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Bible Encyclopedias

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia

New; Newness

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nū , nū´nes ( חדשׁ , ḥādhāsh ; καινός , kainós , νέος , néos ):

1. In the Old Testament:

The word commonly translated "new" in the Old Testament is ḥādhāsh , "bright," "fresh," "new" (special interest was shown in, and importance attached to, fresh and new things and events); Exodus 1:8; Deuteronomy 20:5; Deuteronomy 22:8; Deuteronomy 24:5; 1 Samuel 6:7; 2 Samuel 21:16; Psalm 33:3 , "a new song"; Jeremiah 31:31 , "new covenant"; Ezekiel 11:19 , "a new spirit"; Ezekiel 18:31 "new heart"; Ezekiel 36:26 , etc.; ḥōdhesh is "the new moon," "the new-moon day," the first of the lunar month, a festival, then "month" (Genesis 29:14 , "a month of days"); it occurs frequently, often translated "month"; we have "new moon" (1 Samuel 20:5 , 1 Samuel 20:18 , 1 Samuel 20:24 , etc.); tı̄rōsh is "new (sweet) wine" (Nehemiah 10:39; in Joel 1:5; Joel 3:18 , it is ‛āsis , the Revised Version (British and American) "sweet wine"); in Acts 2:13 , "new wine" is gleúkos .

Other words in the Old Testament for "new" are ḥădhath , Aramaic ( Ezra 6:4 ); ṭārı̄ , "fresh" (Judges 15:15 , the Revised Version (British and American) "a fresh jawbone of an ass"); berı̄'ah , a "creation" (Numbers 16:30 , "if Yahweh make a new thing," the Revised Version margin "create a creation"); bākhar , "to be first-fruits" (Ezekiel 47:12; so the Revised Version margin); ḳūm , "setting," is translated "newly" (Judges 7:19 ); also miḳḳārōbh , "recently" (Deuteronomy 32:17 , the Revised Version (British and American) "of late "); news is shermū‛āh , "report," "tidings"; Proverbs 25:25 , "good news from a far country."

2. In the New Testament:

In the New Testament "new" (mostly kainos , "new," "fresh," "newly made") is an important word. We have the title of the "New Testament" itself, rightly given by the American Standard Revised Version as "New Covenant," the designation of "the new dispensation" ushered in through Christ, the writings relating to which the volume contains. We have "new covenant" ( kainos ) in Luke 22:20 , "This cup is the new covenant in my blood" (the English Revised Version margin "testament"; in Matthew 26:28; Mark 14:24 , "new" is omitted in the Revised Version (British and American), but in Matthew the margin "many ancient authorities insert new," and in Mark "some ancient authorities"); 1 Corinthians 11:25 , the English Revised Version margin "or testament"; 2 Corinthians 3:6 , the English Revised Version margin "or testament"; Hebrews 8:8 , the English Revised Version margin "or testament"; in Hebrews 8:13 , "covenant" is supplied (compare Hebrews 12:24 , neos ).

Corresponding to this, we have (2 Corinthians 5:17 , the King James Version and the Revised Version (British and American)), "The old things have passed away; behold, they are become new": ibid., "If any man is in Christ, he is a new creature," the Revised Version margin "there is a new creation"; Galatians 6:15 , margin "or creation," "new man" (Ephesians 2:15; Ephesians 4:24; Colossians 3:10 ( neos )); "new commandment" (John 13:34 ); "new doctrine" (Acts 17:19 ); "new thing" (Acts 17:21 ); "newness of life" (kainótes ) (Romans 6:4 ); "newness of the spirit" (Romans 7:6; compare 2 Corinthians 5:17 ); "a new name," (Revelation 2:17; Revelation 3:12 ), "new heavens and a new earth" (2 Peter 3:13 ); "new Jerusalem" (Revelation 3:12; Revelation 21:2 ); "new song" (Revelation 5:9 ); compare "new friend" and "new wine" (Sirach 9:10b,c); artigénnētos , "newborn" (1 Peter 2:2 ); prósphatos , "newly slain," "new" (Hebrews 10:20 , the Revised Version (British and American) "a new and living way, through the veil, that is to say, his flesh"; compare Sirach 9:10a; Judith 4:3); "new" is the translation of neos , "new," "young" (1 Corinthians 5:7; Colossians 3:10; "new man"; Hebrews 12:24 , "new covenant").

The difference in meaning between kainos and neos , is, in the main, that kainos denotes new in respect of quality , "the new as set over against that which has seen service, the outworn, the effete, or marred through age"; neos , "new (in respect of time), that which has recently come into existence," e.g. kainón mnēmeı́on , the "new tomb" in which Jesus was laid, was not one recently made, but one in which no other dead had ever lain; the "new covenant," the "new man," etc., may be contemplated under both aspects of quality and of time (Trench, Synonyms of the New Testament , 209 f).

In Matthew 9:16; Mark 2:21 , ágnaphos , "unsmoothed," "unfinished," is translated "new," "new cloth," the Revised Version (British and American) "undressed." For "new bottles" (Luke 5:38 and parallels), the Revised Version (British and American) has "fresh wine-skins."

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Bibliography Information
Orr, James, M.A., D.D. General Editor. Entry for 'New; Newness'. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. 1915.

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