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International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
1. The Phrase "His Name"
II. Personal Names or God in the Old Testament
4. 'Ādhōn , 'Ǎdhōnāy
5. Yahweh (Jehovah)
6. Cūr (Rock)
III. Descriptive Names of God in the Old Testament
2. 'Ēl - 'Ĕlōhē - Israel
5. 'Ēl - Rō'ı̄
8. Yahweh Cebha'oth
9. "I Am That I A m"
IV. New Testament Names of God
3. Descriptive and Figurative Names
To an extent beyond the appreciation of modern and western minds the people of Biblical times and lands valued the name of the person. They always gave to it symbolical or character meaning.
While our modern names are almost exclusively designatory, and intended merely for identification, the Biblical names were also descriptive, and often prophetic. Religious significance nearly always inhered in the name, a parent relating his child to the Deity, or declaring its consecration to the Deity, by joining the name of the Deity with the service which the child should render, or perhaps commemorating in a name the favor of God in the gracious gift of the child, e.g. Nathaniel ("gift of God"); Samuel ("heard of God"); Adonijah ("Yahweh is my Lord"), etc. It seems to us strange that at its birth, the life and character of a child should be forecast by its parents in a name; and this unique custom has been regarded by an unsympathetic criticism as evidence of the origin of such names and their attendant narratives long subsequent to the completed life itself; such names, for example, as Abraham, Sarah, etc. But that this was actually done, and that it was regarded as a matter of course, is proved by the name given to Our Lord at His birth: "Thou shalt call his name Jesus; for it is he that shall save his people" (Matthew 1:21 ). It is not unlikely that the giving of a character name represented the parents' purpose and fidelity in the child's training, resulting necessarily in giving to the child's life that very direction, which the name indicated. A child's name, therefore, became both a prayer and a consecration, and its realization in character became often a necessary psychological effect. Great honor or dishonor was attached to a name. The Old Testament writings contain many and varied instances of this. Sometimes contempt for certain reprobate men would be most expressively indicated by a change of name, e.g. the change of Esh-baal, "man of Baal," to Ish-bosheth, "man of shame" (2 Samuel 2:8 ), and the omission of Yahweh from the name of the apostate king, Ahaz (2 Kings 15:38 , etc.). The name of the last king of Judah was most expressively changed by Nebuchadnezzar from Mattaniah to Zedekiah, to assure his fidelity to his overlord who made him king (2 Kings 24:17 ). See NAMES , PROPER .
1. The Phrase "His Name"
Since the Scriptures of the Old Testament and New Testament are essentially for purposes of revelation, and since the Hebrews laid such store by names, we should confidently expect them to make the Divine name a medium of revelation of the first importance. People accustomed by long usage to significant character indications in their own names, necessarily would regard the names of the Deity as expressive of His nature. The very phrase "name of Yahweh," or "His name," as applied to the Deity in Biblical usage, is most interesting and suggestive, sometimes expressing comprehensively His revelation in Nature (Psalm 8:1; compare Psalm 138:2 ); or marking the place of His worship, where men will call upon His name (Deuteronomy 12:5 ); or used as a synonym of His various attributes, e.g. faithfulness (Isaiah 48:9 ), grace (Psalm 23:3 ), His honor (Psalm 79:9 ), etc. "Accordingly, since the name of God denotes this God Himself as He is revealed, and as He desires to be known by His creatures, when it is said that God will make a name for Himself by His mighty deeds, or that the new world of the future shall be unto Him for a name, we can easily understand that the name of God is often synonymous with the glory of God , and that the expressions for both are combined in the utmost variety of ways, or used alternately" (Schultz, Old Testament Theology , English translation, I, 124-25; compare Psalm 72:19; Isaiah 63:14; also Davidson, Old Testament Theol ., 37-38).
From the important place which the Divine name occupies in revelation, we would expect frequency of occurrence and diversity of form; and this is just that which we find to be true. The many forms or varieties of the name will be considered under the following heads: (1) Absolute or Personal Names, (2) Attributive, or Qualifying Names, and (3) Names of God in the New Testament. Naturally and in course of time attributive names tend to crystallize through frequent use and devotional regard into personal names; e.g. the attributive adjective ḳadhōsh , "holy," becomes the personal, transcendental name for Deity in Job and Isa. For fuller details of each name reference may be made to separate articles.
II. Absolute or Personal Names of God in the Old Testament
The first form of the Divine name in the Bible is אלהים , 'Ĕlōhı̄m , ordinarily translated "God" ( Genesis 1:1 ). This is the most frequently used name in the Old Testament, as its equivalent θεός , theós , is in the New Testament, occurring in Gen alone approximately 200 t. It is one of a group of kindred words, to which belong also 'Ēl and 'Ĕlōah ̌ . (1) Its form is plural, but the construction is uniformly singular, i.e. it governs a singular verb or adjective, unless used of heathen divinities ( Psalm 96:5; Psalm 97:7 ). It is characteristic of Hebrew that extension, magnitude and dignity, as well as actual multiplicity, are expressed by the plural. It is not reasonable, therefore, to assume that plurality of form indicates primitive Semitic polytheism. On the contrary, historic Hebrew is unquestionably and uniformly monotheistic.
(2) The derivation is quite uncertain. Gesenius, Ewald and others find its origin in אוּל , 'ūl , "to be strong," from which also are derived ayil , "ram," and 'ēlāh , "terebinth"; it is then an expanded plural form of 'ēl ; others trace it to אלהּ , 'ālah , "to terrify," and the singular form is found in the infrequent אלוהּ , 'ĕlōah , which occurs chiefly in poetical books; BDB inclines to the derivation from אלה , 'ālāh , "to be strong," as the root of the three forms, 'Ēl , 'Ĕlōah and 'Ĕlōhı̄m , although admitting that the whole question is involved in uncertainty (for full statement see BDB , under the word אלה ; a somewhat fanciful suggestion is the Arabic root 'ūl , "to be in front," from which comes the meaning "leader"; and still more fanciful is the suggested connection with the preposition ל ), 'el , signifying God as the "goal" of man's life and aspiration. The origin must always lie in doubt, since the derivation is prehistoric, and the name, with its kindred words 'Ēl and 'Ĕlōah , is common to Semitic languages and religions and beyond the range of Hebrew records.
(3) It is the reasonable conclusion that the meaning is "might" or "power"; that it is common to Semitic language; that the form is plural to express majesty or "all-mightiness," and that it is a generic, rather than a specific personal, name for Deity, as is indicated by its application to those who represent the Deity (Judges 5:8; Psalm 82:1 ) or who are in His presence (1 Samuel 28:13 ).
The singular form of the preceding name, אלוהּ , 'Ĕlōah , is confined in its use almost exclusively to poetry, or to poetic expression, being characteristic of the Book of Job, occurring oftener in that book than in all other parts of the Old Testament. It is, in fact, found in Job oftener than the elsewhere more ordinary plural 'Ēlōhı̄m ̌ . For derivation and meaning see above under 1 (2). Compare also the Aramaic form, אלהּ , 'ĕlāh , found frequently in Ezra and Daniel.
In the group of Semitic languages, the most common word for Deity is El ( אל , 'ēl ), represented by the Babylonian ı̂lu and the Arabic 'Allah . It is found throughout the Old Testament, but oftener in Job and Psalms than in all the other books. It occurs seldom in the historical books, and not at all in Lev. The same variety of derivations is attributed to it as to ELOHIM (which see), most probable of which is אוּל , 'ūl , "to be strong." BDB interprets 'ūl as meaning "to be in front," from which came 'ayil , "ram" the one in front of the flock, and 'ēlāh , the prominent "terebinth," deriving ['El from ה , 'ālāh , "to be strong." It occurs in many of the more ancient names; and, like Elohim, it is used of pagan gods. It is frequently combined with nouns or adjectives to express the Divine name with reference to particular attributes or phases of His being, as 'Ēl ‛Elyōn , 'Ēl - Rō'ı̄ , etc. (see below under III, "Attributive Names").
4. 'Ādhōn , 'Ǎdhōnāy
An attributive name, which in prehistoric Hebrew had already passed over into a generic name of God, is אדון , 'Ādhōn , אדני , 'Ǎdhōnāy , the latter formed from the former, being the construct plural, 'ădhōnē , with the 1st person ending - ay , which has been lengthened to āy and so retained as characteristic of the proper name and distinguishing it from the possessive "my Lord." the King James Version does not distinguish, but renders both as possessive, "my Lord" ( Judges 6:15; Judges 13:8 ), and as personal name (Psalm 2:4 ); the Revised Version (British and American) also, in Psalm 16:2 , is in doubt, giving "my Lord," possessive, in text and "the Lord" in the margin. 'Ǎdhōnāy , as a name of Deity, emphasizes His sovereignty (Psalm 2:4; Isaiah 7:7 ), and corresponds closely to Kúrios of the New Testament. It is frequently combined with Yahweh (Genesis 15:8; Isaiah 7:7 , etc.) and with 'Ĕlōhı̄m (Psalm 86:12 ). Its most significant service in Massoretic Text is the use of its vowels to point the unpronounceable tetragrammaton יהוה , YHWH , indicating that the word "'Ǎdhōnāy ̌ " should be spoken aloud instead of "Yahweh." This combination of vowels and consonants gives the transliteration "Jehovah," adopted by the American Standard Revised Version, while the other English Versions of the Bible, since Coverdale, represents the combination by the capitals LORD . Septuagint represents it by Kurios ̌ .
5. Yahweh (Jehovah)
The name most distinctive of God as the God of Israel is Jehovah ( יהוה , a combination of the tetragrammaton ( YHWH ) with the vowels of 'Ǎdhōnāy , transliterated as Yehōwāh , but read aloud by the Hebrews 'ădhōnāy ). While both derivation and meaning are lost to us in the uncertainties of its ante-Biblical origin, the following inferences seem to be justified by the facts: (1) This name was common to religions other than Israel's, according to Friedr. Delitzsch, Hommel, Winckler, and Guthe ( EB , under the word), having been found in Babylonian inscriptions. Ammonite, Arabic and Egyptian names appear also to contain it (compare Davidson, Old Testament Theol ., 52 f); but while, like Elohim, it was common to primitive Semitic religion, it became Israel's distinctive name for the Deity. (2) It was, therefore, not first made known at the call of Moses ( Exodus 3:13-16; Exodus 6:2-8 ), but, being already known, was at that time given a larger revelation and interpretation: God, to be known to Israel henceforth under the name "Yahweh" and in its fuller significance, was the One sending Moses to deliver Israel; "when I shall say unto them, The God of your fathers hath sent me unto you; and they shall say to me, What is his name? what shall I say unto them? And God said ... I WILL BE THAT I WILL BE ... say ... I WILL BE hath sent me" (Exodus 3:13 , Exodus 3:14 margin). The name is assumed as known in the narrative of Genesis; it also occurs in pre-Mosaic names ( Exodus 6:20; 1 Chronicles 2:25; 1 Chronicles 7:8 ). (3) The derivation is from the archaic ḥāwāh , "to be," better "to become," in Biblical Hebrew hāyāh ; this archaic use of w for y appears also in derivatives of the similar ה , ḥayah , "to live," e.g. ה , ḥawwah in Genesis 3:20 . (4) It is evident from the interpretative passages (Ex 3; 6) that the form is the fut. of the simple stem ( Ḳal ) and not future of the causative (Hiph‛ı̄l ) stem in the sense "giver of life" - an idea not borne out by any of the occurrences of the word. The fanciful theory that the word is a combination of the future, present and perfect tenses of the verb, signifying "the One who will be, is, and was," is not to be taken seriously (Stier, etc., in Oehler's Old Testament Theology , in the place cited.). (5) The meaning may with some confidence be inferred from Origen's transliteration, Iaō , the form in Samaritan, Iabe , the form as combined in Old Testament names, and the evident signification in Ex 3 and other passages, to be that of the simple future, יהוה , yahweh , "he will be." It does not express causation, nor existence in a metaphysical sense, but the covenant promise of the Divine presence, both at the immediate time and in the Messianic age of the future. And thus it became bound up with the Messianic hope, as in the phrase, "the Day of Yahweh," and consequently both it and the Septuagint translation Kurios were applied by the New Testament as titles of Christ. (6) It is the personal name of God, as distinguished from such generic or essential names as 'Ēl , 'Ĕlōhı̄m , Shadday , etc. Characteristic of the Old Testament is its insistence on the possible knowledge of God as a person; and Yahweh is His name as a person. It is illogical, certainly, that the later Hebrews should have shrunk from its pronunciation, in view of the appropriateness of the name and of the Old Testament insistence on the personality of God, who as a person has this name. the American Standard Revised Version quite correctly adopts the transliteration "Yahweh" to emphasize its significance and purpose as a personal name of God revealed.
6. Cūr (Rock)
Five times in the "Song" of Moses (Deuteronomy 32:4 , Deuteronomy 32:15 , Deuteronomy 32:18 , Deuteronomy 32:30 , Deuteronomy 32:31 ) the word צוּר , cūr , "Rock," is used as a title of God. It occurs also in the Psalms, Isa and poetical passages of other books, and also in proper names, Elizur, Zuriel, etc. Once in the King James Version (Isaiah 44:8 ) it is translated "God," but "Rock" in the American Standard Revised Version and the American Revised Version, margin. The effort to interpret this title as indicating the animistic origin of Old Testament religion is unnecessary and a pure product of the imagination. It is customary for both Old Testament and New Testament writers to use descriptive names of God: "rock," "fortress," "shield," "light," "bread," etc., and is in harmony with all the rich figurativeness of the Scriptures; the use of the article in many of the cases cited further corroborates the view that the word is intended to be a descriptive title, not the name of a Nature-deity. It presents the idea of God as steadfast: "The appellation of God as cūr , 'rock,' 'safe retreat,' in Deuteronomy refers to this" (Oehler, Old Testament Theology ). It often occurs, in a most striking figure, with the pers. suffix as "my rock," "their rock," to express confidence (Psalm 28:1 ).
The name ( קדושׁ , ḳādhōsh , "holy") is found frequently in Isaiah and Psalms, and occasionally in the other prophets. It is characteristic of Isaiah, being found 32 times in that book. It occurs often in the phrase קדושׁ ישראל , ḳedhōsh yisrā'ēl , "Holy One of Israel." The derivation and meaning remain in doubt, but the customary and most probable derivation is from ḳādhash , "to be separate," which best explains its use both of man and of the Deity. When used of God it signifies: (1) His transcendence, His separateness above all other beings, His aloneness as compared to other gods; (2) His peculiar relation to His people Israel unto whom He separated Himself, as He did not unto other nations. In the former sense Isaiah used it of His sole deity ( Isaiah 40:25 ), in the latter of His peculiar and unchanging covenant-relation to Israel (Isaiah 43:3; Isaiah 48:17 ), strikingly, expressed in the phrase "Holy One of Israel." Ḳādhōsh was rather attributive than personal, but became personal in the use of such absolute theists as Job and Isaiah. It expresses essential Deity, rather than personal revelation.
In the patriarchal literature, and in Job particularly, where it is put into the mouths of the patriarchs, this name appears sometimes in the compound אל שׁדּי , 'ēl shadday , sometimes alone. While its root meaning also is uncertain, the suggested derivation from שׁדד , shādhadh , "to destroy," "to terrify," seems most probable, signifying the God who is manifested by the terribleness of His mighty acts. "The Storm God," from שׁדא , shādhā' , "to pour out," has been suggested, but is improbable; and even more so the fanciful שׁ , she , and דּי , day , meaning "who is sufficient." Its use in patriarchal days marks an advance over looser Semitic conceptions to the stricter monotheistic idea of almightiness, and is in accord with the early consciousness of Deity in race or individual as a God of awe, or even terror. Its monotheistic character is in harmony with its use in the Abrahamic times, and is further corroborated by its parallel in Septuagint and New Testament, παντοκράτωρ , pantokrátōr , "all-powerful."
III. Descriptive Names of God in the Old Testament
It is often difficult to distinguish between the personal and the attributive names of God, the two divisions necessarily shading into each other. Some of the preceding are really attributive, made personal by usage. The following are the most prominent descriptive or attributive names.
This name ( אביר , 'ābhı̄r ), translated in English Versions of the Bible "Mighty One," is always combined with Israel or Jacob; its root is אבר , 'ābhar , "to be strong" from which is derived the word אבר , 'ēbher , "pinion," used of the strong wing of the eagle ( Isaiah 40:31 ), figuratively of God in Deuteronomy 32:11 . It occurs in Jacob's blessing (Genesis 49:24 ), in a prayer for the sanctuary (Psalm 132:2 , Psalm 132:5 ), and in Isa (Isaiah 1:24; Isaiah 49:26; Isaiah 60:16 ), to express the assurance of the Divine strength in behalf of the oppressed in Israel (Isaiah 1:24 ), or in behalf of Israel against his oppressors; it is interesting to note that this name was first used by Jacob himself.
2. 'Ēl - 'Ĕlōhē - Israel
The name 'Ēl is combined with a number of descriptive adjectives to represent God in His various attributes; and these by usage have become names or titles of God. For the remarkable phrase EL-ELOHE-ISRAEL (Genesis 33:20 ), see separate article.
This name ( עליון , ‛elyōn , "highest") is a derivative of עלה , ‛ālāh , "to go up." It is used of persons or things to indicate their elevation or exaltation: of Israel, favored above other nations ( Deuteronomy 26:19 ), of the aqueduct of "the upper pool" (Isaiah 7:3 ), etc. This indicates that its meaning when applied to God is the "Exalted One," who is lifted far above all gods and men. It occurs alone (Deuteronomy 32:8; Psalm 18:13 ), or in combination with other names of God, most frequently with El (Genesis 14:18; Psalm 78:35 ), but also with Yahweh (Psalm 7:17; Psalm 97:9 ), or with Elohim (Psalm 56:2 the King James Version; Psalm 78:56 ). Its early use (Genesis 14:18 f) points to a high conception of Deity, an unquestioned monotheism in the beginnings of Hebrew history.
The ancient Hebrews were in constant struggle for their land and their liberties, a struggle most intense and patriotic in the heroic days of Saul and David, and in which there was developed a band of men whose great deeds entitled them to the honorable title "mighty men" of valor ( גּבּורים , gibbōrı̄m ). These were the knights of David's "Round Table." In like manner the Hebrew thought of his God as fighting for him, and easily then this title was applied to God as the Mighty Man of war, occurring in David's psalm of the Ark's Triumphant Entry ( Psalm 24:8 ), in the allegory of the Messiah-King (Psalm 45:3 ), either alone or combined with El (Isaiah 9:6; Jeremiah 32:18 ), and sometimes with Yahweh (Isaiah 42:13 ).
5. 'Ēl - Rō'ı̄
When Hagar was fleeing from Sarah's persecutions, Yahweh spoke to her in the wilderness of Shur, words of promise and cheer. Whereupon "she called the name of Yahweh that spake unto her, Thou art El roi" (Genesis 16:13 margin). In the text the word ראי , rō'ı̄ , deriv. of rā'āh , "to see," is translated "that seeth," literally, "of sight." This is the only occurrence of this title in the Old Testament.
One of the covenant attributes of God, His righteousness, is spoken of so often that it passes from adjective to substantive, from attribute to name, and He is called "Righteous" ( צדּיק , caddı̄ḳ ), or "the Righteous One." The word is never transliterated but always translated in English Versions of the Bible, although it might just as properly be considered a Divine name as ‛Elyōn or Ḳādhōsh ̌ . The root צדק , cādhaḳ , "to be straight" or "right," signifies fidelity to a standard, and is used of God's fidelity to His own nature and to His covenant-promise ( Isaiah 41:10; Isaiah 42:6; compare Hosea 2:19 ); it occurs alone (Psalm 34:17 ), with El (Deuteronomy 32:4 ), with Elohim (Ezra 9:15; Psalm 7:9; Psalm 116:5 ), but most frequently with Yahweh (Psalm 129:4 , etc.). In Exodus 9:27 Pharaoh, in acknowledging his sin against Yahweh, calls Him 'Yahweh the Righteous,' using the article. The suggestive combination, "Yahweh our Righteousness," is the name given to David's "righteous Branch" ( Jeremiah 23:6 ) and properly should be taken as a proper noun - the name of the Messiah-King.
Frequently in the Pentateuch, most often in the 3 versions of the Commandments (Exodus 20:5; Exodus 34:14; Deuteronomy 5:9 ), God is given the title "Jealous" (קנּא , ḳannā' ), most specifically in the phrase "Yahweh, whose name is Jealous" (Exodus 34:14 ). This word, however, did not bear the evil meaning now associated with it in our usage, but rather signified "righteous zeal," Yahweh's zeal for His own name or glory (compare Isaiah 9:7 , "the zeal of Yahweh," קנאה , ḳin'āh ; also Zechariah 1:14; Zechariah 8:2 ).
8. Yahweh Cebha'oth
Connected with the personal and covenant name Yahweh, there is found frequently the word Sabaoth ( צבאות , cebhā'ōth , "hosts"). Invariably in the Old Testament it is translated "hosts" ( Isaiah 1:9; Psalm 46:7 , Psalm 46:11 , etc.), but in the New Testament it is transliterated twice, both in the Greek and English (Romans 9:29; James 5:4 ). The passage in Roman is a quotation from Isaiah 1:9 through Septuagint, which does not translate, but transliterates the Hebrew. Origin and meaning are uncertain. It is used of heavenly bodies and earthly forces ( Genesis 2:1 ); of the army of Israel (2 Samuel 8:16 ); of the Heavenly beings (Psalm 103:21; Psalm 148:2; Daniel 4:35 ). It is probable that the title is intended to include all created agencies and beings, of which Yahweh is maker and leader.
9. "I Am That I A m"
When God appeared to Moses at Sinai, commissioning him to deliver Israel; Moses, being well aware of the difficulty of impressing the people, asked by what name of God he should speak to them: "They shall say to me, What is his name?" Then "God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM ... say ... I AM hath sent me unto you" (Exodus 3:14 ). The name of the Deity given here is similar to Yahweh except that the form is not 3rd person future, as in the usual form, but the 1st person ('ehyeh ), since God is here speaking of Himself. The optional reading in the American Revised Version, margin is much to be preferred: "I WILL BE THAT I WILL BE ," indicating His covenant pledge to be with and for Israel in all the ages to follow. For further explanation see above, II, 5.
IV. New Testament Names of God
The variety of names which characterizes the Old Testament is lacking in the New Testament, where we are all but limited to two names, each of which corresponds to several in the Old Testament. The most frequent is the name "God" ( Θεός , Theós ) occurring over 1,000 times, and corresponding to El, Elohim, etc., of the Old Testament.
It may, as Elohim, be used by accommodation of heathen gods; but in its true sense it expresses essential Deity, and as expressive of such it is applied to Christ as to the Father (John 20:28; Romans 9:5 ).
Five times "Lord" is a translation of δεσπότης , despótēs ( Luke 2:29; Acts 4:24; 2 Peter 2:1 the King James Version; Judges 1:4; Revelation 6:10 the King James Version). In each case there is evident emphasis on sovereignty and correspondence to the 'Ādhōn of the Old Testament. The most common Greek word for Lord is Κύριος , Kúrios , representing both Yahweh and 'Adhonai of the Old Testament, and occurring upwards of 600 times. Its use for Jehovah was in the spirit of both the Hebrew scribes, who pointed the consonants of the covenant name with the vowels of Adhonay, the title of dominion, and of the Septuagint, which rendered this combination as Kurios ̌ . Consequently quotations from the Old Testament in which ה , Yahweh occurs are rendered by Κυριος , Kurios ̌ . It is applied to Christ equally with the Father and the Spirit, showing that the Messianic hopes conveyed by the name Yahweh were for New Testament writers fulfilled in Jesus Christ; and that in Him the long hoped for appearance of Yahweh was realized.
3. Descriptive and Figurative Names
As in the Old Testament, so in the New Testament various attributive, descriptive or figurative names are found, often corresponding to those in the Old Testament. Some of these are: The "Highest" or "Most High" ( ὕψιστος , húpsistos ), found in this sense only in Lk ( Luke 1:32 , Luke 1:35 , Luke 1:76; Luke 2:14 , etc.), and Equivalent to Elyon (see III, 3, above); "Almighty," Παντοκράτωρ , Pantokrátōr (2 Corinthians 6:18; Revelation 1:8 , etc.), corresponding to Shadday (see II, 8 above; see also ALMIGHTY ); "Father," as in the Lord's Prayer, and elsewhere (Matthew 6:9; Matthew 11:25; John 17:25; 2 Corinthians 6:18 ); "King" (1 Timothy 1:17 ); "King of kings" (1 Timothy 6:15 ); "King of kings," "Lord of lords" (Revelation 17:14; Revelation 19:16 ); "Potentate" (1 Timothy 6:15 ); "Master" (Kurios , Ephesians 6:9; 2 Peter 2:1; Revelation 6:10 ); "Shepherd," "Bishop" (1 Peter 2:25 ).
Theology of Old Testament by various authors: Oehler, Schultz, Davidson; Delitzsch, Psychology of the Old Testament ; H.P. Smith, "Theophorous Names of OT" in Old Testament and Semitic Studies ; Gray, HPN ; "God" in HDB and EB .
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Orr, James, M.A., D.D. General Editor. Entry for 'God, Names of'. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/eng/isb/g/god-names-of.html. 1915.