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Morrish Bible Dictionary
The Hebrew is the same for the two words. This powerful race is traced back to Madai the son of Japheth. Genesis 10:2 . They occupied a large district, having the Caspian Sea on the north-east; Armenia on the north-west; Parthia on the east; Persia on the south; and Assyria on the west. The boundaries no doubt varied at different times owing to the conflicts of the Medes with their neighbours.
The first mention of them is when Shalmaneser took Samaria and carried away the Israelites, placing some of them 'in the cities of the Medes.' 2 Kings 17:6; 2 Kings 18:11 . Under Cyaxares (about B.C. 634) a Median empire was founded. He is called Ahasuerus in Daniel 9:1 . He pushed his conquests westward, and was able to overthrow the Assyrian empire. Astyages succeeded Cyaxares, but Cyrus the Persian was rising in power and subdued Astyages, but allowed him to reign as king, and he was probably Darius the Mede of Daniel. The kingdom was called at first that of the 'Medes and Persians,' as in Daniel 5:28; Daniel 6:8,12,15; but, at a later period, the Persians had the pre-eminence (cf. Daniel 8:3 ), and are mentioned first. Esther 1:3,14,18 . They conquered Babylon and Asia Minor. On the death of Astyages, Cyrus reigned alone. It became the second great empire of the Gentiles. See DANIEL.There were some bearing the name of Medes present at Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost. The Medes and Persians are considered to have been branches of the Aryan race and were one in origin, language, religion, etc. Esther 10:2; Isaiah 13:17; Isaiah 21:2; Jeremiah 25:25; Jeremiah 51:11,28; Daniel 8:20; Acts 2:9 . Darius in Daniel 5:31 is called the MEDIAN.
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Morrish, George. Entry for 'Medes, Media'. Morrish Bible Dictionary. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/eng/mbd/m/medes-media.html. 1897.