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International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
tı̄´dal ( תּדעל , tidh‛āl ; Θαλγά , Thalgá , Θαλγάλ , Thalgál , Codex E, Θαργάλ , Thargál ):
1. The Name and Its Forms:
Tidal is mentioned in Genesis 14:1 , Genesis 14:9 in the account of the expedition of Chedorlaomer of Elam, with his allies, Amraphel of Shinar (Babylonia), Arioch of Ellasar, and Tidal, who is called "king of nations" (the King James Version) ( gōyim , Targum ‛ammı̄n ). Whether the last-named took part in this expedition as one of Chedorlaomer's vassals or not is unknown. The Greek form possibly prints to an earlier pronunciation Tadgal .
2. Its Babylonian Equivalent:
The only name in the cuneiform inscriptions resembling Tidal is Tudh̬ula , or, as it was probably later pronounced, Tudh̬ul . This, from its form, might be Sumerian, meaning "evil progeny," or the like. In addition to the improbability of a name with such a signification, however, his title "king of gōyim ," or "nations," in Genesis 14:1 , presupposes a ruler of another race.
3. The Babylonian Tudhula and His Time:
The inscription in which the name Tudh̬ula occurs is one of three of late date (4th to 3century BC), all referring, apparently, to the same historical period. The text in question ( Sp . iii. 2) is of unbaked clay, and is broken and defaced. After referring to a ruler who did not maintain the temples, Durmah-ilani son of Eri-Aku (Arioch) is referred to, appatently as one who ravaged the country, and "waters (came) over Babylon and Ê - sagila ," its great temple. The words which follow suggest that Durmah̬ - ı̂lāni was slain by his son, after which a new invader appeared, who would seem to have been Tudhula, son of Gazzā ( ni ? ). He likewise ravaged the land, and floods again invaded Babylon Ê - sagila . To all appearance he met with the fate which overtook Durmah̬ - ı̂lāni - death at the hands of his son, who "smote his head." Then came the Elamite, apparently Chedorlaomer, who was likewise slain. This inscription, therefore, gave historical quotations of the fate which overtook those who were regarded as enemas of the gods.
4. Doubts as to His Identity:
Though we have here the long-sought name of Tidal, it may legitimately be doubted whether this personage was the ruler of that name mentioned in Genesis 14 . The "nations" ( gōyim ) which he ruled are regarded by Sayce as having been wandering hordes ( umman manda ), probably Medes. On the other hand, the occurrence of the name Dudh̬alia , son of H̬attušil ( Khetasir ), contemporary of Rameses II, in the inscriptions found at H̬attu , the capital of the Hittites, suggests that that extensive confederation may have been the "nations" referred to. In other words, Tidal or Tudh̬ula (for Dudh̬alia ) was an earlier ruler bearing the same name as Hattusil's son.
5. Probably a Hittite:
If he be, as is possible, the same personage as is mentioned in Genesis 14 , he must have fought against Arioch's son, conquered his domains and been killed, in his turn, by either the Biblical Chedorlaomer or another Elamite ruler beaming the same or a similar name. See AMRAPHEL; ARIOCH; CHEDORLAOMER; ERI-AKU; NATIONS .
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Orr, James, M.A., D.D. General Editor. Entry for 'Tidal'. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/eng/isb/t/tidal.html. 1915.