Smith's Bible Dictionary
Goad. Judges 3:31; 1 Samuel 13:21. The Hebrew word, in the latter passage, probably means the point of the plough-share. The former word does probably refer to the goad, the long handle of which might be used as a formidable weapon. The instrument, as still used in countries of southern Europe and western Asia, consists of a rod about eight feet long, brought to a sharp point, and sometimes cased with iron at the head.
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Smith, William, Dr. Entry for 'oad'. Smith's Bible Dictionary. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/eng/sbd/o/oad.html. 1901.