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Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible
DECAPOLIS . Originally a league of ten cities, Greek in population and constitution, for mutual defence against the Semitic tribes around them. It must have come into existence about the beginning of the Christian era. The original ten cities, as enumerated by Pliny, were Scythopolis, Pella, Dion, Gerasa, Philadelphia, Gadara, Raphana, Kanatha, Hippos, and Damascus. Other cities joined the league from time to time. The region of Decapolis ( Matthew 4:25 , Mark 5:20; Mark 7:31 ) was the territory in which these cities were situated; that is (excluding Damascus), roughly speaking, the country S.E. of the Sea of Galilee.
R. A. S. Macalister.
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Hastings, James. Entry for 'Decapolis'. Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/eng/hdb/d/decapolis.html. 1909.