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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #235 - ἀλλά
- nevertheless, notwithstanding
- an objection
- an exception
- a restriction
- nay, rather, yea, moreover
- forms a transition to the cardinal matter
Conj., orig. neut. pl. of ἄλλος, otheruise: used adversatively to limit or oppose words, sentences, or clauses, stronger than δέ:
I in simple oppositions, but,
1. after neg. clauses, οὐ κακός, ἀλλ' ἀγαθός Thgn. 212; οὐδὲ μὲν Ἕκτωρ μίμνεν, ἀλλ'.. ἐφορμᾶται Il. 15.690, etc. after a simple neg., ἦ παραφρονεῖς; οὔκ, ἀλλ' ὕπνος μ' ἔχει Ar. V. 9, etc. freq. after οὐ μόνον, μὴ μόνον, with or without καί, οὐ μόνον ἅπαξ, ἀ. πολλάκις Pl. Phdr. 228a, cf. Th. 3.59, X. Mem. 1.4.13, etc.; without μόνον, οὐχ ἑσπέρας, ἀλλὰ καὶ μεσημβρίας E. Fr. 1006: also after οὐχ (or μὴ (ὅτι, οὐχ (or μὴ) ὅπως, either, not only.. but.., μὴ ὅτι ἰδιώτην τινά, ἀλλὰ τὸν μέγαν βασιλέα Pl. Ap. 40d; μὴ ὅτι κατὰ τὸ σῶμα, ἀλλὰ καὶ κατὰ τὴν ψυχήν Id. Smp. 207e; or, not only not.. but.., οὐχ ὅπως κωλυταὶ.. γενήσεσθε, ἀλλὰ καὶ.. περιόψεσθε Th. 1.35; οὐχ ὅτι ὠργίζοντο, ἀλλ' ἐζήλουν D. 19.265; the neg. form is ἀλλ' οὐδέ, μὴ ὅτι ὑπὲρ ἄλλου, ἀλλ' οὐδὲ ὑπὲρ ἐμαυτοῦ δίκην εἴρηκα Isaiah 10:1, etc.
2. in the apodosis of hypothetical sentences, still, at least, εἴπερ γάρ τε.. ἀλλά τε Il. 1.82, etc.: in Prose, esp. ἀλλ' οὖν.. γε or ἀλλά.. γε, εἰ καὶ σμικρά, ἀ. οὖν ἴση γε ἡ χάρις Hdt. 3.140; εἰ μή (sc. ὁρῶ), ἀλλ' ἀκούω γε, Pl. Grg. 470d, cf. Isoc. 3.15,al.; εἰ μηδέν ἐστι τελευτήσαντι, ἀλλ' οὖν τοῦτόν γε τὸν χρόνον ἧττον ἀηδὴς ἔσομαι Pl. Phd. 91b (in later Gk. ἀλλά γε may be in juxtaposition, εἰ ἄλλοις οὐκ εἰμὶ ἀπόστολος, ἀλλά γε ὑμῖν εἰμί 1 Corinthians 9:2, and ἀ. γε δή is found with vv. Il. in Pl. Phdr. 262a); εἰ καὶ μετέχουσι.. ἀλλ' οὐ.. Arist. Pol. 1282a11: — less freq. after Conjunctions of Time, as ἐπεὶ δή Od. 14.151; ἐπεί S. OC 241. after Hom., ἀ. is used elliptically, esp. with Advbs. of Time, ὦ θεοὶ πατρῷοι, συγγένεσθέ γ' ἀ. νῦν (sc. εἰ μὴ πρότερον, ἀ. νῦν γε) S. El. 411, cf. Ant. 552, E. Heracl. 565; ἀ. τῷ χρόνῳ Id. Med. 912; ἐὰν οὖν ἀ. νῦν γ' ἔτι, i.e. ἐὰν οὖν [μὴἄλλοτε], ἀ. νῦν γε.. if then now at least ye still.., D. 3.33, cf. Lys. 10.15: — without an Adv. of Time, at least, ἡ δ' ἀ. πρός σε μικρὸν εἰπάτω μόνον Ar. Pax 660, cf. S. OC 1276, E. HF 331.
3. sts.= ἀλλ' ἤ (q.v.), except, but, οὔτι μοι αἴτιος ἄλλος, ἀ... τοκῆε no one else, but.., Od. 8.312; οὐδέ τις ἄλλη φαίνετο γαιάων, ἀ. οὐρανὸς ἠδὲ θάλασσα 12.404; ἔπαισεν οὔτις ἀ. ἐγώ S. OT 1331; ἡδέα.. οὐκ ἔστιν ἀ. τούτοις Arist. EN 1176a22, cf. 1152b30: cf. reverse process in our word but=be out, except: — sts. with force of ἤ after comparatives, τάφον, οὐκ ἐν ᾧ κεῖνται μᾶλλον, ἀ.ἐν ᾧ ἡ δόξα κτλ. not that in which they are lying, but far more.., Th. 2.43; οὐχ ὅπλων τὸ πλέον, ἀ. δαπάνης Id. 1.83.
4. with neg. after an affirmative word or clause, to be rendered simply by not, ἀγαθῶν, ἀ. οὐχὶ κακῶν αἴτιον Lys. 14.16; τῶν σπουδαίων, ἀ. μὴ τῶν φαύλων Isoc. 1.2; ἐκεῖθεν, ἀ. οὐκ ἐνθένδε ἡρπάσθη Pl. Phdr. 229d: — after a question, τί δεῖ ἐμβαλεῖν λόγον περὶ τούτου, ἀ. οὐχὶ προειπεῖν; X. Cyr. 2.2.19, cf. Isoc. 15.229, etc. without neg., μικρὸς μὲν ἔην δέμας, ἀ. μαχητής Il. 5.801.
II to oppose whole sentences, but, yet:
1. freq. in transitions, as Il. 1.135, 140, etc.; ἀ. καὶ ὥς.. 1.116; ἀ. οὐδ' ὥς.. Od. 1.6: — after Hom. in answers and objections, nay but.., well but.., freq. with negs., esp. in making and answering objections, Ar. Ach. 402, 407; also in affirmative answers, Pl. Prt. 330b, Grg. 449a, etc.: — repeated in a succession of questions or objections, πότερον ᾔτουν σέ τι.. ; ἀ. ἀπῄτουν; ἀ. περὶ παιδικῶν μαχόμενος; ἀ. μεθύων ἐπαρῴνησα; X. An. 5.8.4, cf. Pl. Thg. 123e, Isoc. 17.47; ἀ. μήν.., answered by ἀ.., Arist. Pol. 1287a23: — in vehement answers Pl. often uses νὴ τοὺς θεοὺς ἀ..., μὰ Δἴ ἀ.., Grg. 481c, Phlb. 36a, cf. Alc. 1.110b, c: — at beginning of speech, to introduce a general objection, Od. 4.472, cf. X. Smp. 1, Men. Georg. 22.
2. with imper. or subj., to remonstrate, encourage, persuade, etc., freq. in Hom., ἀ. ἄγε, ἴθι, Il. 1.210, 11.611; ἀ. ἴομεν 6.526; ἀ. πίθεσθε 1.259; after voc., ὦ Φίντις, ἀ. ζεῦξον Pi. O. 6.22, cf. Tyrt. 10.15, etc.; answered by a second ἀ., ἀ. περιμένετε. ἀ. περιμενοῦμεν Pl. R. 327b; ἀλλ' ἕρπεθ' ὡς τάχιστα S. OC 1643, cf. Ant. 1029, etc.
3. to break off a subject abruptly, ἀ. τά γε Ζεὺς οἶδεν Od. 15.523; ἀ. ταῦτα μὲν τί δεῖλέγειν; S. Ph. 11, cf. Tr. 467, etc.
4. in resuming an address after parenthesis, Pi. O. 2.12, 4.7.
5. in elliptical phrases, οὐ μὴν ἀ., οὐ μέντοι ἀ... it is not [so], but.., ὁ ἵππος πίπτει καὶ μικροῦ αὐτὸν ἐξετραχήλισεν· οὐ μὴν [ἐξετ ραχήλισεν] ἀ. ἐπέμεινεν ὁ Κῦρος it did not however [throw him], but.., X. Cyr. 1.4.8; οὐ μέντοι ἀ. Pl. Smp. 173b; οὐ γὰρ ἀ. Ar. Ra. 58, 498: — after δέ, ὑμεῖς δέ μ' ἀ. παιδὶ συμφονεύσατε E. Hec. 391.
III when joined with other Particles, each retains proper force, as,
1. ἀλλ' ἄρα, used by Hom. in transitions, Il. 6.418, 12.320, etc.; later, to introduce an objection, Pl. Ap. 25a; in questions, ἀλλ' ἆρα..; Id. R. 381b.
2. ἀλλ' οὖν, concessive, at all events, Ar. Ra. 1298; τοὺς πρώτους χρόνους ἀ. οὖνπροσεποιοῦνθ' ὑμῖν εἶναι φίλοι Aeschin. 3.86; well then, Pl. Prt. 310a; but then, however, with γε following, Hdt. 3.140, S. Ant. 84, E. Cyc. 652, Isoc. 3.18, etc.; ἀλλ' οὖν γε in apodosi, v. supr. 1.2.
3. ἀλλὰ γάρ, freq. with words between, but really, certainly, as ἀλλὰ γὰρ Κρέοντα λεύσσω.., παύσω γόους, but this is irreg. for ἀλλά, Κρέοντα γὰρ λεύσσω, παύσω γόους, E. Ph. 1308, cf. S. Ant. 148; for the reg. order cf. S. Ph. 81, E. Heracl. 480, Med. 1067; freq. elliptical, the Verb being understood, Hdt. 8.8, A. Pr. 941, S. Ant. 155: in Hom. only with negs., ἀλλ' οὐ γάρ Il. 7.242, Od. 14.355, al., cf. S. OT 1409; ἀ. γὰρ δή, ἀ. γάρ τοι, S. Aj. 167, Ph. 81.
4. ἀ. εἰ.. quid si.. ? Il. 16.559.
5. ἀ. ἦ in questions, chiefly of surprise or remonstrance, A. Ch. 220, S. El. 879, Ar. Ach. 1111; ἀλλ' ἦ, τὸ λεγόμενον, κατόπιν ἑορτῆς ἥκομεν; Pl. Grg. 447a, cf. Prt. 309c.
6. ἀ. followed by strengthening Particle, ἀλλ' ἤτοι μὲν ταῦτα θεῶν ἐν γούνασι κεῖται Il. 17.514; esp. c. imper., 1.211, al.; ἀλλά τοι Od. 15.518, A. Pers. 795, etc.; ἀ. μέντοι, with or without γε, Pl. Smp. 214e, Hp.Ma. 287d, al.; ἀ. μήν, v. μήν; ἀ. δή, mostly with words between, S. Aj. 1271, OC 586, Isoc. 4.109, etc.; without intervening words, Pl. Ap. 37c, al.; ἀ. δῆτα Id. Hp.Ma. 285c; ἀ. μὲν δὴ καὶ αὐτός Id. Tht. 143b, cf. S. El. 103. = et quidem, Olymp. in Mete. 1.13, al.
(ἀλλ᾽ usually bef. α and υ , often bef. ε and η , rarely bef. ο and ω , never bef. ι ; Tdf., Pr., 93 f.; WH, App., 146), adversative particle, stronger than δέ ; prop, neuter pl. of ἄλλος , used adverbially, with changed accent; hence prop, otherwise, on the other hand (cf. Romans 3:31);
1. opposing a previous negation, but: οὐ (μή ) . . . ἀ ., Matthew 5:15; Matthew 5:17, Mark 5:39 John 7:16, al.; rhetorically subordinating but not entirely negativing what precedes, οὐ . . . ἀ ., not so much . . . as, Mark 9:37, Matthew 10:20, John 12:44, al.; with ellipse of the negation, Matthew 11:7-9, Acts 19:2, 1 Corinthians 3:6; 1 Corinthians 6:11; 1 Corinthians 7:7, 2 Corinthians 7:11, Galatians 2:3, al.; in opposition to a foregoing pos. sentence, ἀ .. οὐ , Matthew 24:6, 1 Corinthians 10:23; οὐ μόνον ... ἀ . καί , John 5:18, Romans 1:32, al.; elliptically, after a negation, ἀ , ἵνα , Mark 14:49, John 1:8; John 9:3, al.; = εἰ υή (B1., § 77, 13; M, Pr., 241; but cf. WM, § iii, 10), Matthew 20:23, Mark 4:22,
2. Without previous negation, to express opposition, interruption, transition, etc., but: John 16:20; John 12:27, Galatians 2:14; before commands or requests, Acts 10:20; Acts 26:16, Matthew 9:18, Mark 9:22, al.; to introduce an accessory idea, 2 Corinthians 7:11; in the apodosis after a condition or concession with εἰ , ἐάν , εἵπερ , yet, still, at least, Mark 14:29, 1 Corinthians 9:2, 2 Corinthians 4:16, Colossians 2:5, al.; after μέν , Acts 4:17, Romans 14:20, 1 Corinthians 14:17; giving emphasis to the following clause, ἀλλ᾽ ἔρχεται ὥρα , yea, etc., John 16:2; so with neg., ἀλλ᾽ οὐδέ , nay, nor yet, Luke 23:15.
3. Joined with other particles (a practice which increases in late writers; Simcox, LNT, 166), ἀ . γε , yet at least, Luke 24:21, 1 Corinthians 9:2; ἀ . ἤ , save only, except, Luke 12:51, 2 Corinthians 1:13; ἀ . μὲν οὖν , Philippians 3:8 (on this usage, v. MM, VGT, s.v.).
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
The closeness of ἀλλά to πλήν appears in more uses than one. Armitage Robinson, Ephesians, p. 205, has a note on a quasi-resumptive use of ἀλλά in Ephesians 5:24 which is closely paralleled by that of πλήν in ver. 33. Then there are instances of ἀλλά = ";except."; This is clear where we have ἀλλ᾽ ἤ (as in 2 Corinthians 1:13) : thus P Petr II. 9 (3)9 (B.C. 241–39) ὥστε μηθένα εἶναι ἐνταῦθα ἀλλ᾽ ἢ ἡμᾶς , ";There is no one left here except ourselves"; (Ed.), ib. 46 (a)5 (B.C. 200) καὶ μὴ ὑποκεῖσθαι πρὸς ἄλλο μηδὲν ἀλλ᾽ ἢ τὴν προγεγραμ [μέν ]ην ἐγγύην , ";has not been pledged for any other purpose than the aforesaid security"; (id.), P Lond 89713 (A.D. 84) ( = III. p. 207) ὃ μέντοιγε οὐ θέλωι ἀλλὰ ἢ ἀνάγκηι . In P Tebt I. 10419 (B.C. 92) μὴ ἐξέστω Φιλίσκωι γυναῖκα ἄλλην ἐπ [α ].γ [α ̣].γε ̣σ ̣θ ̣α ̣ι ̣ α ̣̓λ ̣λὰ Ἀπολλωνίαν , ";any other wife but A."; (Edd.), shows the same use for ἀλλά alone. See Proleg.3 p. 241 (with some additional remarks in the German ed., p. 269). G. C. Richards (JTS x. p. 288) observes on the note in Proleg., ";In Mark 4:22 ἐὰν μή and ἀλλά are parallel, a usage which Aramaic explains but Greek does not."; (Cf. the variants in Mark 9:8.) Without doubting that an Aramaic background makes the usage all the easier, we can assert that Hellenistic Greek does admit this use of ἀλλά . For ἀλλὰ μήν (not in NT) cf. P Oxy III. 47237 (c. A.D. 130) ἀ . μὴ ̣ν ̣ υτ ̣ω ̣ν πίστεως περὶ τούτων οὔσης , P Flor I. 8912 (iii/A.D.) ἀ . μ . καὶ πρὸς τὴν παρακομι [δὴν τ ]ο ̣ύτων [π ]λοῖον παρασχεῖν σπούδασον . It is hardly necessary to illustrate the conjunction further.
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