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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #3852 - παραγγελία
- announcement, a proclaiming or giving a message to
- a charge, a command
command or order issued to soldiers, X. HG 2.1.4, Acts 16:24; τόπος ἐπιτηδειότατος εἰς π. for giving the word of command, Plb. 6.27.1: generally, order issued by an authority, PAmh. 2.68.63 (i A. D.), etc.
II summoning one's partisans to support one in a suit at law, exertion of influence, σπουδὴ καὶ π., συγγνώμη καὶ π., D. 19.1, 283.
2. summons to appear in court, POxy. 484.18 (ii A. D.), etc.
3. canvassing for public office, Plu. Crass. 15, App. BC 1.21, etc.
III set of rules or precepts, ὑπὸ παραγγελίαν πίπτειν Arist. EN 1104a7; παραδόσεις καὶ π. Phld. Rh. 1.78 S. (pl.); μεθοδικὴ π. Phld. Po. 2.33; instruction, precept, advice, Hp. Jusj., D.S. 4.36, 15.10; τὸ τέλος τῆς π. ἐστὶν ἀγάπη 1 Timothy 1:5; τεχνίτης π. λογικῆς, of rules of literary composition, D.S. 26.1.
*παρ -αγγελία , -ας , ἡ
an instruction, charge, command: Acts 5:28; Acts 16:24, 1 Thessalonians 4:2, 1 Timothy 1:5; 1 Timothy 1:18. (In Xen., Polyb., of a military order.)†
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
For παρουσία in the general sense of ";presence."; ";arrival,"; as in the later books of the LXX (Judith 10:18, 2 Maccabees 8:12, al.), it is sufficient to cite P Oxy III. 486.15 (A.D. 131) ἡ ἐπι ̣μ ̣[έ ]λ ̣ε ̣ι ̣α ̣ τ ̣ῶν ὑπὸ τοῦ ποτ [α ]μοῦ παρασεσυρμένων χρῄζει μου τῆς παρουσία [ς, ";the repair of what has been swept away by the river requires my presence"; (Edd.), ib. XIV. 1668.25 (iii/A.D.) τὴν ὑμῶν παρουσίαν ἐγδεχόμεθα, ";we await your presence,"; a man to his ";brothers,"; ib. I. 118.32 (late iii/A.D.) οὐδὲν γὰρ ὄφελος ὑστερησάντων (l. ὑστερήσαντος) τῶν χρειωδῶν τῇ παρουσίᾳ αὐτοῦ, ";it is no use if a person comes too late for what required his presence"; (Edd.), and ib. VI. 903.15 (iv/A.D.), where a woman declares that her husband ὤμοσεν ἐπὶ παρουσίᾳ τῶν ἐπισκόπων καὶ τῶν ἀδελφῶν αὐτοῦ ὅτι ἀπεντεῦθεν οὐ μὴ κρύψω αὐτὴ <ν > πάσας μου τὰς κλεῖς, ";swore in the presence of the bishops and of his own brothers, ‘Henceforward I will not hide all my keys from her’"; (Edd.).
What, however, more especially concerns us in connexion with the NT usage of παρουσία is the quasi-technical force of the word from Ptolemaic times onwards to denote the ";visit"; of a King, Emperor, or other person in authority, the official character of the ";visit"; being further emphasized by the taxes or payments that were exacted to make preparations for it. Thus in P Petr II. 39(e).18 (iii/B.C.) mention is made of contributions for a ";crown"; (στεφάνου) to be presented to the King on his ";arrival"; (παρουσίας), and in a letter of B.C. 264 or 227, P Grenf II. 14(b).2, a certain Appenneus writes that he has prepared ἐπὶ τὴν παρουσίαν τὴν Χρυσίππου, ";for the visit of Chrysippus"; (the dioecetes) by laying in a number of birds for his consumption. Other exx. from the papyri are P Par 26i. 18 (B.C. 163–2) (= Selections, p. 15), where the Serapeum Twins lay their grievances before King Ptolemy Philometor and Queen Cleopatra on the occasion of their royal visits to Memphis—καθ᾽ ἃς ἐποεῖσθ᾽ ἐν Μέμφει παρουσίας, and P Tebt I. 48.14 (c. B.C. 113) τὴν ἐπιγεγραμμένην πρὸς τὴν τοῦ βασιλέως ταρουσίαν ἀγορὰν (πυροῦ) (ἀρταβῶν) π ̄, ";the 80 artabae of wheat for the supplies imposed in connexion with the King’s visit"; (Edd.).
From the inscrr. we may cite Syll 226 (= .3 495).85 (Olbia, c. B.C. 230) τήν τε παρουσίαν ἐμφανισάντων τοῦ βασιλέως, and OGIS 139.9 (B.C. 146–116) ἀναγκάζουσι ἡμᾶς παρουσίας αὐτοῖς ποιεῖσθαι οὐχ ἑκόντας, where Dittenberger notes that the phrase παρουσίας ποιεῖσθαι is used ";paullo insolentius"; with reference to the demands which the visits entailed; and from the ostraca, Ostr 1481.2 (ii/B.C.) λόγος παρου (σίας) τῆ (ς) βασιλ (ίσσης), and ib. 1372.4 (A.D. 33), a receipt for payments made εἰς τὴν παρουσίαν Φλάκος ἡγημών (l. Φλάκκου ἡγεμόνος).
Wilcken in Archiv v. p. 284 notes a late papyrus which shows that Christians of vi/A.D. were conscious of the technical meaning of the word : P Aphrod Cairo 3 has a petition for the παρουσία of a dux, ἣν (sc. ἐξουσίαν, i.e. the dux himself) ἐκδέχομεν πρὸ πολλοῦ, οἷον οἱ ἐχ ᾍδου καραδοκοῦντες (cf. Romans 8:19) τὴν τότε (ποτε ?) τοῦ Χ (ριστο)ῦ ἀενάου θ (εο)ῦ παρουσίαν. See further Ostr. i. p. 274 ff., and more particularly for the NT significance of the word Deissmann LAE, p. 372 ff. The relation of παρουσία to ἐπιφάνεια and ἀποκάλυψις is discussed by Milligan Thess. p. 145 ff.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
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