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The Nuttall Encyclopedia
Sultan of Turkey; crushed a rebellion on his accession by putting his brother to death, on whose behalf the janissaries had risen, as they afterwards did to their annihilation at his hands by wholesale massacre; by the victory of Navarino in 1827 he lost his hold of Greece, which declared its independence, and was near losing his suzerainty in Egypt when he died; his reign was an eventful one (1785-1839).
Wood, James, ed. Entry for 'Mahmud II.'. The Nuttall Encyclopedia. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/eng/nut/m/mahmud-ii.html. Frederick Warne & Co Ltd. London. 1900.