the Week of Proper 21 / Ordinary 26
Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #1537 - ἐκ
- out of, from, by, away from
before a vowel ἐξ, also ἐξ τῳ ϝοίκῳ Inscr.Cypr. 135.5 H., in Att. Inscrr. before ς ξ ζ ρ and less freq. λ; ἐγ- in Inscrr. before β γ δ λ μ ν ; Cret. and Boeot. ἐς Leg.Gort. 2.49, Corinn. Supp. 2.67; ἐχ freq. in Att. Inscrr. before χ φ θ (and in early Inscrr. before ς, IG 12.304.20); also ἐ Ναυπάκτω ib.9(1).334.8 (Locr.); (ἐτ is for ἐπὶ in ib 9(2).517.14 (Thess.)): — Pr governing GEN. only (exc. in Cypr. and Arc., c. dat., Inscr.Cypr. 135.5 H. (Idalium), (in form ἐς) IG 5(2).6.49 (Tegea, iv B.C.)): — radical sense, from out of, freq. also simply, from.
I OF PLACE, the most freq. usage, variously modified:
1 of Motion, out of, forth from, ἐκ Πύλου ἐλθὼν τηλόθεν ἐξ ἀπίης γαίης Il. 1.269, cf. Pl. Prt. 321c, etc.; μάχης ἔκ Il. 17.207; ἂψ ἐκ δυσμενέων ἀνδρῶν 24.288; ἐξ ὀχέων, ἐξ ἕδρης, 3.29, 19.77; φεύγειν ἐκ πολέμοιο 7.119; ἐκ τῶν πολεμίων ἐλθεῖν X. Cyr. 6.2.9; ἐκ χειρῶν γέρας εἵλετο Il. 9.344, cf. S. Ph. 1287 (but ἐκ χειρὸς βάλλειν or παίειν to strike with a spear in the hand, opp. ἀντιτοξεύειν or ἀκοντίζειν, X. An. 3.3.15, Cyr. 4.3.16; ἐκ χειρὸς τὴν μάχην ποιεῖσθαι ib. 6.2.16, cf. 6.3.24, etc.); ἐκ χρυσῶν φιαλῶν πίνειν ib. 5.3.3; ἐξ ἀγορᾶς ὠνεῖσθαι Pl.Com. 190.
2. ἐκ θυμοῦ φίλεον I loved her from my heart, with all my heart, Il. 9.343; ἐκ τῆς ψυχῆς ἀσπάσασθαι X. Oec. 10.4; μέγαν ἐκ θυμοῦ κλάζοντες Ἄρη A. Ag. 48 (anap.); δακρυχέων ἐκ φρενός Id. Th. 919 (anap.); οὐδὲν ἐκ σαυτῆς λέγεις S. El. 344; ἐξ εὐμενῶν στέρνων δέχεσθαι receive with kindly heart, Id. OC 486; ἐξ ὀμμάτων ὀρθῶν δὲ κἀξ ὀρθῆς φρενός Id. OT 528; ὀρθὸς ἐξ ὀρθῶν δίφρων with chariot still upright, Id. El. 742; ἐξ ἀκινήτου ποδός Id. Tr. 875; ἐξ ἑνὸς ποδός Id. Ph. 91.
3. to denote change or succession, freq. with an antithetic repetition of the same word, δέχεται κακὸν ἐκ κακοῦ one evil comes from (or after) another, Il. 19.290; ἐκ φόβου φόβον τρέφω S. Tr. 28; πόλιν ἐκ πόλεως ἀμείβειν, ἀλλάττειν, Pl. Sph. 224b, Plt. 289e; λόγον ἐκ λόγου λέγειν D. 18.313; πόρους ἐκ πόρων ὑπισχνούμενοι Alciphr. 1.8; ἀπαλλάττειν τινὰ ἐκ γόων S. El. 291; ἐκ κακῶν πεφευγέναι Id. Ant. 437: hence, instead of, τυφλὸς ἐκ δεδορκότος Id. OT 454; λευκὴν..ἐκ μελαίνης ἀμφιβάλλομαι τρίχα Id. Ant. 1093; ἐλεύθερος ἐκ δούλου καὶ πλούσιος ἐκ πτωχοῦ γεγονώς D. 18.131, cf. X. An. 7.7.28, etc.
4. to express separation or distinction from a number, ἐκ πολέων πίσυρες four out of many, Il. 15.680; μοῦνος ἐξ ἁπάντων σωθῆναι Hdt. 5.87; εἶναι ἐκ τῶν δυναμένων to be one of the wealthy, Pl. Grg. 525e; ἐμοὶ ἐκ πασέων Ζεὺς ἄλγε' ἔδωκεν to me out of (i.e. above) all, Il. 18.431, cf. 432; ἐκ πάντων μάλιστα 4.96, cf. S. Ant. 1137 (lyr.), etc.; redundant, εἷς τῶν ἐκ τῶν φίλων σου LXX Jd. 15.2.
5. of Position, outside of, beyond, chiefly in early writers, ἐκ βελέων out of shot, Il. 14.130, etc.; ἐκ καπνοῦ out of the smoke, Od. 19.7; ἐκ πατρίδος banished from one's country, 15.272; ἐκ μεσου κατῆστο sate down apart from the company, Hdt. 3.83; ἐξ ἠθέων τὸν ἥλιον ἀνατεῖλαι out of its accustomed quarters, Id. 2.142; ἐξ ὀφθαλμῶν out of sight, Id. 5.24; ἐξ ὁδοῦ out of the road, S. OC 113.
6. with Verbs of Rest, where previous motion is implied, on, in, δαῖέ οἱ ἐκ κόρυθος..πῦρ lighted a fire from (i.e. on) his helmet, Il. 5.4; ἐκ ποταμοῦ χρόα ϝίζετο washed his body in the river (with water from the river), Od. 6.224: freq. with Verbs signifying hang or fasten, σειρήν..ἐξ οὐρανόθεν κρεμάσαντες having hung a chain from heaven, Il. 8.19; ἐκ πασσαλόφι κρέμασεν φόρμιγγα he hung his lyre from (i.e. on) the peg, Od. 8.67; ἀνάπτεσθαι ἔκ τινος fasten from i.e. upon) a thing, 12.51; μαχαίρας εἶχον ἐξ ἀργυρέων τελαμώνων Il. 18.598; πρισθεὶς ἐξ ἀντύγων gripped to the chariot-rail, S. Aj. 1030, etc.; ἐκ τοῦ βραχίονος ἵππον ἐπέλκουσα leading it [by a rein] upon her arm, Hdt. 5.12: with Verbs signifying hold, lead, ἐξ ἐκείνων ἔχειν τὰς ἐλπίδας to have their hopes dependent upon them, Th. 1.84; ἐκ χειρὸς ἄγειν lead by the hand, Bion Fr. 7.2; ἐκ ποδὸς ἕπεσθαι ib. 6.2; ἐκ τῆς οὐρᾶς λαμβάνεσθαι Luc. Asin. 23: with the Art. indicating the place of origin, οἱ ἐκ τῶν νήσων κακοῦργοι the robbers of the islands, Th. 1.8, cf. 2.5, 13; τοὺς ἐκ τῆς ναυμαχίας those in the sea-fight, Pl. Ap. 32b; τοὺς ἐκ τῶν σκηνῶν those in the tents, D. 18.169; ἁρπασόμενοι τὰ ἐκ τῶν οἰκιῶν X. Cyr. 7.2.5; οἱ ἐκ τοῦ πεδίου ἔθεον Id. An. 4.6.25: even with Verbs of sitting or standing, εἰσεῖδε στᾶσ' ἐξ Οὐλύμποιο from Olympus where she stood, Il. 14.154; καθῆσθαι ἐκ πάγων to sit on the heights and look from them, S. Ant. 411; στὰς ἐξ ἐπάλξεων ἄκρων E. Ph. 1009; ἐκ βυθοῦ at the bottom, Theoc. 22.40: phrases, ἐκ δεξιᾶς, ἐξ ἀριστερᾶς, on the right, left, X. Cyr. 8.3.10, etc.; οἱ ἐξ ἐναντίας, οἱ ἐκ πλαγίοὐ ib. 7.1.20; ἐκ θαλάσσης, opp. ἐκ τῆς μεσογείας, D. 18.301.
7. νικᾶν ἔκ τινος win a victory over.., Revelation 15:2.
II OF TIME,
1. elliptic with Pron. relat. and demonstr., ἐξ οὗ [ χρόνου ] since, Il. 1.6, Od. 2.27, etc.; in apod., ἐκ τοῦ from that time, Il. 8.296; ἐκ τούτου X. An. 5.8.15, etc. (but ἐκ τοῖο there after, Il. 1.493, and ἐκ τούτων or ἐκ τῶνδε usu. after this, X. Mem. 2.9.4, S. OT 235); ἐξ ἐκείνου Th. 2.15; ἐκ πολλοῦ (sc. χρόνου) for a long time, Id. 1.68, etc.; ἐκ πλέονος χρόνου Id. 8.45; ἐκ πλείστου ib. 68; ἐξ ὀλίγου at short notice, Id. 2.11 (but also a short time since, Plu. Caes. 28); ἐκ παλαιοῦ X. Mem. 3.5.8; ἐκ παλαιτάτου Th. 1.18.
2. of particular points of time, ἐκ νεότητος..ἐς γῆρας Il. 14.86; ἐκ γενετῆς 24.535; ἐκ νέου, ἐκ παιδός, from boyhood, Pl. Grg. 510d, R. 374c, etc.; ἐκ μικροῦ παιδαρίου D. 53.19; ἐξ ἀρχῆς A. Eu. 284, etc.; καύματος ἔξ after hot weather, Il. 5.865; νέφος ἔρχεται οὐρανὸν εἴσω αἰθέρος ἐκ δίης after clear weather, 16.365; ἐκ δὲ αἰθρίης καὶ νηνεμίης συνδραμεῖν ἐξαπίνης νέφεα Hdt. 1.87; so (like ἀπό II) ἐκ τῆς θυσίης γενέσθαι to have just finished sacrifice, ib. 50, etc.; ἐκ τοῦ ἀρίστου after breakfast, X. An. 4.6.21; ἐξ εἰρήνης πολεμεῖν to go to war after peace, Th. 1.120; γελάσαι ἐκ τῶν ἔμπροσθεν δακρύων X. Cyr. 1.4.28; κάλλιστον ἦμαρ εἰσιδεῖν ἐκ χείματος A. Ag. 900; τὴν θάλασσαν ἐκ Διονυσίων πλόϊμον εἶναι Thphr. Char. 3.3; ἐκ χειμῶνος at the end of winter, Plu. Nic. 20.
3. at, in, ἐκ νυκτῶν Od. 12.286; ἐκ νυκτός X. Cyr. 1.4.2, etc.; ἐξ ἡμέρας S. El. 780; ἐκ μέσω ἄματος Theoc. 10.5; ἐκ τοῦ λοιποῦ or ἐκ τῶν λοιπῶν for the future, X. Smp. 4.56, Pl. Lg. 709e.
III OF ORIGIN,
1 of Material, out of or of which things are made, γίγνεταί τι ἔκ τινος Parm. 8.12; ποιέεσθαι ἐκ ξύλων τὰ πλοῖα Hdt. 1.194; πίνοντας ἐκ κριθῶν μέθυ A. Supp. 953; εἶναι ἐξ ἀδάμαντος Pl. R. 616c; ἐκ λευκῶ ἐλέφαντος αἰετοί Theoc. 15.123; στράτευμα ἀλκιμώτατον ἂν γένοιτο ἐκ παιδικῶν X. Smp. 8.32; συνετάττετο ἐκ τῶν ἔτι προσιόντων formed line of battle from the troops as they marched up, Id. An. 1.8.14.
2. of Parentage, ἔκ τινος εἶναι, γενέσθαι, etc., Il. 20.106, 6.206, etc.; ἐκ γὰρ ἐμεῦ γένος ἐσσί (where γένος is acc. abs.) 5.896; σῆς ἐξ αἵματός εἰσι γενέθλης 19.111; ὦ παῖ πατρὸς ἐξ Ἀχιλλέως S. Ph. 260; πίρωμις ἐκ πιρώμιος Hdt. 2.143; ἀγαθοὶ καὶ ἐξ ἀγαθῶν Pl. Phdr. 246a; τὸν ἐξ ἐμῆς μητρός S. Ant. 466, etc.
3. of Place of Origin or Birth, ἐκ Σιδῶνος..εὔχομαι εἶναι Od. 15.425, cf. Th. 1.25, etc.; ἐκ τῶν ἄνω εἰμί John 8:23; ἡ ἐξ Ἀρείου πάγου βουλή the Areopagus, Arist. Ath. 4.4, etc.; οἱ ἐκ τῆς διατριβῆς ταύτης Aeschin. 1.54; οἱ ἐκ τοῦ Περιπάτου the Peripatetics, Luc. Pisc. 43; ὁ ἐξ Ἀκαδημείας the Academic, Ath. 1.34b; οἱ ἐκ πίστεως Galatians 3:7; οἱ ἐξ ἐριθείας Romans 2:8.
4. of the Author or Occasion of a thing, ὄναρ, τιμὴ ἐκ Διός ἐστιν, Il. 1.63, 2.197, cf. Od. 1.33, A. Pers. 707, etc.; θάνατος ἐκ μνηστήρων death by the hand of the suitors, Od. 16.447; τὰ ἐξ Ἑλλήνων τείχεα walls built by them, Hdt. 2.148; κίνημα ἐξ αὑτοῦ spontaneous motion, Plot. 6.1.21; ὕμνος ἐξ Ἐρινύων A. Eu. 331 (lyr.); ἡ ἐξ ἐμοῦ δυσβουλία S. Ant. 95; ὁ ἐξ ἐμοῦ πόθος Id. Tr. 631.
5. with the agent after Pass. Verbs, by, Poet. and early Prose, ἐφίληθεν ἐκ Διός they were beloved of (i.e. by) Zeus, Il. 2.669; κήδε' ἐφῆπται ἐκ Διός ib. 70; προδεδόσθαι ἐκ Πρηξάσπεος Hdt. 3.62; τὰ λεχθέντα ἐξ Ἀλεξάνδρου Id. 7.175, cf. S. El. 124 (lyr.), Ant. 93, Th. 3.69, Pl. Ti. 47b; ἐξ ἁπάντων ἀμφισβητήσεται Id. Tht. 171b; ὁμολογουμένους ἐκ πάντων X. An. 2.6.1; τὰς ἐκ θεῶν τύχας δοθείσας S. Ph. 1316, cf. Pl. Ly. 204c: with neut. Verbs, ἐκ..πατρὸς κακὰ πείσομαι Od. 2.134, cf. A. Pr. 759; τλῆναί τι ἔκ τινος Il. 5.384; θνήσκειν ἔκ τινος S. El. 579, OT 854, etc.; τὰ γενόμενα ἐξ ἀνθρώπων Hdt. 1.1.
6. of Cause, Instrument, or Means by which a thing is done, ἐκ πατέρων φιλότητος in consequence of our fathers' friendship, Od. 15.197; μήνιος ἐξ ὀλοῆς 3.135; ἐξ ἔριδος Il. 7.111; τελευτῆσαι ἐκ τοῦ τρώματος Hdt. 3.29; ἐκ τίνος λόγου; E. Andr. 548; ἐκ τοῦ; wherefore? Id. Hel. 93; λέξον ἐκ τίνος ἐπλήγης X. An. 5.8.4; ποιεῖτε ὑμῖν φίλους ἐκ τοῦ Μαμωνᾶ τῆς ἀδικίας make yourselves friends of (i.e. by means of).., Luke 16:9; ζῆν ἔκ τινος X. HG 3.2.11 codd.; ἐκ τῶν ἰδίων τρέφειν ἐμαυτόν Isoc. 15.152; ἐκ τόξων ἀνύσαι γαστρὶ φορβάν S. Ph. 710 (lyr.).
7. in accordance with, ἐκ τῶν λογίων Hdt. 1.64; ὁ ἐκ τῶν νόμων χρόνος D. 24.28; ἐκ κελεύματος A. Pers. 397, cf. Sophr. 25; ἐκ τῶν ξυγκειμένων Th. 5.25; ἐκ τῶν παρόντων ib. 40, etc.; ἐκ τῶν ἔργων κρινόμενοι X. Cyr. 2.2.21, cf. A. Pr. 485.
8. freq. as periphr. for Adv., ἐκ προνοίας IG 12.115.11; ἐκ βίας by force, S. Ph. 563; ἐκ δόλου Id. El. 279; ἐκ παντὸς τρόπου ζητεῖν Pl. R. 499a: esp. with neut. Adjs., ἐξ ἀγχιμόλοιο, = ἀγχίμολον, Il. 24.352; ἐκ τοῦ ἐμφανέος Hdt. 3.150; ἐκ τοῦ φανεροῦ, ἐκ τοῦ προφανοῦς, Th. 4.106, 6.73; ἐκ προδήλου S. El. 1429; ἐξ ἴσου, ἐκ τοῦ ἴσου, Id. Tr. 485, Th. 2.3; ἐξ ἀέλπτου Hdt. 1.111, etc.: with fem. Adj., ἐκ τῆς ἰθέης Id. 3.127; ἐκ νέης Id. 5.116; ἐξ ὑστέρης Id. 6.85; ἐκ τῆς ἀντίης Id. 8.6; ἐκ καινῆς Th. 3.92; ἐξ ἑκουσίας S. Tr. 727; ἐκ ταχείας ib. 395.
9. of Number or Measurement, with numerals, ἐκ τρίτων in the third place, E. Or. 1178, Pl. Grg. 500a, Smp. 213b; distributively, apiece, Ath. 15.671b. of Price, ἐξ ὀκτὼ ὀβολῶν SIG 2587.206; ἐκ τριῶν δραχμῶν ib.283; συμφωνήσας ἐκ δηναρίου Matthew 20:2. of Weight, ἐπιπέμματα ἐξ ἡμιχοινικίου Inscr.Prien. 362 (iv B.C.). of Space, θινώδης ὢν ὁ τόπος ἐξ εἴκοσι σταδίων by the space of twenty stades, Str. 8.3.19. ἐκ is freq. separated from its CASE, Il. 11.109, etc. — It takes an accent in anastrophe, 14.472, Od. 17.518. — use it with Advbs. in -θεν, ἐξ οὐρανόθεν, ἐξ ἁλόθεν, ἐξ Αἰσύμηθεν, Il. 17.548, 21.335, 8.304; ἐκ Διόθεν Hes. Op. 765; ἐκ πρῴρηθεν Theoc. 22.11. — It is combined with other Preps. to make the sense more definite, as διέκ, παρέκ, ὑπέκ.
IN COMPO S.
1. the sense of removal prevails; out, away, off.
2. to express completion, like our utterly, ἐκπέρθω, ἐξαλαπάζω, ἐκβαρβαρόω, ἐκδιδάσκω, ἐκδιψάω, ἐκδωριεύομαι, ἐξοπλίζω, ἐξομματόω, ἔκλευκος, ἔκπικρος.
As ADVERB, therefrom, Il. 18.480.
ἐκ, before a vowel ἐξ, a preposition governing the genitive. Also, it denotes exit or emission out of, as separation from, something with which there has been close connection; opposed to the prepositions εἰς into and ἐν in: from out of, out from, forth from, from, (Latine, ex) (cf. Winers Grammar, 364, 366f (343f); Buttmann, 326f (281)). It is used
I. of place, and
1. universally, of the place from which; from a surrounding or enclosing place, from the interior of: ἄρτος, ἄγγελος, φῶς ἐξ οὐρανοῦ, John 6:31; Acts 9:3 (here R G ἀπό); Galatians 1:8; ἀνατολή, δύναμις ἐξ ὕψους, Luke 1:78; Luke 24:49; especially after verbs of going, fleeing, leading, calling, freeing, removing, releasing, etc.: ἥκειν ἐκ τῆς Ἰουδαίας εἰς τήν Γαλιλαίαν, John 4:47; ἐξέρχεσθαι ἐκ τίνος out of the body of one (spoken of demons), Mark 1:25; Mark 5:8 (here L marginal reading ἀπό);
2. from the midst (of a group, number, company, community) of many;
a. after verbs of going, leading, choosing, removing, etc.
a. before collective nouns, as ἐξολεθρεύω ἐκ τοῦ λαοῦ, Acts 3:23; προβιβάζω or συμβιβάζω ἐκ τοῦ ὄχλου, Acts 19:33; ἐκλέγειν ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου, John 15:19. μέσου τινων ἀφορίζειν, Matthew 13:49; ἐξέρχεσθαι, Acts 17:33; ἁρπάζειν, Acts 23:10; ἐξαίρειν, 1 Corinthians 5:13; πάσης φυλῆς καί γλώσσης ἀγοράζειν, Revelation 5:9; ἐκ παντός γένους συνάγειν, Matthew 13:47. β. before plurals: ἀνισταναι τινα ἐκ τινων, Acts 3:22; ἐκ νεκρῶν, Acts 17:31; ἀνίσταται τίς ἐκ νεκρῶν, Acts 10:41; Acts 17:3; ἐγείρειν τινα ἐκ νεκρῶν, John 12:1, 9, 17; Acts 3:15; Acts 4:10; Acts 13:30; Hebrews 11:19, etc.; ἡ ἀνάστασις ἐκ νεκρῶν, Luke 20:35; 1 Peter 1:3; ἀνάγειν τινα ἐκ νεκρῶν, Romans 10:7; ἐκλέγειν, Acts 1:24; Acts 15:22; καλεῖν, Romans 9:24; ἐγένετο ζήτησις ἐκ τῶν etc. John 3:25 (but cf. II. 1 b.; Winers Grammar, 368 (345)).
b. before words signifying quantity: after εἰς, as Matthew 10:29; Matthew 26:21; Luke 17:15, and often; πολλοί, John 11:19, 45, etc.; οἱ πλείους (πλείονες), 1 Corinthians 15:6; οὐδείς, John 7:19; John 16:5, and elsewhere; χιλιάδες ἐκ πάσης φυλῆς, Revelation 7:4; after the indefinite τίς, Luke 11:15; Luke 12:13; John 6:64; John 7:48; τίς γυνή ἐκ τοῦ ὄχλου, Luke 11:27; with τινες to be added mentally (cf. Winers Grammar, 203 (191); Buttmann, 158 (138)): John 9:40 ((?) better,
c. εἶναι ἐκ τινων, to be of the number, company, fellowship, etc., of; see εἰμί, V. 3 a.
3. from a local surfacc, as sometimes the Latinex forde; down from: καταβαίνειν ἐκ τοῦ ὄρους (Homer II. 13, 17; Xenophon, an. 7, 4, 12; the Sept. Exodus 19:14; Exodus 32:1; Deuteronomy 9:15; Deuteronomy 10:5; Joshua 2:23), Matthew 17:9 (for the more common ἀπό τοῦ ὄρους of Rec. and the parallel passage Mark 9:9 (here L WH text Tr marginal reading ἐκ); Luke 9:37; (cf. Matthew 8:1)); θρίξ ἐκ τῆς κεφαλῆς ἀπόλλυται (unless we prefer to regard ἐκ as prompted here by the conception of the hair as fixed in the skin), Luke 21:18; Acts 27:34 (here L T Tr WH ἀπό; cf. Winer's Grammar, 364 (342) note); ἐκπίπτειν ἐκ τῶν χειρῶν, of the chains with which the hands had been bound, Acts 12:7; κρέμασθαι ἐκ τίνος, Acts 28:4, (1 Macc. 1:61; 2 Macc. 6:10; so the Greeks from Homer down); φαγεῖν ἐκ τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου, the things laid upon the altar, Hebrews 13:10. Akin to this is ἐξελθεῖν ἐκ τοῦ Θεοῦ, from an abode with God (for the more usual ἀπό τοῦ Θεοῦ), John 8:42.
4. of the direction whence; ἐκ δεξιῶν, Latina dextra, literally, from i. e. (German zu) on the right, see δεξιός; so ἐκ δεξιᾶς, ἐξ ἀριστερᾶς, namely, χώρας (or χειρός which is sometimes expressed; Winers Grammar, 592 cf. 591; Buttmann, 82 (72)) (also in Greek writ, as Xenophon, Cyril 8, 5, 15); ἐξ ἐναντίας, over against, Mark 15:39 (Herodotus 8, 6; Sir. 37:9; 1 Macc. 4:34; Wis. 4:20); metaphorically (Winer's Grammar, § 51, 1 d.) ὁ ἐξ ἐναντίας (A. V. he that is of the contrary part), our opponent, adversary," Titus 2:8; ἐκ ῤιζῶν, from the roots, i. e. utterly, Mark 11:20 (Job 28:9; Job 31:12).
5. of the conditon or state out of which one comes or is brought: σῴζειν ἐκ θανάτου Hebrews 5:7; James 5:20; ἔρχεσθαι ἐκ (Lachmann ἀπό) θλίψεως, Revelation 7:14; μεταβαίνειν ἐκ τοῦ θανάτου εἰς τήν ζωήν, John 5:24; 1 John 3:14; ἐγερθῆναι ἐξ ὕπνου, Romans 13:11 (cf. Winer's Grammar, 366 (344) note); ζῶντες ἐκ νεκρῶν, alive from being dead (i. e. who had been dead and were alive again), Romans 6:13; ζωή ἐκ νεκρῶν, i. e. of those that had been νεκροί, Romans 11:15 (ἐλεύθερος ἐκ δούλου καί πλούσιος ἐκ πτωχοῦ γεγονώς, Demosthenes, p. 270 at the end ἐκ πλουσίου πένητα γενέσθαι καί ἐκ βασιλέως ἰδιωτην φανῆναι, Xenophon, an. 7, 7, 28; γίγνομαι τυφλός ἐκ dedorkotos, Sophocles O. T. 454; ἔλαφον ἐξ ἀνδρός γενέσθαι, Palaeph. 3, 2; add, Lysias, adv. Ergocl. at the beginning; Tacitus, ann. 1, 74ex pauperibus divites, ex contemtis metuendi). Also of the state out of the midst of which one does something: ἐκ πολλῆς θλψεως γράφειν, 2 Corinthians 2:4.
6. of any kind of separation or dissolution of connection with a thing or person (cf. Buttmann, 157 (138)): ἀναπαύεσθαι ἐκ (released from) τῶν κόπων, Revelation 14:13; ἀνανήφειν ἐκ (set free from) τῆς τοῦ διαβόλου παγίδος, 2 Timothy 2:26; μετανοῶν ἐκ etc. Revelation 2:21; Revelation 9:20; Revelation 16:11;ἐπιστρέφειν (L T Tr WH ὑψτρέφειν) ἐκ ((L ἀπό), by severing their connection with) τῆς ἐντολῆς, 2 Peter 2:21; τηρεῖν τινα ἐκ etc. to keep one at a distance from etc. (cf. Buttmann, 327 (281)), John 17:15; Revelation 3:10; also διατήρειν, Acts 15:29 νικαν ἐκ τίνος, by conquest to free oneself from the power of one (cf. Buttmann, 147 (128); Winer's Grammar, 367 (344)), Revelation 15:2; ὑψουσθαι ἐκ τῆς γῆς, to be so lifted up as to dissolve present relations to the earth (`taken out of the sphere of earthly action' Westcott), John 12:32; ἐλεύθερος ἐκ πάντων (elsewhere always ἀπό τίνος), 1 Corinthians 9:19.
7. Hebraistically: ἐκδίκειν τό αἷμα τίνος ἐκ χειρός τίνος (מִיָּד דָּם נִקַּם, 2 Kings 9:7), to avenge the blood (murder) of one at the hand of (on) the slayer, Revelation 19:2 (Buttmann, 182 (158)); κρίνειν τό κρίμα τίνος ἐκ τίνος, to judge one's judgment on one, vindicate by vengeance on (cf. Buttmann, as above), Revelation 18:20 (cf. the Sept. Psalm 118:84
II. of the origin, source, cause;
1. of generation, birth, race, lineage, nativity;
a. after verbs of begetting, being born, etc.: ἐν γαστρί ἔχειν ἐκ τίνος, Matthew 1:18, cf. Matthew 1:20; κοίτην ἔχειν ἐκ τ., Romans 9:10; γενναν τινα ἐκ with the genitive of the woman, Matthew 1:3, 5f, 16; γίνεσθαι ἐκ γυναικός to be born of a woman, Galatians 4:4 cf. Galatians 4:22f; γέννασθαι ἐξ αἱμάτων, ἐκ θελήματος σαρκός, John 1:13; ἐκ τῆς σαρκός, John 3:6; ἐκ πορνείας, John 8:41; ἐγείρειν τίνι τέκνα ἐκ, Matthew 3:9; Luke 3:8; (τίς) ἐκ καρποῦ τῆς ὀσφύος αὐτοῦ, Acts 2:30 (Psalm 131:11
b. εἶναι, γενέσθαι, ἔρχεσθαι, etc., ἐκ with the name of the city, race, people, tribe, family, etc., to spring or originate from, come from: ἐκ Ναζαρέτ εἶναι, John 1:46 (47); ἐκ πόλεως, John 1:44 (45); ἐξ ὧν, namely, πατέρων (?), Romans 9:5; ἐξ οἴκου τίνος, Luke 1:27; Luke 2:4; ἐκ γένους, Philippians 3:5; Acts 4:6; Ἑβραῖος ἐξ Ἑβραίων, Philippians 3:5; ἐκ φυλῆς, Luke 2:36; Acts 13:21; Romans 11:1; ἐξ Ιουδα, Hebrews 7:14; ἐκ σπέρματος τίνος, John 7:42; Romans 1:3; Romans 11:1; without a verb: ἐξ ἐθνῶν ἁμαρτωλοί, sinners of Gentile birth, Galatians 2:15; of the country to which anyone belongs: εἶναι ἐκ τῆς ἐξουσίας Ἡρῴδου, Luke 23:7; ἐξ ἐπαρχίας, Acts 23:34; ὁ ὤν ἐκ τῆς γῆς, John 3:31.
2. of any other kind of origin: καπνός ἐκ τῆς δόξης τοῦ Θεοῦ, Revelation 15:8; ἐκ τῶν Ἰουδαίων ἐστι, comes from the Jews, John 4:22; εἶναι ἐκ τίνος, to proceed from anyone as the author, Matthew 5:37; John 7:17, 22; Romans 2:29; 2 Corinthians 4:7; 1 John 2:16, 21, etc.; with ἐστιν to be mentally supplied: Romans 11:36; 1 Corinthians 8:6 (see εἰς, B. II. 3 c. a.) 1 Corinthians 11:12; 2 Corinthians 3:5; 2 Corinthians 5:18; Galatians 5:8; ἔργα ἐκ τοῦ πατρός μου, works of which my father is the author, i. e. which I, endued with my father's power, have wrought, John 10:32; οἰκοδομή ἐκ Θεοῦ, whose author is God, 2 Corinthians 5:1; χάρισμα, 1 Corinthians 7:7; δεδομένον ἐκ τοῦ πατρός, John 6:65; add, John 18:3; 1 Corinthians 7:7. ἡ ἐκ Θεοῦ δικαιοσύνη, that comes from God, i. e. is adjudged by him, Philippians 3:9; ἡ ἐξ ὑμῶν ἐν ἡμῖν (WH text ἡμῖν ἐν ὑμῖν ἀγάπη, love preceding from you and taking up its abode in us, i. e. your love the influence of which we feel (Winers Grammar, 193 (181f); Buttmann, 157 (137)), 2 Corinthians 8:7; ὁ ἐξ ὑμῶν ζῆλος, your zeal, 2 Corinthians 9:2 (R G; cf. Winers Grammar, as above note; Buttmann, as above); βλασφημία ἐκ τίνος, calumny from, i. e. disseminated by, Revelation 2:9 (not Rec.); εἶναι ἐξ οὐρανοῦ, ἐξ ἀνθρώπων see εἰμί, V. 3 c.; with the suggested idea of a nature and disposition derived from one's origin: οὐκ ἐστιν ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου τούτου, is not of earthly origin nor of earthly nature, John 18:36; ἐκ τῆς γῆς ἐστιν, is of an earthly nature, John 3:31; ἐκ τῆς γῆς λαλεῖν, to speak as an earthly origin prompts, ibid.; human virtues are said to be from God, as having their prototype in God and being wrought in the soul by his power, ἡ ἀγάπη ἐκ τοῦ Θεοῦ ἐστιν, 1 John 4:7.
3. of the material out of which a thing is made, etc.: ἡ γυνή ἐκ τοῦ ἀνδρός, from one of his ribs, 1 Corinthians 11:12; στέφανον ἐξ ἀκανθῶν, Matthew 27:29; John 19:2; add, John 2:15; John 9:6; Romans 9:21; 1 Corinthians 15:47; Revelation 18:12; Revelation 21:21.
4. Its use to note the price is related, because the money is as it were, changed into that which is bought (the simple genitive of price is more common, cf. Winers Grammar, 206 (194); (Buttmann, § 132, 13)): ἀγοράζειν τί ἐκ τίνος, Matthew 27:7 (Baruch 6 (i. e., epistle of Jeremiah); Matthew 27:24); κτᾶσθαι ἐκ, Acts 1:18 (ὠνεῖσθαι ἐκ, Palaeph. 46, 3f); συμφώνειν ἐκ δηναρίου (because the agreement comes from the promised denary (cf. Winers Grammar, 368 (345); Buttmann, as above)), Matthew 20:2. Cognate to this is the phrase ποιεῖν ἑαυτῷ φίλους ἐκ τοῦ μαμωνᾷ Luke 16:9.
5. especially after neuter and passive verbs, ἐκ is used of the cause (whether thing or person) by which the act expressed by the accompanying verb is aided, sustained, effected: ὠφελεῖσθαι ἐκ τίνος, Matthew 15:5; Mark 7:11; ζημιουσθαι, 2 Corinthians 7:9; λυπεῖσθαι, 2 Corinthians 2:2; especially in the Apocalypse: ἀδικεῖσθαι, Revelation 2:11; ἀποθανεῖν, Revelation 8:11; (ἀποκτείνεσθαι), Revelation 9:18; φωτίζεσθαι, Revelation 18:1; σκοτίζεσθαι (L T WH σκοτουσθαι), Revelation 9:2; πυροῦσθαι, Revelation 3:18; γεμίζεσθαι Revelation 15:8 (cf. Isaiah 6:4); John 6:13; γέμειν, Matthew 23:25 (where L omits; Tr brackets ἐξ); πληροῦσθαι, John 12:3 (Treg. margin ἐπλήσθη); χορτάζεσθαι, Revelation 19:21; πλουτεῖν, Revelation 18:3, 19; μεθύσκεσθαι, μεθύειν Revelation 17:2, 6 (not Treg. margin); ζῆν ἐκ, Romans 1:17; 1 Corinthians 9:14; Galatians 3:11; αὔξησιν ποιεῖσθαι, Ephesians 4:16; Colossians 2:19; τελειουσθαι, James 2:22; κεκοπιακώς, John 4:6 (Aelian v. h. 3, 23 ἐκ τοῦ πότου ἐκάθευδεν). Also after active verbs: γεμίζειν, John 6:13; Revelation 8:5; ποτίζειν, Revelation 14:8; (on ἐκ with the genitive after verbs of fullness, cf. Buttmann, 163 (142f); Winer's Grammar, 201 (189)).
6. of that on which a thing depends, or from which it results: οὐκ ἐστιν ἡ ζωή ἐκ τῶν ὑπαρχόντων, does not depend upon possessions, i. e. possessions cannot secure life, Luke 12:15; εὐπορία ἡμῶν ἐστι ἐκ τῆς ἐργασίας ταύτης, Acts 19:25; τό ἐξ ὑμῶν, as far as depends on you, Romans 12:18; in the Pauline phrases δίκαιος, δικαιοσύνη, δικαιοῦν ἐκ πίστεως, ἐξ ἔργων, see (the several words, especially), p. 150; ἐξ (as the result of, in consequence of) ἔργων λαβεῖν τό πνεῦμα, Galatians 3:2, 5; ἐξ ἀναστάσεως λαβεῖν τούς νεκρούς, Hebrews 11:35; ἐσταυρώθη ἐξ ἀσθενείας, 2 Corinthians 13:4; add, Romans 11:6; Galatians 3:18, 21; Ephesians 2:8f.
7. of the power on which anyone depends, by which he is prompted and governed, whose character he reflects: ἐκ Θεοῦ (equivalent to θεοπνευστον) λαλεῖν, 2 Corinthians 2:17; in the Johannine expressions, εἶναι ἐκ Θεοῦ, John 8:47 (in a different sense above, II. 1 a.); ἐκ τοῦ διαβόλου, ἐκ τοῦ πονηροῦ, ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου, see εἰμί, V. 3 d.; ἐκ τῆς ἀληθείας εἶναι, to be led by a desire to know the truth, be a lover of the truth, John 18:37; 1 John 3:19; οἱ ἐκ νόμου, the subjects of the law, Romans 4:14; οἱ ἐξ ἐριθείας equivalent to οἱ ἐριθευόμενοι (cf. ἐριθεία), Romans 2:8; ὁ ἐκ πίστεως equivalent to ὁ πιστεύων, Romans 3:26; Romans 4:16. εἶναι ἐκ τίνος also means to be bound to one, connected with him; to have relations with him; see εἰμί, V. 3 d.; hence, the periphrasis οἱ ἐκ περιτομῆς, the circumcised: Acts 11:2; Romans 4:12; Galatians 2:12; οἱ ὄντες ἐκ περιτομῆς, Colossians 4:11; οἱ ἐκ περιτομῆς πιστοί, Jewish Christians, Acts 10:45.
8. of the cause for which: ἐκ τοῦ πόνου, for pain, Revelation 16:10; of the reason for (because of) which: Revelation 8:13; Revelation 16:11; ἐκ τούτου, John 6:66; John 19:12; cf. Meyer on these passages (who urges that ἐκ τούτου used of time denotes the point of departure of a temporal series (Winers Grammar, 367 (344)): from this time on, thenceforth. This argument seems not to be decisive in the second example (John 19:12), for there the verb is in the imperfect. On the use of the phrase in classic Greek see Liddell and Scott, under the word ἐκ, II. 1; Krüger, § 68, 17, 7. Cf. our English upon this, hereupon, in which the temporal sense and the causal often seem to blend. See below, IV. 1 at the end).
9. of the supply out of (from) which a thing is taken, given, received, eaten, drunk, etc. (cf. Winers Grammar, § 30, 7 and 8; Buttmann, 159ff (139ff)): λαμβάνειν ἐκ, John 1:16; John 16:14f; διδόναι, διαδιδοναι, Matthew 25:8; John 6:11; 1 John 4:13; ἐσθίειν, 1 Corinthians 9:7; 1 Corinthians 11:28; φαγεῖν, John 6:26, 50; Revelation 2:7; μετέχειν, 1 Corinthians 10:17 (but see μετέχω); πίνειν, Matthew 26:29; Mark 14:25; John 4:13; Revelation 14:10; Revelation 18:3 (differently in I. 1 above); λαλεῖν ἐκ τῶν ἰδίων, John 8:44; ἐκ τοῦ περισσεύματος τῆς καρδίας, Matthew 12:34; ἐκβάλλειν, Matthew 12:35 (this belongs here only in case θησαυρός is taken in the sense of treasure not treasury (the contents as distinguished from the repository); cf. I. 1 above, and under the word θησαυρός); βάλλειν ἐκ (a part), Mark 12:44; Luke 21:4.
11. of the whole of which anything is a part: 1 Corinthians 12:15f (cf. Winer's Grammar, 368 (345)).
12. of the source;
a. universally: ἐξ ἐμαυτοῦ οὐκ ἐλάλησα, John 12:49 (οὐδέν ἐκ σαυτης λέγεις, Sophocles El. 344).
b. of the source of conduct, as to be found in the state of the soul, its feelings, virtues, vices, etc.: ἐκ καρδίας, Romans 6:17; ἐκ ψυχῆς, Ephesians 6:6; Colossians 3:23 (1 Macc. 8:27; ἐκ τῆς ψυχῆς ἀσπάζεσθαι, Xenophon, oec. 10, 4); ἐκ καθαρᾶς καρδίας, 1 Timothy 1:5; 2 Timothy 2:22; 1 Peter 1:22 (L T Tr WH omit; καθαρᾶς); ἐξ ὅλης τῆς καρδίας ... ψυχῆς ... διανοίας κτλ. Mark 12:30ff (Wis. 8:21; 4 Macc. 7:18); ἐκ πίστεως, Romans 14:23; ἐξ εἰλικρινείας, 2 Corinthians 2:17; ἐξ ἐριθείας, Philippians 1:16 (17) (yet see ἐριθεία).
c. of the source of knowledge: κατηχεῖσθαι ἐκ, Romans 2:18; ἀκούειν ἐκ, John 12:34; γινώσκειν, Matthew 12:33; Luke 6:44; 1 John 4:6; ἐποπτεύειν, 1 Peter 2:12. δεικνύναι, James 2:18; ὁρίζειν, to declare, prove to be, Romans 1:4 (cf. under the word ὁίρζω, 2 and Meyer at the passage).
13. of that from which a rule of judging or acting is derived; after, according to (cf. Winer's Grammar, 368 (345)): κρίνειν ἐκ, Luke 19:22 (A. V. out of thine own mouth, etc.); Revelation 20:12 (Xenophon, Cyril 2, 2, 21 ἐκ τῶν ἔργων κρίνεσθαι); δικαιοῦν, καταδικάζειν, Matthew 12:37; ὀνομάζειν ἐκ, Ephesians 3:15 (Homer, Iliad 10, 68; Sophocles O. T. 1036, etc.); ἐκ τοῦ ἔχειν, according to your ability, 2 Corinthians 8:11.
III. By Attraction, common in classic Greek (cf. Winers Grammar, § 66, 6; (Buttmann, 377f (323))), two prepositions coalesce as it were into one, so that ἐκ seems to be used for ἐν, thus ἆραι τά ἐκ τῆς οἰκίας αὐτοῦ concisely for τά ἐν τῇ οἰκία αὐτοῦ ἐξ αὐτῆς, Matthew 24:17; ὁ πατήρ ὁ ἐξ οὐρανοῦ δώσει for ὁ πατήρ ὁ ἐν οὐρανῷ δώσει ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, Luke 11:13; τήν ἐκ Λαοδικείας ἀπιστολην for τήν εἰς Λαοδικείας γεγραμμένην καί ἐκ Λαοδικείας κομιστεαν, Colossians 4:16 (2 Macc. 3:18). (To this construction some would refer ἐπιγνούς ἐν ἑαυτῷ τήν ἐξ αὐτοῦ δύναμιν ἐξελθοῦσαν, Mark 5:30, resolving τήν ἐν αὐτῷ δύναμιν ἐξελθοῦσαν ἐξ αὐτοῦ; cf. Field, Otium Norvicense, pars 3 at the passage)
IV. of Time (Winer's Grammar, 367 (344));
1. of the (temporal) point from which; Latinex,inde a; from, from ... on, since: ἐκ χρόνων ἱκανῶν, Luke 8:27 (R G Tr marginal reading); ἐκ γενετῆς, John 9:1 (Homer, Iliad 24, 535; Odyssey 18, 6); ἐκ κοιλίας μητρός (see κολια, 4); ἐκ νεότητός, Matthew 19:20 (R G); Mark 10:20; Luke 18:21; Acts 26:4 (Homer, Iliad 14, 86); ἐκ τοῦ αἰῶνος (see αἰών, 1 b.), John 9:32 (Aelian v. h. 6, 13; 12, 64 ἐξ αἰῶνος); ἐξ ἀρχῆς, John 6:64; John 16:4; ἐκ γενεῶν ἀρχαίων, Acts 15:21; ἐξ ἐτῶν ὀκτώ, Acts 9:33; ἐκ πολλῶν ἐτῶν, Acts 24:10; ἐξ αὐτῆς (namely, ὥρας), forthwith, instantly (see ἐξαυτῆς); ἐξ ἱκανοῦ ((namely, χρόνου); but L T Tr WH here ἐξ ἱκανῶν χρόνων), of a long time, Luke 23:8 (ἐκ πολλοῦ, Thucydides 1, 68; 2, 88); with an adverb: ἐκ παιδιόθεν, Mark 9:21 L T Tr WH (ἐκ πρωίθεν, 1 Macc. 10:80), cf. Winers Grammar, § 65, 2; (Buttmann, 70 (62)). Many interpreters translate ἐκ τούτου, John 6:66; John 19:12, from this time, but cf. II. 8 above.
2. of succession in time, a temporal series: ἐκ δευτέρου (as it were, proceeding from, beginning from the second), a second time (see δεύτερος); ἐκ τρίτου, Matthew 26:44 (L Tr marginal reading brackets ἐκ τρίτου); ἡμέραν ἐξ ἡμέρας (diem ex die, Cicero, ad Att. 7, 26; Caesar b. g. 1, 16, 4;diem de die, Livy 5, 48) from day to day, day after day, 2 Peter 2:8 (Genesis 39:10; Numbers 30:15; (2 Chronicles 24:11); Sir. 5:7; Euripides, Rhes. 437 (445) etc.; ἔτος ἐξ ἔτους, Leviticus 25:50; ἐνιαυτόν ἐξ ἐνιαυτοῦ, Deuteronomy 15:20).
V. Adverbial phrases (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 51, 1d.), in which lies the idea
1. of direction whence: ἐξ ἐναντίας, cf. I. 4 above.
3. of the measure or standard: ἐκ μέρους, so that each is a part of the whole, proportionately (R. V. marginal reading each in his part), 1 Corinthians 12:27, cf. Meyer at the passage; in part, partly, 1 Corinthians 13:9ff; ἐκ μέτρου equivalent to μετρίως, by measure, moderately, sparingly, John 3:34; ἐξ ἰσότητος, by equality, in equal proportion, 2 Corinthians 8:13 (14) (ἐξ ἴσου, Herodotus 7, 135); ἐκ περισσοῦ, beyond measure, Mark 6:51 (WH omit; Tr. brackets).
VI. In Composition ἐκ denotes
1. egress ἐκβαίνω, ἐξέρχομαι.
2. emission, removal, separation: ἐκβάλλω, ἐκπέμπω, ἐξαιρέω.
3. origin: ἔκγονος.
4. publicity: ἐξαγγέλλω.
5. the unfolding, opening out, of something tied together or rolled up: ἐκτείνω, ἐκπετάννυμι.
6. is equivalent to utterly, entirely, παντελῶς (cf. English out and out), denoting completion and perfection: ἐκπληρόω, ἐκτελέω. Cf. Fritzsche on Matthew, p. 120f.
STRONGS NT 1537: ἐξ ἐξ, see ἐκ.
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ἐκ (ἐξ ),
prep. c. gen.,
from out of, from (see Addendum, p. 492).
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
It is unnecessary to illustrate at length the commoner uses of this preposition, but for the sense ";out of"; a place see P Par 26.29 (B.C. 163–2) (= Selections, p. 16) τοῦ δὲ τοῦ Ψινταέους υἱοῦ ἐκ τῆς Μέμφεως χωρισθέντος, ";but no sooner had the son of Psintaes departed from Memphis,"; followed a few lines further down by.32 f. ἄλλοι τῶν ἐκ τοῦ Σαραπιείου καὶ ἕτεροι τῶν ἐκ τοῦ Ἀσκληπιείου, where the meaning is somewhat weakened, ";connected with,"; ";belonging to"; the Serapeum and Asclepieum respectively. With this last usage cf. P Tebt I. 40.11 (B.C. 117) (= Sections, p. 28) αὐτὸς προθυμούμενος εἶναι ἐκ τῆς οἰκίας, ";being myself eager to be a member of your house,"; ib. 59.5 (B.C. 99) Σοκονώφεως καὶ Ὤιπεως τῶν ἐξ ὑμῶν, ";Sokonophis and Opis, members of your body"; (Edd.). For ἐκ used instead of the more common ἀπό to denote the inhabitants of a village or community cf. P Tebt I. 40.19 (B.C. 117) (= Selections, p. 28) ἐπαναγκάσαι τοὺς ἐκ τῆς κώμης κατακολουθεῖν τοῖς ἐξ ἀρχῆς ἐθισμοῖς, ";to compel the inhabitants of the village to follow the ancient customs"; : see also ib. 26.15 (B.C. 114) τοὺς ἐκ τῆς κώμης [β ]ασιλικοὺς γεωργούς, ib. 56.2 (late ii/B.C.) Πετεσοῦχος. . γ ̣[εωρ ]γ ̣ὸ ̣ς ̣ τῶν ἐκ Κερκεσήφεως.
Other miscellaneous exx. of a somewhat similar use of the preposition are—P Vat A.7 (B.C. 168) (= Witkowski.2, p. 65) διασεσῶσθαι ἐγ μεγάλων κινδύνων (cf. Acts 28:4, Hebrews 5:7), P Lond 42.14 (B.C. 168) (= I. p. 30, Selections, P. 10) ἐκ τοῦ το [ιού ]του καιροῦ ἐμαυτὴ [ν ] . . . διακεκυβερνηκυῖα, ";having piloted myself out of such a crisis,"; ib..27 ὑπὲρ τοῦ ἀπολελύσθαι σε ἐκ τῆς κατοχῆς, ";concerning your having been released from your retreat,"; P Tebt I. 5.77 (B.C. 118) τὰ εἰς τὴν ταφὴν τοῦ Ἄπιος. . ζ ̣ητεῖν ἐκ τοῦ βα (σιλικοῦ), and BGU III. 975.11, .15 (A.D. 45) (= Selections, p. 42 f.) οὐλὴ καστροκνημίῳ κξ ἀριστερο (ν) (l. γαστροκνημίῳ ἐξ ἀριστερῶ (ν)) . . . οὐλὴ κασ [τ ]ροκ [νη ]μιο ἐκ δεξιο (ν), ";a scar on the calf of the leg on the left side"; and ";a scar on the calf of the leg on the right side";; cf. a sinistra, a dextra.
The thought of origin comes out very clearly in the early marriage-contract P Eleph 1.9 (B.C. 311–0) (= Selections, p. 3) where it is laid down—μὴ ἐξέστω δὲ Ἡρακλείδηι. . . τεκνοποιεῖσθαι ἐξ ἄλλης γυναικός : cf. also the notice of birth P Fay 28.9 (A.D. 150–1) (= Selections, p. 82) ἀπογραφόμεθα τὸν γεννηθέντα ἡμεῖν ἐξ ἀλλήλων υἱὸν Ἰσχυρᾶ [ν, and such passages as BGU II. 447.7 (A.D. 173–4) τὴν ἐξ ἀμφοτ (έρων) ἡμῶν θυγατέρα Οὐεττί [αν, P Gen I. 10.1 (A.D. 323) Δίδυμος οὐετρανὸς ἐκ πατρὸς Ἰσχυρίωνος, Michel 1001 iii. 32 (c. B.C. 200) τὰ ἐκ ταυτᾶν τέκνα, and OGIS 90.10 (Rosetta stone—B.C. 196) where Ptolemy Epiphanes is described as ὑπάρχων θεὸς ἐκ θεοῦ καὶ θεᾶς : cf. Philippians 3:5 and the language of the Nicene Creed, of which the oldest copy, belonging to vi/A.D., has been published in P Ryl I. 6. See also the Christian amulet BGU III. 954.28 (vi/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 134) ὁ φῶς ἐκ φωτός, θ (εὸ)ς ἀληθινὸς χάρισον ἐμὲ τὸν δοῦλόν σου τὸ φῶς.
Origin leads easily to cause, as in P Oxy VII. 1020.5 (A.D. 198–201) τὴν ἐκ τῆς ἡλικίας. . β ̣[οήθιαν, ";the assistance due to immature age"; (Ed.); cf. P Grenf II. 76.3 (A.D. 305–6) where a wedded couple agree to a formal divorce, having separated ἐκ τινὸς πονηροῦ δαίμονος, ";owing to some evil deity";. The phrase ἐκ τούτου, as in John 6:66; John 19:12, is naturally common, e.g. BGU II. 423.17 (ii/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 91) ἐκ τούτου ἐλπίζω ταχὺ προκόσαι (l. προκόψαι) τῶν θε [ῶ ]ν θελόντων, ";on this account (viz. my having been brought up well) I hope to be quickly promoted, if the gods will"; : cf. OGIS 139.10 (ii/B.C.) ἐκ τοῦ τοιούτου συμβαίνει ἐλαττοῦσθαι τὸ ἱερόν. See also such passages as P Tebt I. 23.8 (c. B.C. 119 or 114) οὐκ ὀρθῶς κρίνομεν πέπρακταί σοι μὴ ἐκ τῆς ἡμῶν προεδρίας πεφροντικέναι ἀπροσδέητον ἑτέρων γενέσθαι, ";I consider that you have acted badly in not having been careful that he should be independent of others owing to my superior rank"; (Edd.), ib. 24.39 (B.C. 117) ἔκ τε τῆς πλείστης προσεδρείας, ";on account of the prolonged attendance"; (Edd.), and P Fay 12.15 (c. B.C. 103) ἐκ κοινολογ [ί ]α [ς ] τ [ῆ ]ς συνσταθείσης πρὸς αὐτούς, ";as the result of the colloquy which took place between us"; (Edd.).
From this it is an easy transition to the meaning ";according to"; or ";in accordance with,"; as in the common legal phrase καθάπερ ἐγ δίκης, ";as if in accordance with a legal decision,"; i.e. ";as if a formal decree of the court had been obtained,"; as in P Eleph 1.12 (B.C. 311–0) (= Selections, p. 3), P Ryl II. 154.35 (A.D. 66) : cf. P Petr III. 26.9 ἐκ κρίσεως, OGIS 48.12 (iii/B.C.) κολάζοντ ]ε [ς τοῖς ] ἐκ τῶν νόμων ἐπιτίμοις. So in the land-survey P Tebt I. 60.85 (B.C. 118) we hear of land let at a certain sum—ἐκ τῆς ἀξίας, ";in proportion to its value"; : cf. the similar document ib. 61 (b ).80 (B.C. 118) ἐξ ἐπισκέψεως, ";as the result of inspection."; In the interesting report of a lawsuit, which resembles so much the judgment of Solomon, the parentage of the child is decided—ἐκ τῆς ὄψεως, ";from its features"; (P Oxy I. 37ii. 3—A.D. 49 = Selections, p. 51) : cf. John 7:24 μὴ κρίνετε κατ᾽ ὄψιν. See also P Tebt II. 284.10 (i/B.C.) ἐ ̣ξ εὐτυχι ̣α ̣ς ̤ ";by good fortune,"; ib. 298.45 (A.D. 107–8) ἀπὸ τῶν ἐξ εὐ [σεβ (είας) δι ]δομέν [ω ]ν ̣ ἡ [μῖν ], ";from pious gifts to us"; (Edd.).
The preposition is used of material, as in Matthew 27:29, Revelation 18:12, in P Magd 42.5 (B.C. 221) περιτραχηλίδιον ἐκ καθορμίων λιθινῶν, ";a necklace made of strings of stones,"; P Oxy IV. 707.28 (c. A.D. 136) τροχὸν ἐκ καινῆς ἐξ ὀ [πτῆς ] πλίνθου, ";a new wheel of baked brick,"; and OGIS 194.28 (B.C. 42) where reference is made to a statue ἐκ σκληροῦ λίθου.
For measure see P Oxy I. 43iii. 27 (A.D. 295) ἔσχον παρὰ σοῦ κοφίνους δέκα δύο ἐκ λιτρῶν τεσσαράκοντα.
A certain instrumental force underlies the use of ἐκ in such a passage as P Oxy III. 486.28 (A.D. 131) ἐγὼ δὲ ἔκτοτε ἐκ τῆς τοῦ ἐπιστρατήγου ἐπιστολῆ [ς ] . . ἐνθάδε κατήντησα, ";I thereupon in consequence of the letter of the epistrategus presented myself here,"; and ib..32 τὰ ἐμὰ πάν [τα ] ἐκ τῆς ὑπερβαροῦς ἀνα [βάσ ]ε ̣ως τοῦ ἱερωτάτου Νίλου ἀπολωλένα [ι, ";that all my property has been lost through the excessive rise of the most sacred Nile"; (Edd.). See also Rossberg’s exx. (p. 25 f.) of the preposition with verbs of buying and selling, as P Tebt I. 5.80 (B.C. 118) τὰς ἠγορασμένας προφητείας. . εἰς τὰ ἱερὰ ἐκ τῶν ἱερῶν προσόδων ̣ = ";with money from the temple revenues"; : cf. Luke 16:9.
For ἐκ to denote price, as in Matthew 20:2 (cf. the simple gen. in .13), Acts 1:18, we may cite P Oxy IV. 745.2 (c. A.D. 1) τ [ὸ ]ν ̣ δὲ οἶνον ἠγόρασας ἐκ (δραχμῶν) ἕξ, ";you bought the wine at six drachmae,"; P Fay 111.16 (A.D. 95–6) λέγουσι εἶναι τὼ λώτινον ἐν τῇ Διονυσιά [δι ] ἐγ (δραχμῶν) ι ̄η ̄, so ib. 119.5 (c. A.D. 100), ib. 131.5 (iii/iv A.D.) ποίησον αὐτὰς πραθῆναι ἐκ (δραχμῶν) ι ̄δ ̄, and BGU III. 916.19 (i/A.D.) τὸν φόρον ἀπὸ μὲν μην [ὸς ] Φαῶφι ἕω [ς μηνὸς Μεχεὶρ μηνῶν ] πέντε ἐγ δραχμῶν τριάκοντα. See also P Petr II. II (2).4 where Polycrates informs his father that he has just had his garden valued at 17½, instead of 30, drachmae, in order that he may pay the 5 per cent. tax (due to the State) on the smaller valuation—ἵνα ἐκ τοσούτου φέρωμεν τὴν εἰκοστήν, and P Lond 277.9 (A.D. 23) (= II. p. 217) the record of a loan on which interest is charged at the rate of a drachma per mina per month—το ̣κου ὡς ἐκ δραχμῆ (l. —ῆς) μιᾶς τῇ μνᾷ τὸν μῆνα ἕκαστον, and P Gen I. 42.28 (A.D. 224) ἐ ]πὶ τοῦ πάντες διδόντος (l. διδόναι) ἕκαστος ἐκ δραχμῶν εἴκοσι τοῖς [γ ]εναμένοις πραισβοίτεροι (l. πρεσβυτέροις), where the editor notes that ἐκ δραχμῶν is distributive.
Partitive ἐκ may be illustrated from P Tor I. 1iv. 20 (B.C. 117–6) μέρος ἐγ νόμου, and P Oxy I. 117.15 (ii/iii A.D.) ῥάκη δύο. . . ἐξ ὧν δώσεις τοῖς παιδίοις σου ἓν ἐξ αὐτῶν, ";two strips of cloth, one of which please give to your children"; (Edd.). Cf. also P Grenf II. 73.13 (late iii/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 118) καὶ [τ ]αύτην παραδέδωκα τοῖς καλοῖς καὶ πιστοῖς ἐξ αὐτῶν τῶν νεκροτάφων εἰς τήρησιν.
For the preposition in connexion with time, see PSI IV. 403.20 (iii/B.C.) παρέσομαι δὲ κἀγὼ εὐθὺς ἐξ ἑορτῆς, where the editor renders the last words ";subito finita che sia la festa.";
The preposition is common in adverbial phrases of time, as P Tebt I. 40.20 (B.C. 117) κατακολουθεῖν τοῖς ἐξ ἀρχῆς ἐθισμοῖς, ";to follow the ancient customs."; With 2 Peter 2:8 ἡμέραν ἐξ ἡμέρας (cf. LXX Psa. 96꞉2 [MT Psalms 97:2] cf. P Oxy I. 86.15 (A.D. 338) οὗτο ]ς δὲ μίαν ἐκ μιᾶς ὑπερτιθέμεν [ο ]ς, putting it off ";day after day."; For other adverbial phrases with ἐκ see P Grenf II. 36.12 (B.C. 95) οὐθὲν ἡμῖν κακὸν ἐποίησεν ἀλλ᾽ ἐκ τῶν ἐναντίων ἐπιμεμέληται, where ἐκ τῶν ἐναντίων equals ἐναντίον, ";contra,"; P Ryl II.233.6 (ii/A.D.) τὰ μέλαθρα τῶν θυρίδων. . ἐκ μέρους. . ἡρμολόγηται, ";the beams of the windows have been partly fixed"; (Edd.), cf. 1 Corinthians 12:27; 1 Corinthians 13:9, P Hib I. 73.14 (B.C. 243–2) ἐγ μέσου ἀ ̣[φήιρηκεν αὐτόν, ";has removed it (sc. a donkey) from my reach"; (Edd.), P Lond 1178.43 (A.D. 194) (= III. p. 217, Selections, p. 100) ἐν ]τάγιον πᾶν ἐκ πλήρους δηνάρια ἑκατόν, ";a fee amounting altogether to a hundred denarii,"; CPR I 11.14 (A.D. 108) καθὼς ἐκ συμφώνου (as in 1 Corinthians 7:5) ὑπηγόρευον, P Hib I. 54.3 (c. B.C. 245) ἀπό [σ ]τειλον ἡμῖν ἐκ παντὸς τρόπου τὸν αὐλητήν, ";make every effort to send me the flute-player,"; P Tebt I. 27.60 (B.C. 113) ὅπως καὶ τἆλ [λα γέν ]ηται κατὰ θερείαν ἐξ ὑγιοῦς, ";that all else is rightly done in the summer"; (Edd.), P Hib I. 52.10 (c. B.C. 245) ὅπως μηθὲν δι [ά ]πτωμα ἐξ ὑστέρου γίνη [ται, ";in order that there may be no subsequent loss"; (Edd.), and P Oxy IV. 707.27 (c. A.D. 136) ἐκ καινῆς (sc. ἀρχῆς).
In MGr ἐκ has been supplanted by ἀπό and ἔξω, though it lives an obscure life as a prefix in such words as βγαίνω, γδέρνω, ξεγράφω, ξέσκεπος.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org.
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