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Bible Lexicons

Old & New Testament Greek Lexical DictionaryGreek Lexicon

Strong's #4654 - σκοτίζω

Root Word (Etymology)
from (G4655)
Parts of Speech
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  1. to cover with darkness, to darken
  2. to be covered with darkness, be darkened
    1. of heavenly bodies as deprived of light
    2. metaph.
      1. of the eyes
      2. of the understanding
      3. of the mind
Hebrew Equivalent Words:
Strong #: 2821 ‑ חָשַׁךְ (khaw‑shak');  
Frequency Lists
Verse Results
KJV (9)
Matthew 1
Mark 1
Luke 1
Romans 3
Ephesians 1
Revelation 2
NAS (5)
Matthew 1
Mark 1
Romans 2
Revelation 1
CSB (5)
Matthew 1
Mark 1
Romans 2
Revelation 1
BSB (5)
Matthew 1
Mark 1
Romans 2
Revelation 1
ESV (8)
Matthew 1
Mark 1
Luke 1
Romans 2
Ephesians 1
Revelation 2
WEB (10)
Matthew 2
Mark 1
Luke 1
Romans 3
Ephesians 1
Revelation 2
Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions


make dark, τὸν θεὸν τὸν φωτίζοντα καὶ σκοτίζοντα τὸν κόσμον Tab.Defix.Aud. 242.13 (Carthage, iii A.D. ); get in the light of, ἐνέργειαν Gal. 18(2).698: metaph., λαβὼν δισσὰς ἐσκότισας χάριτας Ἀρχ.Δελτ. 11.57 ( Larissa ), cf. D.H. Th. 33, Them. Or. 11.153a; stupefy, σκορπίους Dsc. Eup. 2.133: Pass., to be darkened, Plu. 2.1120e; to be blinded, σκοτισθήτωσαν οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ αὐτῶν LXX Psalms 68:24(69).24; τῇ διανοίᾳ Ep.Ephesians 4:18 (v.l.); χολῇ τὰς φρένας Tz. H. 8.929; to be dizzy, Aesop. 247b .

Thayer's Expanded Definition

σκοτίζω: passive, perfect participle ἐσκοτισμενος (Ephesians 4:18 R G); 1 aorist ἐσκοτίσθην; 1 future σκοτισθήσομαι; (σκότος); to cover with darkness, to darken; passive, to be covered with darkness, be darkened": properly, of the heavenly bodies, as deprived of light ((Ecclesiastes 12:2)), Matthew 24:29; Mark 13:24; Luke 23:45 (T WH ἐκλείπω (which see 2)); Revelation 8:12; Revelation 9:2 (L T WH σκοτόω, which see); metaphorically, of the eyes, viz. of the understanding, Romans 11:10; καρδία, the mind (see καρδία, 2 b. β.), Romans 1:21; men τῇ διάνοια, Ephesians 4:18 R G. (Plutarch (adv. Col. 24, 4; Cleomed. 81, 28); Tzetzes, hist. 8, 929; the Sept. several times for חָשַׁך; (Polybius 12, 15, 10; 3Macc. 4:10; Test xii. Patr., test. Rub. § 3; test. Levi § 14).)

Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
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All rights rserved. Used by permission. BibleSoft.com
Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament


(< σκότος ),

[in LXX for H2821;]

to darken; in NT always pass., -ομαι , to be darkened: of the heavenly bodies, Matthew 24:29, Mark 13:24, Luke 23:45 (Rec., WH, mg.), Revelation 8:12. Metaph., of the mind, Romans 1:21; Romans 11:10 (LXX) (cf. σκοτόω ).†

Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT

στρατεύομαι is common in the general sense ";serve in the army,"; ";am a soldier"; (whether on active service or not). See e.g. P Rev Lxxiv. 6 (B.C. 259–8) τ ̣ῶν στρατευομένων καὶ τοὺ [ς. . . . . . . . .] κλήρους πεφευκότων, P Tebt I. 5.168 (B.C. 118) τοὺς στρατευομένους Ἕλληνας, ";the Greeks serving in the army"; (Edd.), ib. 27.49 (B.C. 113) ἀπό τε τ [ ]ν στρατευομένων καὶ τῶν ἄλλων τῶν τόπους κατ [ο ]ικούντων, ";from those in the army and the other inhabitants of the district"; (Edd.), P Amh II. 32.1 (ii/B.C.) where certain στρατευόμενοι defend themselves against the charge of returning for taxation purposes their κλῆροι at less than their true value, P Lond 1171 verso (c).7 (A.D. 42) (= III. p. 107) where a distinction is drawn between στρατευόμενοι ";regular soldiers"; and μαχαιροφόροι ";armed attendants upon officials"; (see further the editors’ note ad P Tebt I. 35.13), P Hamb I. 31.18 (A.D. 103) ἀπογραφὴν περιέχουσαν ἐστρατεῦσθαι αὐτὸν [ ]τεσι κ ̄ς ̄, and P Oxy XIV. 1666.5 (iii/A.D.) φθάνω δὲ ὑμεῖν πρότερον γεγραφηκὼς περὶ τοῦ μεικροῦ Παυσανίου ὡς εἰς λεγιῶναν στρατευσάμενον, ";I have previously written to you about the little Pausanias becoming a soldier of a legion"; (Edd.).

The idea of active service seems to be implied in such passages as P Par 63.175 (B.C. 164) (= P Petr III. p. 34) where the cattle belonging ἄλλοις τοῖς στρατευομένοις are impressed into the service of the State, P Grenf I. 21.3 (Will—B.C. 126) τὸν μὲν ἵππον ἐφ᾽ οὗ στρατεύομαι, BGU IV. 1097.7 (Claudius/Nero) ἀπῆλθεν εἰς παρεμβολὴν ̣ στρατ ̣ε ̣υ ̣σασ ̣θ ̣αι, cf. .8 ff., P Ryl II. 189.5 (A.D. 128) receipt for cloaks ἰς <σ >τρατιωτικὰς χρεία ̣ς ̤ τῶν ἐν τῇ Ἰου íα ýδαίᾳ στρατευομένων, ";for the needs of the soldiers serving in Judaea"; (Edd.), and P Oxy VIII. 1103.5 (A.D. 360) τῶν νεολέκτων τῶν στρατευθέντων, ";the new levies raised by us for military service"; (Ed.).

For the metaph. usage, as in 2 Corinthians 10:3 al., cf. BGU IV. 1127.28 (B.C. 8) ἐὰν δὲ κατά τι σ ̣τ ̣ρατεύηται ὁ Ἀπολλώνιος ἐν τοῖς κατὰ τὴν παραχώρησιν, where Schubart notes that the meaning must be ";Schwierigkeiten, Umstände machen,"; ";make difficulties, troubles,"; comparing ib. 1131.20 (B.C. 17). This is rather like our phrase, ";He has been in the wars."; Cf. the use of μάχομαι in the sense of ";quarrel"; (Scottice, ";fecht";), e.g. Menander Fragm. p. 86, No. 302.6 γυνή κρατεῖ πάντων, ἐπιτάττει, μάχετ᾽ ἀεί. The use illustrates the large metaphorical application of the term in the NT. Cumont Les Religions Orientales p. xiv ff. (Engl. Tr. pp. xx, 213f.) has collected a number of passages on the ";Salvation Army"; in ancient times. See also Harnack Militia Christi (1905), and Dibelius HZNT ad 1 Timothy 1:18.


The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
List of Word Forms
εσκοτισθη εσκοτίσθη ἐσκοτίσθη εσκοτισμένοι σκοτισθη σκοτισθή σκοτισθῇ σκοτισθησεται σκοτισθήσεται σκοτισθητωσαν σκοτισθήτωσαν σκοτομήνη eskotisthe eskotisthē eskotísthe eskotísthē skotisthe skotisthē skotisthêi skotisthē̂i skotisthesetai skotisthēsetai skotisthḗsetai skotisthetosan skotisthētōsan skotisthḗtosan skotisthḗtōsan
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