphasis on sacrificial giving (Luke 21:1-4 ), requiring a complete change of heart so that God, not possessions, is served (Matthew 6:24 ) with a clear recognition of riches' dangers (Mark 10:23-31; Luke 6:24; Luke 12:13-31 ).
This danger of riches manifested itself in the context of the community of goods (Acts 4:36-5:11 ). In contrast to Barnabas who sold some land and gave the proceeds to the apostles, Ananias and Sapphira held back some of the proceeds from their sale. Their subsequent deaths testified to the severity of abandoning the common life for selfish interest. Possessiveness led to lying to the Spirit (Acts 5:3 ,Acts 5:3,5:9 ) and therefore rejecting the bond (“one heart and of one soul” in Acts 4:32 ) created by the Spirit. The voluntary nature of this community of goods was therefore not a matter of individuals independently choosing when and if to give, but the ongoing spontaneous generosity of a community unified and directed by the Spirit. (See TEV translation of Acts 2:45 and Acts 4:34 (“ would sell”) which identifies the ongoing nature of the generosity. See Holy Spirit; Jerusalem Church; Koinonia; Fellowship; Qumran; Essenes; Riches; Gifts; Possessions; Borrow; Generosity; Mammon; Ananias and Sapphira; Teachings of Jesus.
David Nelson Duke
These dictionary topics are from the Holman Bible Dictionary, published by Broadman & Holman, 1991. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman & Holman.
Butler, Trent C. Editor. Entry for 'Community of Goods'. Holman Bible Dictionary. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/eng/hbd/c/community-of-goods.html. 1991.