Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #2849 - κολάζω
- to lop or prune, as trees and wings
- to curb, check, restrain
- to chastise, correct, punishment
- to cause to be punished
1. fut. κολάσω And. 1.136, Lys. 31.29, X. Cyr. 7.5.8, Pl. Lg. 714d, etc.: aor. ἐκόλασα Ar. V. 927, Th. 3.40: — Med., fut. κολάσομαι Theopomp.Com. 27, X. HG 1.7.19; twice contr. in Ar., 2 sg. κολᾷ Eq. 456, part. κολωμένους V. 244: aor. ἐκολασάμην Th. 6.78, Pl. Mx. 240d: — Pass., fut. - ασθήσομαι Th. 2.87, etc.: aor. ἐκολάσθην Id. 7.68: pf. κεκόλασμαι Antipho 3.4.8, D. 20.139: — check, chastise, τὰς ἐπιθυμίας Pl. Grg. 491e; τὸ πλεονάζον Plu. 2.663e, etc.; τὴν ἀμετρίαν Gal. 6.29: — Pass., to be corrected, τὸ ἐν μέλιτι χολῶδες -άζεται Hp. Acut. 59, cf. X. Oec. 20.12: pf. part. Pass., chastened, εὐπειθὲς καὶ κεκολ. Arist. EN 1119b12; δίαιτα Luc. Herm. 86; ῥήτωρ κεκ. Poll. 6.149; ἰσχὺς κ. ἐς ῥυθμούς Philostr. VS 1.17.3; also of an athlete, ἀπέριττος τὰ μυώδη καὶ μὴ κεκ. Id. Gym. 31.
2. chastise, punish, τινα E. Ba. 1322, Ar. Numbers 7:1-89, etc.; τὰ σέμν' ἔπη κόλαζ' ἐκείνους use your proud words in reproving them, S. Aj. 1108: c. dat. modi, λόγοις κ. τινά ib. 1160; θανάτῳ E. Hel. 1172, Lys. 28.3; πληγαῖς, τιμωρίαις, Pl. Lg. 784d, Isoc. 1.50; ἀτιμίαις Pl. Plt. 309a: — Med., get a person punished, Ar. V. 406, Pl. Prt. 324c, v.l. X. Cyr. 1.2.7: — Pass., to be punished, etc., Antipho 3.3.7, X. Cyr. 5.2.1, etc.; of divine retribution, Plu. 2.566e; suffer injury, Ael. NA 3.24.
3. of a drastic method of checking the growth of the almond-tree, Thphr. HP 2.7.6: — Pass., Id. CP 1.18.9; cf. κόλασις 1.
4. Pass. c. gen., to be badly in need of, PFay. 120.5 (i/ii A.D.), cf. 115.19 (ii A.D.), BGU 249.4 (ii A.D.).
(< κόλος , docked),
[in LXX: Daniel 6:12 (13) (no Heb.), 1 Esdras 8:24, Wisdom of Solomon 3:4 (and freq.), 1 Maccabees 7:7, al.;]
1. to curtail, dock, prune.
2. to check, restrain.
3. to chastise, correct, punish: pass., 2 Peter 2:9; mid., cause to be punished (3 Maccabees 7:3): Acts 4:21.†
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
In P Fay 120.5 (c. A.D. 100) εὖ πυήσις π [έ ]μσ [ις ] μυ θρ [ί ]νακες δύωι καὶ λικμητρίδε ̣ς δύωι καὶ πτύν (l. πτύον) ἕν, ἐπὶ κ [ο ]λάζωμαι (l. –ομαι) αὐτῶν, the editors translate ";please send me two forks and two shovels and a winnowing-fan, as I am feeling the want of them,"; and so in ib, 115.19 (A.D. 101), a letter by the same illiterate writer, where the object is not expressed. The word occurs with the same meaning in BGU I. 249.4 (ii/A.D.) ἔγραψά σοι, ἵνα δύο ἀρτάβαι σει [ταρίου ] ἰδισθῶσί μοι (l. ἰδιασθῶσί μοι) ἐπεὶ λείαν ἐκολάσθημεν, which gives us independent authority. The meaning ";cut short,"; which the presumable connexion with κόλος and κολούω would suggest, seems to be the original sense of the word. In the Paris Thesaurus we find quotations for the meaning ";prune"; (κόλασις τῶν δένδρων), and a number of late passages where the verb denotes ";correcting,"; ";cutting down"; a superfluity. Thus Galen ad Galatians 1:1-24 τὰ γὰρ ἐναντία τῶν ἐναντίων ἰάματά ἐστι, κολάζοντα μὲν τὸ ὑπερβάλλον. Of course this may be a derived sense, like that of castigo and of our ";correct,"; but in any case it is clearly a familiar sense during the NT period, and we cannot leave it out of consideration when we examine this very important word. For the meaning ";punish,"; as in Acts 4:21, 2 Peter 2:9, 3 Maccabees 7:3, we may cite a Prefect’s decree of A.D. 133–7, PSI V. 446.14, in which he threatens to punish sharply soldiers making illegal requisitions—ὡς [ἐμ ]οῦ κο [λ ]άσοντος ἐρρωμένως ἐάν τις α ́λῷ κτλ. : cf. BGU I. 341.14 (ii/A.D.) π ]αρεστάθησαν καὶ ἐκολάσθησα ̣[ν, P Ryl II. 62.9 (iii/A.D.), the translation of an unknown Latin work, ἀγρυπνεῖται καὶ κολάζεται [καὶ τι ]μωρεῖται καὶ παρηγορεῖται, and from the inscrr. OGJS 90.28 (Rosetta stone—B.C. 196) πάντας ἐκόλασεν καθηκόντως. See also Aristeas 208 ὅθεν οὔτε εὐκόπως δεῖ κολάζειν οὔτε αἰκίαις περιβάλλειν, ";thou must not therefore on slight provocation punish or subject men to injuries"; (Thackeray).
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
the Second Week of Lent