The Nuttall Encyclopedia
From two Persian words meaning "protector prince," is a title given to the Shah of Persia and the Sultan of Turkey, and at one time applied, among others, to the Emperors of Austria and Russia.
Wood, James, ed. Entry for 'Padishah'. The Nuttall Encyclopedia. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/eng/nut/p/padishah.html. Frederick Warne & Co Ltd. London. 1900.