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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #1063 - γάρ
γάρ (γε, ἄρα),
causal Conj., used alone or with other Particles.
γάρ, a conjunction, which according to its composition, γέ and ἄρα (equivalent to ἀρ), is properly a particle of affirmation and conclusion, denoting truly therefore, verily as the case stands, "the thing is first affirmed by the particle γέ, and then is referred to what precedes by the force of the particle ἄρα (Klotz ad Devar. ii. 1, p. 232; cf. Kühner, ii., p. 724; (Jelf, § 786; Winers Grammar, 445f (415f))). Now since by a new affirmation not infrequently the reason and nature of something previously mentioned are set forth, it comes to pass that, by the use of this particle, either the reason and cause of a foregoing statement is added, whence arises the causal or argumentative force of the particle, for (Latinnam,enim; German denn); or some previous declaration is explained, whence γάρ takes on an explicative force: for, the fact is, namely (Latinvidelicet, German nämlich). Thus the force of the particle is either conclusive, or demonstrative, or explicative and declaratory; cf. Rost in Passow's Lexicon, i., p. 535ff; Kühner, ii., pp. 724ff, 852ff; (cf. Liddell and Scott, under the word). The use of the particle in the N. T. does not differ from that in the classics.
I. Its primary and original Conclusive force is seen in questions (in Greek writings also in exclamations) and answers expressed with emotion; where, according to the connexion, it may be freely represented by assuredly, verily, forsooth, why, then, etc.: ἐν γάρ τούτῳ etc. ye profess not to know whence he is; herein then is assuredly a marvellous thing, why, herein etc. John 9:30; οὐ γάρ, ἀλλά etc. by no means in this state of things, nay verily, but etc. Acts 16:37; certainly, if that is the case, 1 Corinthians 8:11 L T Tr WH. It is joined to interrogative particles and pronouns: μή γάρ etc. John 7:41 (do ye then suppose that the Christ comes out of Galilee? What, doth the Christ, etc.?); μή γάρ ... οὐκ, 1 Corinthians 11:22 ("what! since ye are so eager to eat and drink, have ye not," etc.?); τίς γάρ, τί γάρ: Matthew 27:23 (τί γάρ κακόν ἐποίησεν, ye demand that he be crucified like a malefactor, Why, what evil hath he done?); Matthew 9:5 (your thoughts are evil; which then do ye suppose to be the easier, etc.?); Matthew 16:26; Matthew 23:17, 19; Luke 9:25; Acts 19:35; τί γάρ; for τί γάρ ἐστι, what then? i. e. what, under these circumstances, ought to be the conclusion? Philippians 1:18 (cf. Ellicott at the passage); πῶς γάρ, Acts 8:31; cf. Klotz, the passage cited, p. 245ff; Kühner, ii., p. 726; (Jelf, ii., p. 608); Winer's Grammar, 447 (416). Here belongs also the vexed passage Luke 18:14 ἤ γάρ ἐκεῖνος (so G T Tr marginal reading, but L WH Tr text παῥ ἐκεῖνον) or do ye suppose then that that man went down approved of God? cf. Winer's Grammar, 241 (226).
II. It adduces the Cause or gives the Reason of a preceding statement or opinion;
1. universally: Matthew 2:5; Matthew 6:24; Mark 1:22; Mark 9:6; Luke 1:15, 18; Luke 21:4; John 2:25; Acts 2:25; Romans 1:9, 11; 1 Corinthians 11:5; Hebrews 2:8; 1 John 2:19; Revelation 1:3, and very often. In John 4:44 γάρ assigns the reason why now at length Jesus betook himself into Galilee; for the authority denied to a prophet in his own country (Galilee), he had previously to seek and obtain among strangers; cf. John 4:45; Meyer (yet see edition 6 (Weiss)) at the passage; Strauss, Leben Jesu, i. 725 edition 3; Neander, Leben Jesu, p. 385f edition 1 (American translation, pp. 100, 168); Ewald, Jahrbb. d. Biblical Wissensch. x., p. 108ff.
2. Often the sentences are connected in such a way that either some particular statement is established by a general proposition (`the particular by the universal'), as in Matthew 7:8; Matthew 13:12; Matthew 22:14; Mark 4:22, 25; John 3:20; 1 Corinthians 12:12; Hebrews 5:13, etc.; or what has been stated generally, is proved to be correctly stated by a particular instance (`the universal by the particular'): Mark 7:10; Luke 12:52, 58; Romans 7:2; 1 Corinthians 1:26; 1 Corinthians 12:8.
3. To sentences in which something is commanded or forbidden, γάρ annexes the reason why the thing must either be done or avoided: Matthew 1:20; Matthew 2:20; Matthew 3:9; Matthew 7:2; Romans 13:11; Colossians 3:3; 1 Thessalonians 4:3; Hebrews 2:2, and very often. In Philippians 2:13 γάρ connects the verse with Philippians 2:12 thus: work out your salvation with most intense earnestness, for nothing short of this accords with God's saving efficiency within your souls, to whom you owe both the good desire and the power to execute that desire.
4. To questions, γάρ annexes the reason why the question is asked: Matthew 2:2 (we ask this with good reason, for we have seen the star which announces his birth); Matthew 22:28; Romans 14:10; 1 Corinthians 14:9; Galatians 1:10.
5. Frequently the statement which contains the cause is interrogative; τίς, τί γάρ: Luke 22:27; Romans 4:3; Romans 11:34; 1 Corinthians 2:16; 1 Corinthians 7:16; Hebrews 1:5; Hebrews 12:7; τί γάρ for τί γάρ ἐστι, Romans 3:3 (cf. Fritzsche at the passage; (Ellicott on Philippians 1:18)); ἵνα τί γάρ, 1 Corinthians 10:29; ποίᾳ γάρ, James 4:14 (WH text omits; Tr brackets γάρ).
7. Sometimes it confirms, not a single statement, but the point of an entire discussion: Romans 2:25 (it is no advantage to a wicked Jew, for etc.). On the other hand, it may so confirm but a single thought as to involve the force of asseveration and be rendered assuredly, yea: Romans 15:27 (εὐδόκησαν γάρ); so also καί γάρ, Philippians 2:27.
8. It is often said that the sentence of which γάρ introduces the cause, or renders the reason, is not expressed, but must be gathered from the context and supplied in thought. But that this ellipsis is wholly imaginary is clearly shown by Klotz ad Devar. ii. 1, p. 236f, cf. Winer's Grammar, 446f (415f). The particle is everywhere used in reference to something expressly stated. Suffice it to append a very few examples; the true nature of many others is shown under the remaining heads of this article: In Matthew 5:12 before γάρ some supply 'nor does this happen to you alone'; but the reason is added why a great reward in heaven is reserved for those who suffer persecution, which reason consists in this, that the prophets also suffered persecution, and that their reward is great no one can doubt. In Romans 8:18 some have supplied 'do not shrink from this suffering with Christ'; but on the use of γάρ here, see III.
a. below. On Mark 7:28 (T Tr WH omit; L brackets γάρ), where before καί γάρ some supply 'but help me,' or 'yet we do not suffer even the dogs to perish with hunger,' see 10 b. below. In Acts 9:11 before γάρ many supply 'he will listen to thee'; but it introduces the reason for the preceding command.
9. When in successive statements γάρ is repeated twice or thrice, or even four or five times, either a. one and the same thought is confirmed by as many arguments, each having its own force, as there are repetitions of the particle (Meyer denies the coordinate use of γάρ in the N. T., asserting that the first is argumentative, the second explicative, see his commentaries on the passage to follow, also on Romans 8:6): Matthew 6:32; Romans 16:18f; or b. every succeeding statement contains the reason for its immediate predecessor, so that the statements are subordinate one to another: Mark 6:52; Matthew 16:25-27; John 3:19; John 5:21; Acts 2:15; Romans 4:13-15; Romans 8:2f, 5; 1 Corinthians 3:3; 1 Corinthians 9:15-17 (where five times in G L T Tr WH); 1 Corinthians 16:7; James 2:10, etc.; or c. it is repeated in a different sense: Mark 9:39-41; Romans 5:6f (where cf. Winer's Grammar, 453 (422)); Romans 10:2-5 (four times); James 4:14 (WH text omits; Tr brackets the first γάρ, L WH marginal reading omit the second).
10. καί γάρ (on which cf. Kühner, ii., p. 854f; Winer's Grammar, 448 (417); (Ellicott on 2 Thessalonians 3:10)) is a. for, and truly (etenim,namque, (the simple rendering for is regarded as inexact by many; cf. Meyer on 2 Corinthians 13:4 and see Hartung, Partikeln, i. 137f; Krüger, § 69, 32, 21)): Mark 14:70; Luke 22:37 (L Tr brackets γάρ); 1 Corinthians 5:7; 1 Corinthians 11:9; 1 Corinthians 12:13.
b. for also, for even (nam etiam): Matthew 8:9; Mark 10:45; Luke 6:32; John 4:45; 1 Corinthians 12:14, etc. In Mark 7:28 καί γάρ (R G L brackets) τά κυνάρια etc. the woman, by adducing an example, confirms what Christ had said, but the example is of such a sort as also to prove that her request ought to be granted. τέ γάρ for indeed (German denn ja): Romans 7:7; cf. Fritzsche at the passage; Winer's Grammar, 448 (417). ἰδού γάρ, see under ἰδού.
III. It serves to explain, make clear, illustrate, a preceding thought or word: for equivalent to that is, namely;
a. so that it begins an exposition of the thing just announced (cf. Winer's Grammar, 454f (423f)): Matthew 1:18 (R G);
b. so that the explanation is intercalated into the discourse, or even added by way of appendix: Matthew 4:18; Mark 1:16; Mark 2:15; Mark 5:42; Romans 7:1; 1 Corinthians 16:5. In Mark 16:4 the information ἦν γάρ μέγας σφόδρα is added to throw light on all that has been previously said (in Mark 16:3f) about the stone.
IV. As respects position: γάρ never occupies the first place in a sentence, but the second, or third, or even the fourth (ὁ τοῦ Θεοῦ γάρ υἱός, 2 Corinthians 1:19 — according to true text). Moreover, not the number but the nature of the word after which it stands is the point to be noticed, Hermann on Sophocles Phil. 1437.
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co-ordinating particle, contr. of γε ἄρα ,
verily then, hence, in truth, indeed, yea, then, why, and when giving a reason or explanation, for, the usage in NT being in general accord with that of cl.;
1. explicative and epexegetic: Matthew 4:18; Matthew 19:12, Mark 1:16; Mark 5:42; Mark 16:4, Luke 11:30, Romans 7:1, 1 Corinthians 16:5, al.
2. Conclusive, in questions, answers and exclamations: Matthew 9:5; Matthew 27:23, Luke 9:25; Luke 22:27, John 9:30, Acts 8:31; Acts 16:37; Acts 19:35, Romans 15:26, 1 Corinthians 9:10, Philippians 1:18 (Ellie., in l), 1 Thessalonians 2:20, al.
3. Causal: Matthew 1:21; Matthew 2:2; Matthew 2:5-6, Mark 1:22; Mark 9:6, Luke 1:15; Luke 1:18, John 2:25, Acts 2:25, Romans 1:9-11, 1 Corinthians 11:5, Revelation 1:3, al.; giving the reason for a command or prohibition, Matthew 2:20; Matthew 3:9, Romans 13:11, Colossians 3:3, 1 Thessalonians 4:3, al.; where the cause is contained in an interrog. statement, Luke 22:27, Romans 3:3; Romans 4:3, 1 Corinthians 10:29; καὶ γάρ , for also, Mark 10:45, Luke 6:32, 1 Corinthians 5:7, al.; id. as in cl. = etenim, where the καὶ loses its connective force (El., § 78, 6; Kühner3, ii, 854 f.), Mark 14:70, Luke 1:66; Luke 22:37, 2 Corinthians 13:4. The proper place of γάρ is after the first word in a clause, but in poets it often comes third or fourth, and so in late prose: 2 Corinthians 1:19. Yet "not the number but the nature of the word after which it stands is the point to be noticed" (v. Thayer, s.v.).
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
For the ascensive force of καὶ γάρ , as in Romans 11:1, cf. P Passalacqua .9 (iii/B.C.) (= Witkowski .2, p. 54) φρόντισον οὖν , ὅπως μὴ ἀδικηθῆι ὁ ἄνθρωπος · καὶ γὰρ ὁ πατὴρ αὐτοῦ ἐστὶν ἐνταῦθα περὶ Π ., where Letronne (P Par p. 401) renders, ";aie soin qu’il ne soit fait aucun tort à cet homme; car, de plus, son père est employé ici auprès de P."; In P Oxy IV. 743.22 (B.C. 2) καὶ γὰρ ἐγὼ ὅλος διαπον [ο ]ῦμαι εἰ Ἕλενος χαλκοὺς ἀπόλε [σ ]εν , ";I am quite upset at Helenos’ loss of the money"; (Edd.), the same phrase seems to do little more than introduce a new subject. In P Flor III. 367.6 (iii/A.D.) καὶ γὰρ καὶ πολλάκις μου ἐπιστείλαντός σοι κτλ ., the locution introduces the ground of a complaint just conveyed in the mention of the addressee’s ἀπάνθρωποι . ἐπιστολαί . The ordinary uses of γάρ need not be illustrated, unless we give one example of the γάρ beginning an exposition of a matter just announced, where our idiom omits : thus P Rein 77 (? B.C. 141) h̔̓ν ̣άγ ̣κασμαι τ ̣η ̣̣ν ἐφ᾽ ὑμα ̣̑ς καταϕ ̣υγη ̣̣ν π [οι ]ήσασθ ̣αι ἵν ̣α τ ̣ύχω βοηθείας . Το ̣ῦ γα ̣̣ρ κτλ . (the statement of grievance follows).
[Supplemental from 1930 edition]
For γάρ , as in Mark 16:8, cf. P Amh II. 133.4 (early ii/A.D.), P Oxy IX. 1223.33 (late iv/A.D.).
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.