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the Week of Proper 21 / Ordinary 26
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Queen of Heaven

Holman Bible Dictionary

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Queen of Sheba
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Goddess that women in Judah worshiped to ensure fertility and material stability (Jeremiah 7:18; Jeremiah 44:17 ). Forms of worship included making cakes (possibly in her image as in molds found at Mari), offering drink offerings, and burning incense (Jeremiah 44:25 ). Exactly which goddess was worshiped is not certain. The words could be translated “stars of heaven” or “heavenly host.” However, “queen of heaven” appears to be the best rendering. The major influence could have been Ishtar, the Mesopotamian goddess called there the “queen of heaven” (imported to Israel by Manasseh), or the Canaanite Ashtarte. Archaeologists have uncovered many images of nude goddesses from Israelite sites, showing why Jeremiah protested against such worship.

Bibliography Information
Butler, Trent C. Editor. Entry for 'Queen of Heaven'. Holman Bible Dictionary. https://www.studylight.org/​dictionaries/​eng/​hbd/​q/queen-of-heaven.html. 1991.
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