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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #4655 - σκότος
- of night darkness
- of darkened eyesight or blindness
- of ignorance respecting divine things and human duties, and the accompanying ungodliness and immorality, together with their consequent misery in hell
- persons in whom darkness becomes visible and holds sway
σκότος, ὁ, more rarely σκότος, εος, τό (v. sub fin.), darkness, gloom, Od. 19.389, Emp. 121.4, Pi. Fr. 142, etc.; opp. φάος, A. Ch. 319 (lyr.), E. Hipp. 417, etc.; opp. ἡμέρα, Pl. Def. 411b .
2. in Il. always of the darkness of death, mostly in phrase τὸν δὲ ς. ὄσσε κάλυψεν 4.461, al.; στυγερὸς δ' ἄρα μιν ς. εἷλεν 5.47, 13.672; so in Trag. and Com., σκότῳ θανεῖν E. Hipp. 837 (lyr.); ἤδη με περιβάλλει ς . Id. Ph. 1453; ς. γίγνεται Pherecr. 40; σκότον εἶναι τεθνηκότος (sc. Αἰσχύλου ) Ar. Fr. 643 .
3. of the nether world, Pi. Fr. 130; σκότον νέμονται Τάρταρόν τε A. Eu. 72, cf. Pers. 223; τὸν ἀεὶ κατὰ γᾶς ς. εἱμένος S. OC 1701 (lyr.); παῖδες ἀρχαίου Σκότου ib. 106; ἰὼ ς., ἐμὸν φάος Id. Aj. 394 (lyr.); γῆς σκότῳ κέκρυπται E. Hel. 62; σκότου πύλαι Id. Hec. 1 .
4. the darkness of the womb, φυγόντα μητρόθεν σκότον A. Th. 664: pl., ἐν σκότοισι νηδύος τεθραμμένη Id. Eu. 665 .
5. of blindness, σκότου νέφος S. OT 1313 (lyr.); ὁθούνεκ' . . ἐν σκότῳ . . ὀψοίατο, i.e. οὐκέτι ὀψοίατο, ib. 1273; βλέποντα νῦν μὲν ὄρθ', ἔπειτα δὲ σκότον, i.e. μηδέν, ib. 419; σκότον δεδορκώς E. Ph. 377, cf. HF 563 . dizziness, vertigo, Hp. Epid. 5.23; σκότοι πρὸ τῶν ὀμμάτων Arist. HA 584a3; cf. σκοτόδινος, -δινιάω .
6. metaph., σκότῳ κρύπτειν hide in darkness, S. El. 1396 (lyr.), cf. Pi. Frr. 42.5, 228; σκότον ἔχειν to be in darkness, obscurity, Id. N. 7.13, E. Fr. 1052.8; ἀπορία καὶ ς . Pl. Lg. 837a; περικαλύψαι τοῖσι πράγμασι σκότον E. Ion 1522: with Preps., διὰ σκότους ἡ ὁδός it is dark and uncertain, X. An. 2.5.9; ἐν ς. καθήμενος Pi. O. 1.83; μηδὲν ἐν ς. τεχνωμένων S. Ant. 494; κατὰ σκότον Id. Ph. 578; ὑπὸ σκότου Id. Ant. 692, E. Or. 1457 (lyr.), X. Cyr. 4.6.4; ὑπὸ σκότῳ A. Ag. 1030 (lyr.), E. Ph. 1214 .
7. of a person, Μητρότιμος ὁ ς., like ὁ σκοτεινός, the mystery-man, Hippon. 78; also, darkness, i.e. ignorance, D. 19.226; deceit, ς. καὶ ἀπάτη Pl. Lg. 864c .
8. pl., σκότη shadows in a picture, Paus.Gr. Fr. 300, Suid. s.v. ἀπεσκοτωμένα, Eust. 953.51 . — Ael.Dion. Fr. 217 regarded the masc. as the Att. form: the neut. never occurs in Ar., and is nowhere required by the metre in Trag., though it sts. occurs in codd., E. Hec. 831, HF 1159, Fr. 534, v.l. in S. OC 40, dub. l. in A. Fr. 6; it is found, however, without v.l., in Pi. Fr. 42.5 and Att. Prose, Pl. R. 516e, Cra. 418c, D. 18.159, etc.; also in Hdt. 2.121 . έ, X. An. 2.5.9, 7.4.18; the word is always neut. in LXX and NT.
σκότος , -ον , ὁ ,
the more usual cl. form (cf.σ ., τό ),
darkness: Hebrews 12:18, Rec.†
σκότος , -ους , τό ,
a form rare in cl. (cf. ὁ σ .) but freq. in LXX,
[in LXX chiefly for H2822;]
darkness: Matthew 27:45, Mark 15:33, Luke 22:53; Luke 23:44, Acts 2:20, 2 Corinthians 4:6; τὰ κρυπτὰ τοῦ σ ., 1 Corinthians 4:5; of blindness, Matthew 6:23, Acts 13:11; by meton., of a dark place, Matthew 8:12; Matthew 22:13; Matthew 25:30, 2 Peter 2:17, Judges 1:13. Metaph., of moral and spiritual darkness: Luke 11:35, John 3:19, Acts 26:18, 2 Corinthians 6:14, Ephesians 6:12, Colossians 1:13, 1 Peter 2:9; by meton., of those who are in spiritual darkness, Ephesians 5:8; τ . ἔργα τοῦ σ ., Romans 13:12, Ephesians 5:11; οκότους εἶναι , 1 Thessalonians 5:5; ἐν σ . εἶναι , 1 Thessalonians 5:4; οἱ ἐν σ ., Luke 1:79, Romans 2:19; ὁ λαὸς ὁ καθήμενος ἐν σ ., Matthew 4:16 (LXX) (WH. οκοτίᾳ ); ἐν σ . περιπατεῖν , 1 John 1:6.†
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
It would take us too far from our immediate object to discuss the various uses of στρατηγός as a civic and military title. Convenient reff. to the relevant literature will be found in Preisigke Fachwörter, p. 158 f. See also J. G. Tait in J.Eg. Arch. viii. (1922), p. 166 ff. In NT usage the word is applied (1) to the commander of the Levitical guard of the temple (Acts 4:1 al.), a position next in honour to the High Priest, and to the Captains of the temple under him (Luke 22:4; Luke 22:52 : cf. Schürer Geschichte ii. p. 266 (=HJP Div. II. vol. i. p. 259)), and (2) to the governors or magistrates of the Roman colony at Philippi (Acts 16:20 al.). It is doubtful whether the ἄρχοντες of v. 19 and the στρατηγοί of v. 20 are the same officials according to their Greek or Latin forms of designation, or whether the ἄρχοντες are the chief magisterial authorities and the στρατηγοί, the local magistrates of the town. Ramsay (St. Paul, p. 217 f.) is inclined to distinguish between them on the ground that a concise writer like Luke would not likely have employed two clauses where one was sufficient. He adds that in the case of the Philippian magistrates the title ";Praetors"; was ";not technically accurate,"; but was employed as a ";courtesy title.";
The designation στρατηγός = praetor is of constant occurrence in the papyri, and hardly needs illustration, but see P Oxy II. 294.19 (A.D. 22) (= Selections, p. 35), BGU IV. 1095.25 (A.D. 57), and P Fay 118.15 (A.D. 110) .
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
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