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Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible
HOSHEA. 1. See Joshua 2:1-24 . An Ephraimite ( 1 Chronicles 27:20 ). 3. One of those who sealed the covenant ( Nehemiah 10:23 ). 4. The last king of Israel. The chronological data of our text are not entirely accordant ( 2 Kings 15:30; 2 Kings 17:1 ), but we know that he came to the throne not far from b.c. 732. Taking into view the Assyrian annals along with the Biblical accounts, we gather that there were two parties in Samaria, one advocating submission to Assyria, the other hoping for independence. Pekah was placed on the throne by the latter; Hoshea was the candidate of the Assyrians, and was perhaps actively supported by them in his revolt against Pekah, whom he supplanted. This was when Tiglath-pileser punished Pekah and Rezin for interfering in the affairs of Judah (see Ahaz). At the death of Tiglath-pileser, however, Hoshea was enticed by the Egyptian king or sub-king, and went over to the party which was ready for revolt. It is probable that he had convinced himself that the land could not longer pay the heavy tribute laid upon it. The new king of Assyria (Shalmaneser iv.) moved promptly, captured and imprisoned the king, and laid siege to the capital. It speaks well for the strength of Samaria and for the courage of its people that the place held out for more than two years; but the result can hardly have been doubtful from the first. The surrender was followed by the deportation of a considerable part of the people, and the planting of foreign colonies in the country ( 2 Kings 17:6; 2 Kings 17:24 ). Sargon, who came to the throne just before the surrender, had no desire to experiment with more vassal kings, and set an Assyrian governor over the wasted province. Thus ended the kingdom of Israel.
H. P. Smith.
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Hastings, James. Entry for 'Hoshea'. Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/eng/hdb/h/hoshea.html. 1909.