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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #4431 - πτῶσις
πτῶσις, εως, ἡ,
( πίπτω, πέ-πτωκα )
falling, fall, κύβων Pl. R. 604c, cf. Chrysipp.Stoic. 2.282 (pl.); κεραυνῶν Arist. Mete. 339a3, Plu. 2.1005b (pl.); Φαέθοντος Plb. 2.16.13: metaph., π. τῆς ψυχῆς, opp. ἔπαρσις, Zeno Stoic. 1.51 (pl.): abs., calamity, ἐν καιρῷ πτώσεως LXX Si. 3.31, cf. Exodus 30:12; πτώσεις ἀνθρώπων Orph. Fr. 251, al.; death, Lyd. Ost. 12, 14, 20 .
II Gramm., mode or modification of a word, Arist. Po. 1457a18, al.; applied to cases, including nom., ib. 20, Int. 16b1: to genders, Id. SE 173b27: to Sup. of Adjs., Id. Top. 136b30: to Advbs., ib. 15, Rh. 1397a20: to Adjs. derived fr. nouns, e.g. χαλκοῦς, ib. 1410a32: to tenses (exc. the pres. ), Id. Int. 16b17: so by the Stoics to variety of flexion, Stoic. 3.263, but most freq. to cases of the Noun, περὶ τῶν πέντε π ., title of work by Chrysipp., cf. D.T. 634.16, etc.; κατὰ μίαν πτῶσιν indeclinable, A.D. Adv. 165.10 .
III in the Logic of Arist., mood of syllogisms, APr. 42b30 . arrangement of terms in a syllogism, Id. APo. 94a12 .
lit. ";agitate,"; ";shake,"; as by winds and storms : see P Lond 46.462 (iv/A.D.) (= I. p. 80) ἐπικαλοῦμαί σε τὸν. . . σαλε [ύσαντα ] τὸν οὐρανόν, cf. Matthew 24:29, al., and the citations in Boll Offenbarung, p. 135. The verb is used figuratively, as in Hebrews 12:28 f., in the illiterate P Oxy III. 528.13 (ii/A.D.) where a man writes to his sister (wife) ἔπεμσάς μυ ἐπιστολὰς δυν ̣αμένου λίθον σα ̣λ ̣ευ ̣̑σε, οὕτως ὑ λόγυ σου καικίνηκάν με, ";you sent me letters which would have shaken a stone, so much did your words move me"; (Edd.), and OGIS 515.47 (iii/A.D.) σαλεύει γὰρ ὡς ἀλη [θῶς ἡ σωτηρία τῆς πόλε ]ως ἐκ κακουργίας καὶ πανουργίας ὀλί [γων τινῶν αὐτῇ ἐπεμβα ]ινόντων. Hence the derived meaning ";dislodge,"; ";drive away"; from your sober senses, as in 2 Thessalonians 2:2, where Lightfoot (Notes on Epp. of S. Paul, p. 109) compares Plut. Mor. 493 D ὄρεξιν τοῦ κατὰ φύσιν ἀποσαλεύουσαν followed almost immediately by ὡς ἐπ᾽ ἀγκύρας τῆς φύσεως σαλεύει.
For a weakened sense cf. PSI IV. 299.4 (iii/A.D.) κατεσχέθην νόσῳ. . ὡς μὴ δύνασθαι μηδὲ σαλεύεσθαι, ";I was held fast by illness, so as to be unable even to move myself"; : see also P Oxy III. 472.50 (c. A.D. 130) the request of a daughter to her mother—τι καὶ παρασχεῖν ω ̣̔ς ἐπὶ ἑνὶ μόνῳ σαλεύουσαν, ";to give her something since she was dependent upon only a single source"; (Edd.) : cf. LS8 II. 2. MGr σαλεύω, ";move,"; ";stir.";
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