Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types
Joel 1:4 (a) This is a symbol of the sorrow and suffering sent by the Lord on His disobedient children. (See also Joel 2:25; Amos 4:9).
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Watson, Walter. Entry for 'Palmer Worm'. Wilson's Dictoinary of Bible Types. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/eng/wdt/p/palmer-worm.html. 1957.