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The Nuttall Encyclopedia
An American general, born at Maldon, Essex, in England; served as an English officer in America till the peace of 1763, and then retired to Virginia; in the War of Independence he fought on the side of America, and, as commander of the northern army, defeated the English at Saratoga in 1777; so great was his popularity in consequence of this victory that ill-advised efforts were made to place him over Washington, but in 1780 he suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of the British at Camden, and was court-martialled; acquitted in 1782, he again retired to Virginia, and subsequently in 1800 removed to New York, having first emancipated and provided for his slaves (1728-1806).
Wood, James, ed. Entry for 'Gates, Horatio'. The Nuttall Encyclopedia. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/eng/nut/g/gates-horatio.html. Frederick Warne & Co Ltd. London. 1900.