Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #2399 - ἰδιώτης
- a private person as opposed to a magistrate, ruler, king
- a common soldier, as opposed to a military officer
- a writer of prose as opposed to a poet
- in the NT, an unlearned, illiterate, man as opposed to the learned and educated: one who is unskilled in any art
ἰδῐώτ-ης, ου, ὁ,
1. private person, individual, opp. the State, ξυμφέροντα καὶ πόλεσι καὶ ἰδιώταις Th. 1.124, cf. 3.10, SIG 37.3 (Teos, v B.C.), Pl. Smp. 185b, X. Vect. 4.18, etc.; opp. γένος, SIG 1013.6 (Chios, iv B.C.); opp. φατρία, ib.987.28 (ibid., iv B.C.).
1. one in a private station, opp. to one holding public office, or taking part in public affairs, Hdt. 1.59, 123, al., cf. Decr. ap. And. 1.84, Th. 4.2, etc.; opp. βασιλεύς, Hdt. 7.3; opp. ἄρχων, Lys. 5.3, Pl. Plt. 259b, SIG 305.71 (iv B.C.); opp. δικαστής, Antipho 6.24; opp. πολιτευόμενος, D. 10.70; opp. ῥήτωρ, Hyp. Eux. 27; private soldier, opp. στρατηγός, X. An. 1.3.11, cf. PHib. 1.30.21 (iii B.C.); layman, opp. priest, OGI 90.52 (Rosetta, ii B.C.), PGnom. 200 (ii A.D.), 1 Corinthians 14:16 : as Adj., ἰ. ἄνδρες Hdt. 1.32, 70, Th. 1.115; ἰ. θεοί homely (with play on ἴδιος), Ar. Ra. 891.
2. common man, plebeian, οἱ ἰ. καὶ πένητες Plu. Thes. 24; ἰ. καὶ εὐτελής, opp. βασιλεύς, Hdn. 4.10.2.
3. as Adj., ἰ. βίος private station, Pl. R. 578c; ἰ. λόγος everyday speech, D.H. Dem. 2, cf. Longin. 31.2.
1. one who has no professional knowledge, layman, καὶ ἰατρὸς καὶ ἰ. Th. 2.48, cf. Hp. VM 4, Pl. Tht. 178c, Lg. 933d; ἰ. ἤ τινα τέχνην ἔχων Id. Sph. 221c; of prose-writers, ἐν μέτρῳ ὡς ποιητής, ἢ ἄνευ μέτρου ὡς ἰ. Id. Phdr. 258d, cf. Smp. 178b; ἰ. καὶ μηδὲν αὐλήσεως ἐπαΐων Id. Prt. 327c; opp. to a professed orator, Isoc. 4.11; to a trained soldier, X. Eq.Mag. 8.1; ἰδιώτας, ὡς εἰπεῖν, χειροτέχναις (-νας codd.) ἀνταγωνισαμένους Th. 6.72; opp. ἀσκητής, X. Mem. 3.7.7, cf. 12.1; opp. ἀθλητής, Arist. EN 1116b13; opp. a professed philosopher, Id. Pol. 1266a31, Phld. Lib. p.5 [*] O., D. 1.25; in Music, Id. Mus. p.42 K.; opp. δημιουργός, Pl. Prt. 312a, Thg. 124c: as Adj., ὁ ἰ. ὄχλος, opp. artificers, Plu. Per. 12.
2. c. gen. rei, unpractised, unskilled in a thing, ἰατρικῆς Pl. Prt. 345a, cf. Ti. 20a; ἔργου X. Oec. 3.9; ἰ. κατὰ τοὺς πόνους, κατὰ τὸν ὕπνον, Id. Cyr. 1.5.11; ἰ. τὰ ἄλλα Hdn. 4.12.1; ἰ. ὡς πρὸς ἡμᾶς ἀγωνίζεσθαι X. Cyr. l.c., cf. Luc. Herm. 81.
3. generally, raw hand, ignoramus, ἄν τε δεινοὶ λάχωσιν ἄν τε ἰδιῶται.. D. 4.35; παιδάρια καὶ ἰ., of slaves, S.E. M. 1.234 (cf. ἰ. οἰκέται Luc. Alex. 30); ἀμαθὴς καὶ ἰ., opp. τεχνίτης, Id. Ind. 29; voc. ἰδιῶτα, as a term of abuse, Men. Sam. 71.
4. ' average man ', opp. a person of distinction, Plu. 2.1104a. ἰδιῶται, οἱ, one's own countrymen, opp. ξένοι, Ar. Ra. 459.
ἰδιώτης , -ου , ὁ
(< ἴδιος ),
[in LXX: Proverbs 6:8 (no Heb.)*;]
1. a private person, as opp. to the State or an official (βασιλεῖς κ . ἰδιῶται , Pr, l.c.; and cf. MM, Exp., xv).
2. one without professional knowledge, unskilled, uneducated, unlearned: 1 Corinthians 14:16; 1 Corinthians 14:23-24 (R, mg., without gifts); ἀγράμματοι κ . ἰ ., Acts 4:13; c. dat. (= cl. c. gen. rei), λόγῳ , 2 Corinthians 11:6.†
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
In Syll 847.16 (Delphi—B.C. 185) the witnesses to a manumission are the priest, two representatives of the ἄρχοντες, and five ἰδιῶται, ";private citizens"; : cf. ib. 846.8 (B.C. 197) and OGIS 90.52 (B.C. 196) where again a distinction is drawn between ἱερεῖς and οἱ ἄλλοι ἰδιῶται. In connexion with the difficult 1 Corinthians 14:16; 1 Corinthians 14:23, Thieme (p. 32) cites Magn 99.26 (beg. ii/B.C.) φερόμενον ὑπὸ τῶν [ἰ ]διωτῶ [ν, where the word may have some reference to worship at the founding of a sanctuary in honour of Serapis, but the context is far from clear. In P Fay 19.12 (ii/A.D.) the Emperor Hadrian refers to his father’s having died at the age of forty—ἰδιώτης, ";a private person,"; and in P Oxy XII. 1409.14 (A.D. 278) we read of overseers chosen—ἐξ ἀρχόντων ἢ καὶ ἰδιωτῶν, ";from magistrates or private persons"; : cf. P Ryl II. III (a).17 (censusreturn—c. A.D. 161) ἰδιώ (της) λαογ (ραφούμενος), ";a private person paying polltax."; The adj. ἰδιωτικός is similarly used with reference to a private bank—ἰδιωτικὴ τράπεζα —in P Lond 1168.21 (A.D. 18) (= III. p. 137), and in ib. 932.8 (A.D. 211) (=III. p. 149) with reference to δάνεια ἤτοι ἰδιωτικὰ ἢ ὃημόσια : cf. the Will, P Tebt II. 381.18 (A.D. 123) (= Selections, p. 79), where Thaesis bequeaths her property to her daughter on condition that she discharges, her private debts—διευλυτώσει ὧν ἐὰν φανῆι ἡ Θαῆσις ὀφίλουσα ἰδιοτικῶν χρεῶν, and BGU V. 121O.196 (c.A.D. 150) Παστοφόρο ̣[ις ] ἐ ̣ξὸν ἰδιωτ ̣ι ̣κ ̣ω ̣υ ̣ ἐ ̣φίεσθαι τάξεων, ";Pastophoren ist es erlaubt, nach Laienstellungen zu streben"; (Ed.). See further Preisigke Fackwörter, p. 1011. To the rare use of ἰδιώτης to denote absence of military rank, a private, in P Hib I. 30.21 (B.C. 300–271) and ib. 89.7 (B.C. 239), we can now add P Harnb I.26.11 (B.C. 215). In contrast to rhetoricians and philosophers, Epictetus describes himself as ἰδιώτης (iii. 7. 1, al.) : cf. 2 Corinthians 11:6, and see Epict. iii. 9. 14 οὐδὲν ἦν ὁ Ἐπίκτητος, ἐσολοίκιζεν, ἐβαρβάριζεν (cited by Heinrici Litt. Char. p. 2).
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