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International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
1. Force of "Even Unto"
In Greek, as in English, the preposition "unto" may either be exclusive or inclusive. In other words, Paul may mean that he has preached throughout Macedonia as far as the Illyrian frontier, or his words may involve a journey within Illyricum itself, extending perhaps to Dyrrhachium (mod.
2. Meaning of "Illyricum"
What, then, does the word "Illyricum" denote? It is sometimes used, like the Greek terms Illyris and Illyria, to signify a vast area lying between the Danube on the North and Macedonia and Thrace on the South, extending from the Adriatic and the Alps to the Black Sea, and inhabited by a number of warlike and semi-civilized tribes known to the Greeks under the general title of Illyrians (Appian, Illyr . 1; Suetonius, Tiberius , 16); it thus comprised the provinces of Illyricum (in the narrower sense), Pannonia and Moesia, which for certain financial and military purposes formed a single administrative area, together with a strip of coast land between Dalmatia and Epirus and, at a later date, Dacia. Appian ( Illyr . 6) even extends the term to include Raetia and Noricum, but in this he appears to be in error. But Illyricum has also a narrower and more precise meaning, denoting a single Roman province, which varied in extent with the advance of the Roman conquest but was finally organized in 10 ad by the emperor Augustus. At first it bore the name superior provincia Illyricum or simply Illyricum ; later it came to be known as Dalmatia (Tac. Annals , iv.5; Josephus,
3. Relation to Rome
The Romans waged two Illyrian wars: in 229-228 bc and in 219 bc, but no province was formed until 167, when, after the fall of the Macedonian power, Illyria received its provincial constitution (Livy, xlv.26). At this time it extended from the Drilo (modern
4. Paul's Relation to Illyricum
The extension of Paul's preaching to the Illyrian frontier must be assigned to his 3missionary journey, i.e. to his 2nd visit to Macedonia. His movements during the 1st visit (Acts 16:12 through 17:15) are too fully recorded to admit of our attributing it to that period, but the account in Acts 20:2 of his second tour is not only very brief, but the words, "when he had gone through those parts," suggest an extensive tour through the province, occupying, according to Ramsay, the summer and autumn of 56 ad. See also DALMATIA .
A. M. Poinsignon, Quid praecipue apud Romanos adusque Diocletiani tempora Illyricum fuerit (Paris, 1846); Zippe, Die römische Herrschaft in Illyrien bis auf Augustus (Leipzig, 1877); H. Cons, La province romaine de Dalmatie (Paris, 1882); T. Mommsen,
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Orr, James, M.A., D.D. General Editor. Entry for 'Illyricum'. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/eng/isb/i/illyricum.html. 1915.
the Week of Proper 25 / Ordinary 30