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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #3586 - ξύλον
- that which is made of wood
- as a beam from which any one is suspended, a gibbet, a cross
- a log or timber with holes in which the feet, hands, neck of prisoners were inserted and fastened with thongs
- a fetter, or shackle for the feet
- a cudgel, stick, staff
- that which is made of wood
- a tree
ξύλον [ῠ], τό
(pl. spelt ξύλεα Abh. Berl. Akad. 1928(6).32 (Cos, v B. C.)),
1. wood cut and ready for use, firewood, timber, etc., Hom., mostly in pl., Il. 8.507, 547, Od. 14.418; ξ. νήϊα ship- timber, Hes. Op. 808; ξ. ναυπηγήσιμα Th. 7.25, X. An. 6.4.4, Pl. Lg. 706b, D. 17.28; ξ. τετράγωνα logs cut square, Hdt. 1.186, cf. Pl. Prt. 325d, Arist. EN 1109b7.
2. in pl., also, the wood-market, ἐπὶ ξύλα ἰέναι Ar. Fr. 403.
1. in sg., piece of wood, log, beam, post, once in Hom., ξ. αὖον.. ἢ δρυὸς ἢ πεύκης Il. 23.327; ξ. σύκινον spoon made of fig wood, Pl. Hp.Ma. 291c; peg or lever, Arist. MA 701b9; perch, ἐπὶ ξύλου καθεύδειν Ar. Nu. 1431: by poet. periphr., Ἀργοῦς ξύλον A. Fr. 20; ἵπποιο κακὸν ξ., of the Trojan horse, AP 9.152 (Agath.): hence anything made of wood, as,
2. cudgel, club, Hdt. 2.63, 4.180, Ar. Lys. 357, PHal. 1.187 (iii B.C.); μετὰ ξύλων εἰσπηδῆσαι PTeb. 304.10 (ii A.D.); ξύλοις συντρίψειν Luc. Demon. 50; of the club of Heracles, Plu. Lyc. 30.
3. an instrument of punishment, wooden collar, put on the neck of the prisoner, ξύλῳ φιμοῦν τὸν αὐχένα Ar. Nu. 592; ἐς τετρημένον ξ. ἐγκαθαρμόσαι.. τὸν αὐχένα Id. Lys. 680; or, stocks, in which the feet were confined, Hdt. 9.37, 6.75, Ar. Eq. 367, D. 18.129; ξ. ἐφέλκειν Polyzel. 3; ἐν τῷ ξ. δεδέσθαι Lys. 10.16 (v. ποδοκάκκη), cf. Acts 16:24, OGI 483.181 (Pergam., ii A.D.): also in pl., ἔδησεν ἐν τοῖς ξ. And. 1.45. πεντεσύριγγον ξύλον (v. sub voc.) was a combination of both, with holes for the neck, arms, and legs, Ar. Eq. 1049. gallows, κρεμάσαι τινὰ ἐπὶ ξύλου LXX De. 21.22; ξ. δίδυμον ib. John 8:29 : prov., ἐξ ἀξίου τοῦ ξύλου κἂν ἀπάγξασθαι, i.e. if one must be hanged, at least let it be on a noble tree, App.Prov. 2.67, cf. Ar. Ra. 736; in NT, of the cross, Acts 5:30, Acts 10:39. stake on which criminals were impaled, Alex. 222.10.
4. bench, table, esp. money-changer's table, D. 45.33.
5. πρῶτον ξύλον front bench in the Athenian theatre, Ar. Ach. 25, V. 90, cf. Sch.adlocc.: hence οὑπὶ τῶν ξύλων the official who had to take care of the seats, Hermipp. 9 (according to Meineke).
6. the Hippocratic bench, Hp. Fract. 13, Art. 72. III of live wood, tree, [ὄρος] δασὺ πολλοῖς καὶ παντοδαποῖς καὶ μεγάλοις ξύλοις X. An. 6.4.5, cf. Call. Cer. 41, Agatharch. 55, LXX Ca. 2.3, al.: opp. σάρξ, Thphr. HP 1.2.6,al.; τῷ ξ. τοῦ δένδρου ἀνάλογον τὴν λεγομένην εἶναι γῆν Plot. 6.7.11; τὸ ξ. τῆς ἀμπέλου E. Cyc. 572; εἴρια ἀπὸ ξύλου, of cotton, Hdt. 3.47; εἵματα ἀπὸ ξύλων πεποιημένα Id. 7.65, cf. Poll. 7.75. of persons, blockhead, APl. 4.187; of a stubborn person, σίδηρός τις ἢ ξ. πρὸς τὰς δεήσεις Ach.Tat. 5.22. a measure oflength, = 3 (also 2 2 / 3) cubits, the side of the ναύβιον, Hero *Geom. 23.4,11, POxy. 669.11, 28 (iii A.D.), 1053 (vi/vii A.D.).
ξύλον , -ου , τό ,
[in LXX chiefly for H6086;]
1. wood: 1 Corinthians 3:12, Revelation 18:12.
2. a piece of wood, hence, anything made of wood, as,
(a) a cudgel, staff: pl., Matthew 26:47; Matthew 26:55, Mark 14:43; Mark 14:48, Luke 22:52;
(b) stocks, for confining the feet (Job 33:11, H5465) : Acts 16:24;
(c) a beam to which malefactors were bound (late Gk.), in LXX, of a gibbet (Deuteronomy 21:22-23), in NT, of the Cross: Acts 5:30; Acts 10:39; Acts 13:29, Galatians 3:13, 1 Peter 2:24.
3. In late writers (v. MM, xvii), a tree (Genesis 1:29, Isaiah 14:8, al.) : Luke 23:31; ξ . τῆς ζωῆς , Revelation 2:7; Revelation 22:2; Revelation 22:14; Revelation 22:19.†
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
(1) For ὄνομα, the name by which a person or thing is called, we may cite : P Magd 24.4 (B.C. 218) Αἰγυπτία τις, ἧι λέγεται εἶναι ὄνομα Ψενοβάστι [ς, P Lond 854.11 (i/ii A.D.) (= III. p. 206, Selections p. 70) τῶν φίλων [ἐ ]μ [ῶν τ ]ὰ ὀνόματ ̣α ̣ ἐνεχάραξα τοῖς ἱ [ε ]ροῖς ἀειμνη ̣ <σ > τω ̣̓, ";I carved the names of my friends on the sanctuaries for perpetual remembrance";—a traveller’s letter, and BGU II. 423.22 (ii/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 92) ἔσ [τ ]ι [δέ ] μου ὄνομα Ἀντῶνις Μάξιμος. Deissmann (LAE, p. 121) claims the phrase ὧν τὰ ὀνόματα as ";a characteristic documentary formula,"; e.g. P Oxy III. 485.31 (A.D. 178) ὧν τὰ ὀνόματα ἐπὶ τῶν [τό ]πων δηλωθήσεται, ";whose names will be ascertained on the spot"; (Edd.), BGU II. 432ii. 3 (A.D. 190) ὧν τὰ ὀνόματα τῷ βιβλιδίῳ δεδήλωται, ";whose names are shown in the little book"; (cf. Philippians 4:3).
(2) By a usage similar to that of the Heb. שֵׁם, ὄνομα comes in the NT to denote the character, fame, authority of the person indicated (cf. Philippians 2:9 f., Hebrews 1:4). With this may be compared the use of the word as a title of dignity or rank, as in P Oxy I. 58.6 (A.D. 288) where complaint is made of the number of officials who have devised ";offices"; for themselves—ὀνόματα ἑαυτοῖς ἐξευρόντες, and provision is made that, on the appointment of a single trustworthy superintendent, the remaining ";offices"; shall cease—.14 f. τὰ δὲ λοιπὰ ὀνόματα παύσηται. See also the use of the word as a title of address in the sepulchral inscr. Preisigke 343.9 Ἀντωνεῖνε. . . φιλάνθρωπε καλὸν ὄνομα κύριέ μου κτλ., and the interesting graffito of A.D. 79 (cited by Deissmann LAE, p. 276), where there is allusion to a certain lady Harmonia—ἧς ὁ ἀριθμὸς μ ̄ε ̄ (or α ̄λ ̄ε ̄) τοῦ καλοῦ ὀνόματος (cf. James 2:7), ";the number of her honourable name is 45 (or 1035)."; In P Leid Wxix. 10 (ii/iii A.D.) we have an invocation to Γῆ —οὗ τὸ (ὄνομα) οὐδὲ θεοὶ δύναται (l. δύνανται) φθέγγεσθαι.
(3) The transition from the foregoing to the meaning ";possession,"; ";property,"; is easy, e.g. P Oxy II. 247.31 (A.D. 90), where a man registers on behalf of his brother certain property which has descended to him ἐξ ὀνόματος τῆς σημαινομένης καὶ μετηλλαχυίας ἀμφοτέρων μητρὸς Τσεναμμωνᾶτος, ";from the property ofthe aforesaid and departed Tsennamonas, the mother of us both"; (Edd.), ib. 249.9 (A.D. 80) τὸ κατηντηκὸς εἴς με ἐξ ὀνόματος τοῦ ὁμογνησίου μου ἀδελφοῦ, and BGU I. 256.5 (time of Antoninus Pius) τα ̣̣ ὑπάρχοντ [α ] εἰς ὄνομα δυεῖν, ";that which belongs to the property of the two."; We may also compare P Ryl II. 174.23 (A.D. 112) συνχωρεῖ ἡ Ἡρακλοῦς [ἄκυρο ]ν εἶναι κατὰ πάντα τρόπον ἣν πεποίηται ἡ Τασουχάρι [ο ]ν διὰ τῆς [τῶν ἐ ]νκτήσ [ε ]ων [β ]ιβλι [ο ]θήκης ἑκ [ο ]ύσιον κατ [ο ]χὴν τοῦ ὀνόματος [αὐτῆς ] εἰς τὸν [τ ]ῆ ̣[ς Ἡ ]ρακλοῦτος λόγον, ";Heraclous acknowledges that the voluntary notification of the personal claim made by Tasoucharion in favour of Heraclous through the property registration-office is entirely invalid"; (Edd.). Sometimes ὄνομα is best left untranslated, as in P Oxy III. 513.22 (A.D. 184) (= Chrest. I. p. 216) τὸν τόκον τὸν [ὀ ]ν [ό ]ματί μου παραγρα [φέ ]ντα, ";the interest debited to me"; (Edd.).
(4) The meaning ";person,"; which is found in Acts 1:15, Revelation 3:4; Revelation 11:13, may be illustrated from P Oxy IX. 1188.8 (A.D. 13) παρὰ τοῦ ὑπογεγραμμέ (νου) ὀνόματος, ";from the person below written,"; BGU I. 113.11 (A.D. 143) ἑκάστῳ ὀνόματι παρα (γενομένῳ), P Thead 41.10 (A.D. 309) διέγ (ραψεν) Σακάων καὶ οἱ κοι (νωνοὶ) ἀπόρων ὀνομα ̣τ ̣ω ̣ν ̣ τάλαντα τρία, and the late PSI I. 27.22 (Acts of Martyrdom—v/A.D.) ἀπέκτ ]εινεν ψυχὰς [εἰδωλολατ ]ρῶν ὡς ὀνόματα χείλια πεντακόσια.
(5) The phrase εἰς (τὸ) ὄνομά τινος is frequent in the papyri with reference to payments made ";to the account of any one"; (cf. Lat. nomen)—P Rein 44.27 (A.D. 104) χρησθὲν εἰς τὸ Διονυσίου [ὄ ]νομα χρεωστῇ Ἑρμαίῳ νεωτέρῳ, P Meyer 8.13 (A.D. 151) πάντα ̣ [καταγραφῆναι ] συνέταξεν εἰς τὸ τῆς γυναικὸς αὐτοῦ ὄνο ̣μα, and Ostr 1160.1 (ii/A.D.) διάγραψον εἰς ὄνομ (α) κληρονόμων Ἄπιδος Νότου (καὶ) Λ (ιβός). The usage is of interest in connexion with Matthew 28:19, where the meaning would seem to be ";baptized into the possession of the Father, etc."; See further Deissmann BS pp. 146 f., 197, and W. Heitmuller’s monograph Im Namen Jesu (Göttingen, 1903), where (p. 100 ff.) the phrase is claimed as good vernacular. With εἰς ὄνομα = qua in Matthew 10:41 f., cf. P Oxy I. 37i. 17 (A.D. 49) (= Selections, p. 50), where in an action against a nurse for the recovery of a male foundling it is stated—βούλεται ὀν [ό ]ματι ἐλευθέρου τὸ σωμάτιον ἀπενέγκασθαι, ";she wishes (to defend herself on the ground) that the foundling was carried off in virtue of its being freeborn.";
The phrase ἐν (τῷ) ὀνόματί τινος, so common in the NT, has not been found outside Biblical Greek, but Deissmann (BS, p. 197 f.) compares the use of the dat. in Syll 364 (=.3797).33 (A.D. 37), where the names of five πρεσβευταί, who had signed the oath of allegiance to Caligula taken by the inhabitants of Assos, are followed by the words—οἵτινες καὶ ὑπὲρ τῆς Γαΐου Καίσαρος Σεβαστοῦ Γερμανικοῦ σωτηρίας εὐξάμενοι Διὶ Καπιτωλίωι ἔθυσαν τῶι τῆς πόλεως ὀνόματι. The simple dat. is found in BGU IV. 1205.23 (B.C. 28) δὸς Ἀλεξίωινι τῶι βαφῖ τῶι ἐμῶι ὀνόματι κτλ., P Oxy III. 531.25 (ii/A.D.) πέμψον Φρόνιμον πρὸς Ἀσκληπιάδην ἐμῶι ὀνόματι, P Flor II. 226.13 (iii/A.D.) πέμψον αὐτὰ εἰς Ταλεῖ τῷ ἐμῷ ὀνόμ (α)τι, and from the inscrr, JHS xvii. (1897), p. 411 No. 14 προστείμου ὀνόματι, and CIG 3919 στεφανωτικοῦ ὀνόματι, where, as Evans (CQ xv. p. 26) points out, ὀνόματι might be rendered ";under the heading of.";
(6) Other exx. of ὄνομα with various prepositions are—P Tebt II. 317.32 (A.D. 174–5) ἕκαστα ἐπιτελοῦντι ἐκ τοῦ ἐμοῦ ἀπούσης ὀνόματος, ";carrying out everything in my name and during my absence"; (Edd. ), P Oxy VII. 1063.3 (ii/iii A.D.) σύμβαλε Ἡρώδῃ. . . ἐξ ὀνόματός μου καὶ εἶπον αὐτῷ, ";go and see Herodes in my name and say to him"; (Ed.); P Amh II. 85.8 (A.D. 78) ὅσα ἄλλα ἐὰν ἀφεύρω ἐπ᾽ ὀνόματος τῶν υἱῶν ὀρφανῶν αὐτοῦ Σαραπίωνος, ";whatever else I may find to be owned by the orphan sons of Sarapion"; (Edd.), P Rein 44.13 (A.D. 104) ἐποίησεν τὰς ὠνὰς ἐπὶ τῷ Διονυσίου τοῦ υἱοῦ ὀνόματι, P Tebt II. 407.15 (A.D. 199?) ἀφ᾽ ὧν ἔ ]χω ἐπ᾽ ὀνόματός σου ὑ [π ]αρχόντων, ";of my property standing in your name"; (Edd.), and the slightly different BGU I. 153.27 (A.D. 152) ἀπογράψασθαι ἐν τῇ τῶν καμήλων ἀπογραφῇ. . . ἐπ᾽ ὀνόματος αὐτῶν, where, as Deissmann (BS p. 197 n..2) points out, the reference is to the camels’ being entered on the list under the name of their new owner; BGU I. 27.18 (ii/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 102) ἀσπάζομαι. . . πάντε (= α)ς τοὺς φιλοῦντάς σε κατ᾽ ὄνομα (cf. 3 Jn.15), P Oxy VII. 1070.46 (iii/A.D.) τοὺς ἡμῶν πάντας κατ᾽ ὄνομα προσαγόρευε καὶ ἄσπασε, and the Christian prayer ib. 1059.7 (v/A.D.), where, after a prayer to God for various persons, the petition is added ὤψε (l. ὄψαι) κατ᾽ ὄνομα, ";look on them severally";; and BGU II. 531ii. 10 (ii/A.D.) τὰ περιγεινόμενα ἐνοίκια πρὸς ἕκαστον ὄνομα τῶν τρυγώντων γραφήτωι. In MGr γιὰ ὄνομα τοῦ θεοῦ, ";for God’s sake!";
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the Second Week after Epiphany