Smith's Bible Dictionary
Nehemi'ah. (consolation of the Lord).
1. Son of Hachaliah, and apparently of the tribe of Judah. All that we know certainly concerning him is contained in the book which bears his name. We first find him at Shushan, the winter residence of the kings of Persia, in high office as the cupbearer of King Artaxerxes Longimanus.
In the twentieth year, of the king's reign, that is, B.C. 445, certain Jews arrived from Judea, and gave Nehemiah a deplorable account of the state of Jerusalem. He immediately conceived the idea of going to Jerusalem, to endeavor to better their state, and obtained the king's consent to his mission. Having received his appointment as governor of Judea, he started upon his journey, being under promise to return to Persia within a given time. Nehemiah's great work was rebuilding, for the first time since their destruction by Nebuzar-adan, the walls of Jerusalem, and restoring that city to its former state and dignity as a fortified town.
To this great object, therefore, Nehemiah directed his whole energies without an hour's unnecessary delay. In a wonderfully short time, the walls seemed to emerge from the heaps of burnt rubbish, end to encircle the city as in the days of old. It soon became apparent how wisely Nehemiah had acted in hastening on the work. On his very first arrival, as governor, Sanballat and Tobiah had given unequivocal proof of their mortification at his appointment; but when the restoration was seen to be rapidly progressing, their indignation knew no bounds. They made a great conspiracy to fall upon the builders, with an armed force and put a stop to the undertaking. The project was defeated by the vigilance and prudence of Nehemiah.
Various stratagems were then resorted to get Nehemiah away from Jerusalem, and if possible to take his life; but that which most nearly succeeded was the attempt to bring him into suspicion with the king of Persia, as if he intended to set himself up as an independent king as soon as the walls were completed. The artful letter of Sanballat so-far wrought upon Artaxerxes, that he issued a decree stopping the work till further orders. If is probable that at the same time, he recalled Nehemiah, or perhaps his leave of absence had previously expired.
But after a delay, perhaps of several years, he was permitted to return to Jerusalem land to crown his work, by repairing the Temple and dedicating the walls. During his government, Nehemiah firmly repressed the exactions of the nobles, and the usury of the rich, and rescued the poor Jews from spoliation and slavery. He refused to receive his lawful allowance as governor from the people, in consideration of their poverty, during the whole twelve years, that he was in office, but kept at his own charge a table for 150 Jews, at which any who returned from captivity were welcome.
He made most careful provision for the maintenance of the ministering priests and Levites, and for the due and constant celebration of divine worship. He insisted upon the sanctity of the precincts of the Temple being preserved inviolable, and peremptorily, ejected the powerful Tobiah from one of the chambers, which Eliashib had assigned to him.
With no less firmness and impartiality, he expelled from all sacred functions, those of the high priest's family, who had contracted heathen marriages, and rebuked and punished those of the common people, who had likewise intermarried with foreigners; and lastly, he provided for keeping holy, the Sabbath day, which was shamefully profaned, by many both Jews and foreign merchants, and by his resolute conduct, succeeded in repressing the lawless traffic on the day of rest. Beyond the thirty-second year of Artaxerxes, to which Nehemiah's own narrative leads us, we have no account of him whatever.
2. One of the leaders, of the first expedition from Babylon to Jerusalem, under Zerabbabel. Ezra 2:2; Nehemiah 7:7.
3. Son of Azbuk, and ruler of the half part of Beth-zur, who helped to repair the wall of Jerusalem. Nehemiah 3:18.
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Smith, William, Dr. Entry for 'Nehemiah'. Smith's Bible Dictionary. https://www.studylight.org/​dictionaries/​eng/​sbd/​n/nehemiah.html. 1901.