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Holman Bible Dictionary
The kidneys are often associated with the heart as constituting the center of human personality (Psalm 7:9; Psalm 26:2; Jeremiah 11:20; Jeremiah 17:10; Jeremiah 20:12; Revelation 2:23 ). Because the areas around the kidneys are sensitive, the Hebrews believed the kidneys were the seat of the emotions (see Job 19:27; Psalm 73:21; Proverbs 23:16 ). The kidneys were also used figuratively as the source of the knowledge and understanding of the moral life (Psalm 16:7; Jeremiah 12:2 ).
When used literally of animals (except Isaiah 34:6 ) the kidneys are mentioned in relation to sacrifice. The kidney, along with the fat surrounding it, were reserved for God as among the choicest parts of the animal (Exodus 29:13 ,Exodus 29:13,29:22 ). Deuteronomy 32:14 (KJV) speaks of the best wheat as the “fat of kidneys” (see NRSV).
These dictionary topics are from the Holman Bible Dictionary, published by Broadman & Holman, 1991. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman & Holman.
Butler, Trent C. Editor. Entry for 'Kidney'. Holman Bible Dictionary. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/eng/hbd/k/kidney.html. 1991.