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International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
While the Hebrew and Greek words for "love" have various shades and intensities of meaning, they may be summed up in some such definition as this: Love, whether used of God or man, is an earnest and anxious desire for and an active and beneficent interest ins the well-being of the one loved. Different degrees and manifestations of this affection are recognized in the Scriptures according to the circumstances and relations of life, e.g. the expression of love as between husband and wife, parent and child, brethren according to the flesh, and according to grace; between friend and enemy, and, finally, between God and man. It must not be overlooked, however, that the fundamental idea of love as expressed in the definition of it is never absent in any one of these relations of life, even though the manifestation thereof may differ according to the circumstances and relations. Christ's interview with the apostle Peter on the shore of the Sea of Tiberias (John 21:15-18 ) sets before us in a most beautiful way the different shades of meaning as found in the New Testament words φιλέω ,
II. The Love of God.
First in the consideration of the subject of "love" comes the love of God
1. Objects of God's Love:
The object of God's love is first and foremost His own Son, Jesus Christ ( Matthew 3:17; Matthew 17:5; Luke 20:13; John 17:24 ). The Son shares the love of the Father in a unique sense; He is "my chosen, in whom my soul delighteth" (Isaiah 42:1 ). There exists an eternal affection between the Son and the Father - the Son is the original and eternal object of the Father's love (John 17:24 ). If God's love is eternal it must have an eternal object, hence, Christ is an eternal being.
God loves the believer in His Son with a special love. Those who are united by faith and love to Jesus Christ are, in a different sense from those who are not thus united, the special objects of God's love. Said Jesus, thou "lovedst them, even as thou lovedst me" ( John 17:23 ). Christ is referring to the fact that, just as the disciples had received the same treatment from the world that He had received, so they had received of the Father the same love that He Himself had received. They were not on the outskirts of God's love, but in the very center of it. "For the father himself loveth you, because ye have loved me" (John 16:27 ). Here
God loves the world ( John 3:16; compare 1 Timothy 2:4; 2 Peter 3:9 ). This is a wonderful truth when we realize what a world this is - a world of sin and corruption. This was a startling truth for Nicodemus to learn, who conceived of God as loving only the Jewish nation. To him, in his narrow exclusiveism, the announcement of the fact that God loved the whole world of men was startling. God loves the world of sinners lost and ruined by the fall. Yet it is this world, "weak," "ungodly," "without strength," "sinners" (Romans 5:6-8 ), "dead in trespasses and sins" (Ephesians 2:1 the King James Version), and unrighteous, that God so loved that He gave His only begotten Son in order to redeem it. The genesis of man's salvation lies in the love and mercy of God ( Ephesians 2:4 f). But love is more than mercy or compassion; it is active and identifies itself with its object. The love of the heavenly Father over the return of His wandering children is beautifully set forth in the parable of the Prodigal Son (Lk 15). Nor should the fact be overlooked that God loves not only the whole world, but each individual in it; it is a special as well as a general love ( John 3:16 , "whosoever"; Galatians 2:20 , "loved me, and gave himself up for me").
2. Manifestations of God's Love:
God's love is manifested by providing for the physical, mental, moral and spiritual needs of His people (Isaiah 48:14 , Isaiah 48:20 , Isaiah 48:21; Isaiah 62:9-12; Isaiah 63:3 , Isaiah 63:12 ). In these Scriptures God is seen manifesting His power in behalf His people in the time of their wilderness journeying and their captivity. He led them, fed and clothed them, guided them and protected them from all their enemies. His love was again shown in feeling with His people, their sorrows and afflictions (Isaiah 63:9 ); He suffered in their affliction, their interests were His; He was not their adversary but their friend, even though it might have seemed to them as if He either had brought on them their suffering or did not care about it. Nor did He ever forget them for a moment during all their trials. They thought He did; they said, "God hath forgotten us," "He hath forgotten to be gracious"; but no; a mother might forget her child that she should not have compassion on it, but God would never forget His people. How could He? Had He not graven them upon the palms of His hands (Isaiah 49:15 f)? Rather than His love being absent in the chastisement of His people, the chastisement itself was often a proof of the presence of the Divine love, "for whom the Lord loveth he chasteneth, and scourgeth every son whom he receiveth" ( Hebrews 12:6-11 ). Loving reproof and chastisement are necessary oftentimes for growth in holiness and righteousness. Our redemption from sin is to be attributed to God's wondrous love; "Thou hast in love to my soul delivered it from the pit of corruption; for thou hast cast all my sins behind thy back" (Isaiah 38:17; compare Psalm 50:21; Psalm 90:8 ). Ephesians 2:4 f sets forth in a wonderful way how our entire salvation springs forth from _ the mercy and love of God; "But God, being rich in mercy, for his great love wherewith he loved us, even when we were dead through our trespasses, made us alive together with Christ," etc. It is because of the love of the Father that we are granted a place in the heavenly kingdom ( Ephesians 2:6-8 ). But the supreme manifestation of the love of God, as set forth in the Scripture, is that expressed in the gift of His only-begotten Son to die for the sins of the world (John 3:16; Romans 5:6-8; 1 John 4:9 f), and through whom the sinful and sinning but repentant sons of men are taken into the family of God, and receive the adoption of sons ( 1 John 3:1 f; Galatians 4:4-6 ). From this wonderful love of God in Christ Jesus nothing in heaven or earth or hell, created or uncreated or to be created, shall be able to separate us (Romans 8:37 f).
III. The Love of Man.
1. Source of Man's Love:
Whatever love there is in man, whether it be toward God or toward his fellowman, has its source in God - "Love is of God; and every one that loveth is begotten of God, and knoweth God. He that loveth not knoweth not God; for God is love" (1 John 4:7 f); "We love, because he first loved us" ( 1 John 4:19 ). Trench, in speaking of
2. Objects of Man's Love:
God must be the first and supreme object of man's love; He must be loved with all the heart, mind, soul and strength (Matthew 22:37 f; Mark 12:29-34 ). In this last passage the exhortation to supreme love to God is connected with the doctrine of the unity of God (Deuteronomy 6:4 f) - inasmuch as the Divine Being is one and indivisible, so must our love to Him be undivided. Our love to God is shown in the keeping of His commandments ( Exodus 20:6; 1 John 5:3; 2 John 1:6 ). Love is here set forth as more than a mere affection or sentiment; it is something that manifests itself, not only in obedience to known Divine commands, but also in a protecting and defense of them, and a seeking to know more and more of the will of God in order to express love for God in further obedience (compare Deuteronomy 10:12 ). Those who love God will hate evil and all forms of worldliness, as expressed in the avoidance of the lust of the eyes, the lust of the flesh and the pride of life (Psalm 97:10; 1 John 2:15-17 ). Whatever there may be in his surroundings that would draw the soul away from God and righteousness, that the child of God will avoid. Christ, being God, also claims the first place in our affections. He is to be chosen before father or mother, parent, or child, brother or sister, or friend (Matthew 10:35-38; Luke 14:26 ). The word "hate" in these passages does not mean to hate in the sense in which we use the word today. It is used in the sense in which Jacob is said to have "hated" Leah (Genesis 29:31 ), that is, he loved her less than Rachel; "He loved also Rachel more than Leah" (Genesis 29:30 ). To love Christ supremely is the test of true discipleship (Luke 14:26 ), and is an unfailing mark of the elect (1 Peter 1:8 ). We prove that we are really God's children by thus loving His Son (John 8:42 ). Absence of such love means, finally, eternal separation (1 Corinthians 16:22 ).
Man must love his fellow-man also. Love for the brotherhood is a natural consequence of the love of the fatherhood; for "In this the children of God are manifest, and the children of the devil: whosoever doeth not righteousness is not of God, neither he that loveth not his brother" (1 John 3:10 ). For a man to say "I love God" and yet hate his fellowman is to brand himself as "a liar" (1 John 4:20 ); "He that loveth not his brother whom he hath seen, cannot love God whom he hath not seen" (1 John 4:20 ); he that loveth God will love his brother also (1 John 4:21 ). The degree in which we are to love our fellow-man is "as thyself" (Matthew 22:39 ), according to the strict observance of law. Christ set before His followers a much higher example than that, however. According to the teaching of Jesus we are to supersede this standard: "A new commandment I give unto you, that ye love one another; even as I have loved you, that ye also love one another" (John 13:34 ). The exhibition of love of this character toward our fellow-man is the badge of true discipleship. It may be called the sum total of our duty toward our fellow-man, for "Love worketh no ill to his neighbor: love therefore is the fulfillment of the law"; "for he that loveth his neighbor hath fulfilled the law" (Romans 13:8 , Romans 13:10 ). The qualities which should characterize the love which we are to manifest toward our fellow-men are beautifully set forth in 1 Corinthians 13:1-13 . It is patient and without envy; it is not proud or self-elated, neither does it behave discourteously; it does not cherish evil, but keeps good account of the good; it rejoices not at the downfall of an enemy or competitor, but gladly hails his success; it is hopeful, trustful and forbearing - for such there is no law, for they need none; they have fulfilled the law.
Nor should it be overlooked that our Lord commanded His children to love their enemies, those who spoke evil of them, and despitefully used them (Matthew 5:43-48 ). They were not to render evil for evil, but contrariwise, blessing. The love of the disciple of Christ must manifest itself in supplying the necessities, not of our friends only (1 John 3:16-18 ), but also of our enemies (Romans 12:20 f).
Our love should be "without hypocrisy" (Romans 12:9 ); there should be no pretense about it; it should not be a thing of mere word or tongue, but a real experience manifesting itself in deed and truth (1 John 3:18 ). True love will find its expression in service to man: "Through love be servants one to another" (Galatians 5:13 ). What more wonderful illustration can be found of ministering love than that set forth by our Lord in the ministry of foot-washing as found in Jn 13? Love bears the infirmities of the weak, does not please itself, but seeks the welfare of others (Romans 15:1-3; Philippians 2:21; Galatians 6:2; 1 Corinthians 10:24 ); it surrenders things which may be innocent in themselves but which nevertheless may become a stumbling-block to others (Romans 14:15 , Romans 14:21 ); it gladly forgives injuries (Ephesians 4:32 ), and gives the place of honor to another (Romans 12:10 ). What, then, is more vital than to possess such love? It is the fulfillment of the royal law (James 2:8 ), and is to be put above everything else (Colossians 3:14 ); it is the binder that holds all the other graces of the Christian life in place (Colossians 3:14 ); by the possession of such love we know that we have passed from death unto life (1 John 3:14 ), and it is the supreme test of our abiding in God and God in us (1 John 4:12 , 1 John 4:16 ).
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Orr, James, M.A., D.D. General Editor. Entry for 'Love'. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/eng/isb/l/love.html. 1915.
the Week of Proper 21 / Ordinary 26