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International Standard Bible Encyclopedia

Filth; Filthiness; Filthy

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filth , fil´thi -nes , fil´thi ( צואה , cō'āh , טמאה , ṭum'āh ; ῥυπόω , rhupóō ): The word once translated "filth" in the Old Testament is cō'āh , "excrement" or "dung," elsewhere translated "dung" (Isaiah 4:4 , used figuratively of evil doings, sin, "the filth of the daughters of Zion"; compare Proverbs 30:12 ); in the New Testament we have perikátharma "cleansings" "sweepings," offscourings (1 Corinthians 4:13 , "We are made as the filth of the world," the Revised Version, margin "or refuse"); rhúpos , "filth," "dirt," Septuagint for cō'āh in Isaiah 4:4 ( 1 Peter 3:21 , "the filth of the flesh").

"Filthiness" is the translation of tum'āh , "uncleanness" (ritual, Leviticus 5:3; Leviticus 7:20 , etc.), used figuratively of moral impurity, translated "filthiness" ( Ezra 6:21; Lamentations 1:9; Ezekiel 22:15; Ezekiel 24:11 , Ezekiel 24:13 bis; Ezekiel 36:25 ); ה , niddāh , "impurity" (2 Chronicles 29:5 ); figuratively ( Ezra 9:11 ); the Revised Version (British and American) has "uncleanness," but "filthiness" for uncleanness at close of verse (niddāh ); neḥōsheth , "brass," figuratively (for "impurity" or "impudence") ( Ezekiel 16:36 ); aischrótēs , primarily "ugliness," tropical for unbecomingness, indecency (only Ephesians 5:4 , "nor filthiness, nor foolish talking"; Alford has "obscenity," Weymouth, "shameful"); akathártēs , "uncleanness" (Revelation 17:4 the King James Version), corrected text, tá akátharta , "the unclean things," so the Revised Version (British and American).

"Filthy" is the translation of 'ālaḥ , "to be turbid," to become foul or corrupt in a moral sense (Job 15:16 the King James Version; Psalm 14:3; Psalm 53:3 ); ‛iddı̄m , plural of ‛iddāh , from ‛ādhadh , "to number or compute (monthly courses)"; Isaiah 64:6 , "All our righteousnesses are as filthy rags," the Revised Version (British and American) "as a polluted garment"; compare Ezekiel 36:17; aischros , "ugly," tropical for unbecoming, shameful (Titus 1:11 , "for filthy lucre's sake"; compare Titus 1:7 ); shameful discourse aischrologı́a (Colossians 3:8 the King James Version); rhupoō , "filthy," in a moral sense polluted (Revelation 22:11 , "He that is filthy, let him be filthy still," the Revised Version (British and American) "let him be made filthy still" (corrected text), margin "yet more"; Alford, "Let the filthy (morally polluted) pollute himself still" (in the constant middle sense of passive verbs when the act depends on the man's self)).

In Apocrypha we have (Ecclesiasticus 22:1): "A slothful man is compared to a filthy (ardalóō ) stone," the Revised Version (British and American) "a stone that is defiled," Revelation 22:2 "A slothful man is compared to the filth ( bólbiton ) of a dunghill"; 27:4 "So the filth (skúbalon ) of a man in his talk (the Revised Version (British and American) "of man in his reasoning") remaineth." See UNCLEANNESS .

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Bibliography Information
Orr, James, M.A., D.D. General Editor. Entry for 'Filth; Filthiness; Filthy'. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. 1915.

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