Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #29 - ἀγγαρεύω
- to employ a courier, dispatch a mounted messenger, press into public service, compel to go
press one to serve as an ἄγγαρος,
generally, press into service, Matthew 5:41; Matthew 27:32, OGI 665.24; κτήνη, πλοῖα PTeb. 5.182, 252 (ii B. C.), cf. PPetr. 2p.64 (iii B. C.): — Pass., to be pressed into service, Men. 440: metaph., to be constrained, Procop. Arc. 13.
(from the Persian; cf. Vg. angiare, and the Heb. H104; on the orthogr., v. B1., § 6, 1; M, Pr., 46), to impress into public service, employ a courier; hence, to compel to perform a service (prob. common in the vernac.; cf. Deiss., BS, 86 f., MM, Exp., iv; VGT, s.v.): Matthew 5:41 Matthew 27:32, Mark 15:21.†
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Ptolemaic examples of this interesting old Persian word are P Petr II. 20iv. 5 (B.C. 252) τοῦ. . . λέμβου. . . ἀγγαρευθέντος ὑπὸ σοῦ with reference to a ";post boat,"; and P Tebt I. 5.182, .252 (B.C. 118) where for the editors’ ἐπαρετεῖν Wilcken (Archiv iii. p. 325) reads ἐγγαρεύειν. From A.D. 42 add P Lond 1171 (c).2 ( = III. p. 107) μηδενὶ ἐξέστω ἐνγαρεύειν τοὺς ἐπὶ τῆς χώρας —a prefect’s rescript. Cf. BGU I. 21iii. 16 (A.D. 340) οἴνου ἐνγαρίας, and from the inscriptions Syll 932.54 (beginning of iii/A.D.) ἀνγαρειῶν ἄνεσιν with Dittenberger’s note, ";vehicula cursus publici ponderosissima et lentissima, quae bubus vehebantur (cursus clabularis Cod Theod. VI. 29, 5, 1, VIII. 5, 11), angariarum nomine utebantur."; Herwerden Lex. cites a form ἀνενγάρευτος = ἀναγγάρευτος, from an inscr. which Mayser (p. 56) refers to Arch. Zeit. 1890, p. 59. See further Zahn Intr. i. p. 66, Deissmann BS p. 86 f., and Rostowzew ";Angariae"; in Klio vi. (1906) p. 249 ff. For the spelling with ἐ. in Mark 15:21 א* B* Deissmann (BS p. 182) compares BGU I. 21iii. 16 (A.D. 340—coeval with the MSS.) ἐνγαρίας. The noun ἄγγαρος appears in Greek as early as Æschylus Agam. 282 ἀγγάρου πυρός, ";the courier flame"; : it is probably the Iranian cognate of ἄγγελος. It survives in vernacular MGr ἀγγαρεμένος, ";put to compulsory labour"; (Thumb Handbook, p. 315). In his note on P Lond IV. 1376.1 (A.D. 711) the editor suggests that in the late Aphrodito papyri ἀγγαρευτής is used in the general sense of ";foreman,"; ";superintendent.";
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