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Bible Encyclopedias

Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature


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a word employed in the A. V. to render two distinct Hebrew terms.

1. Ashisha'h, אֲשִׁישָׁה (2 Samuel 6:19; 1 Chronicles 16:3; Song of Solomon 2:5; Hosea 3:1). The real meaning of this word, according to the conclusions of Gesenius (Thes. Heb. p. 166), is a cake of pressed raisins (q.v.), such as are a common refreshment in the East, especially for travellers. (See CAKE). He derives it from a'root signifying to compress, and this is confirmed by the renderings of the Sept. (λάγανον, ἀμορίτη, πέμματα) and of the Vulgate (simila, but in Hos. vinacia, in Cant. flores, where the Sept. has μύρα), and also by the indications of the Targum Pseudojon. and the Mishna (Nedarim, 6, § 10). In the passage in Hosea there is probably a reference to a practice of offering such cakes before the false deities. The rendering of the A. V. is perhaps to be traced to Luther, who in the first two of the above passages has ein NSssel Wein, and in the last Kanne Wein; but primarily to the interpretations of modern Jews (e.g. Gemara, Baba Bathra, and Targum on Chronicles), grounded on a false etymology (see Michaelis, quoted by Gesenius, and the observations of the latter, as above). It will be observed that in' the first two passages the words "of wine" are interpolated, and that in the last "of wine" should be "of grapes." (See FRUIT).

2. Nebbel, נֵבֶל (Isaiah 22:24), which is commonly used for a bottle (q.v.) or vessel, originally probably a skin, but in later times a piece of pottery (Isaiah 30:14). But it also frequently occurs (Psalms 57:9, etc.) with the force of a musical instrument (A.V. generally "psaltery," but sometimes "viol"), a meaning which is adopted by the Targum, and the Arabic and Vulgate (musici), and Luther, and given in the margin of the A. V. The text, however, seems to have aimed to follow the rendering of the Sept. (confusedly ἐπικρεμάμενοι), and with this agree Gesenius (Comment. in loc.) and Furst (Hebr. Handw. s.v.), as being agreeable to the parallel אִגָּנוֹת, bowls (" cups," Vulg. crateroe). (See MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS); (See PITCHER).

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Bibliography Information
McClintock, John. Strong, James. Entry for 'Flagon'. Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. Harper & Brothers. New York. 1870.

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Flaget, Benedict Joseph
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