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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #968 - βῆμα
- a step, pace, the space which a foot covers, a foot-breath
- a raised place mounted by steps
- a platform, tribune
- of the official seat of a judge
- of the judgment seat of Christ
- Herod built a structure resembling a throne at Caesarea, from which he viewed the games and made speeches to the people
- a platform, tribune
Aeol. and Dor. βᾶμα, ατος, τό, (βαίνω)
1. step, pace, h.Merc. 222, 345, Pi. P. 3.43, A. Ch. 799 (lyr.); σπουδῇ.. βημάτων πορεύεται E. Andr. 880; τοσόνδε β. διαβεβηκώς Ar. Eq. 73; footfall, ἐρατὸν βᾶμα Sapph. Supp. 5.17; Διὸς εὔφρονι βήματι μολεῖν to journey under the kindly guidance of Zeus, S. El. 163 (lyr.); gait, β. οὐκ ὀρθόν Hippiatr. 27.
2. step, as a measure of length, = 10 παλαισταί, about 2 1/2 feet, Hero *Deff. 131.
3. metaph., step, 'moment', πρόοδος ἐν τρισὶ β. διισταμένη Dam. Pr. 258.
II = cross βάθρον,
1. step, seat, S. OC 193 (lyr.).
2. raised place or tribune to speak from in a public assembly, etc., Th. 2.34, LXX Nehemiah 8:4, etc.; in the Pnyx at Athens, ἐπὶ τὸ β. ἀναβῆναι enter public life, D. 18.66; αἱ ἀπὸ τοῦ β. ἐλπίδες Id. 4.45; also in the lawcourts, Id. 48.31, Aeschin. 3.207; of a suppliant, ἐπὶ τοῦ β. καθεδούμενον Ar. Pl. 382; in the βουλευτήριον, Antipho 6.40. tribunal of a magistrate, τοῦ ἡγεμόνος β. PTeb. 434 (ii A. D.).
3. = cross θυμέλη, Poll. 4.123; β. θεήτρου IG 3.239.
4. base, pedestal, OGI 219.36 (Ilium, iii B. C.), 299.15 (Pergam., ii B. C.).
βῆμα , -τος , τό
(< βαίνω ),
1. a step, stride, pace: Acts 7:5.
2. a raised place, a platform reached by steps, originally that in the Pnyx at Athens from which orations were made; freq. of the tribune or tribunal of a Roman magistrate or ruler: Matthew 27:19, John 19:13, Acts 12:21; Acts 18:12; Acts 18:16-17; Acts 25:6; Acts 25:10; Acts 25:17; β . τοῦ θεοῦ , Romans 14:10; τ . Χριστοῦ , 2 Corinthians 5:10,†
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
The collocation βῆμα ποδός (Acts 7:5, from Deuteronomy 2:5) is found in Preisigke 4284.21 (A.D. 207) οὐλ (ὴ ) βήματι ποδὸς δεξιοῦ : this of course is not a measure as in Ac l. c. but literal. On Syll 763.2 Ἀπατούριος Διοδώρου Μιλήσιος τὰ βήματα ἀνέθηκεν Ἴσιδι Δικαιοσύνηι Dittenberger notes that two footprints are carved in the stone, as in other monuments intended to commemorate the safe accomplishment of a journey to the shrine. Most commonly in inscrr. β . = basis : so Syll 583.8 (? i/A.D.) καὶ ἔστιν αὐτὸς ὁ θεὸς ἐπὶ βήματος μαρμαρίνου καὶ ἡ παρακειμένη τῷ θεῷ τράπεζα λίθου Λεσβίου , of Apollo : the image of Artemis is ἐπὶ παραστάδι μυλίνῃ , and that of Men ἐπὶ βάσει μαρμαρίνῃ . So OGIS 219.36 (iii/B.C.) ἐπὶ βήματος τοῦ λευκοῦ λίθου , ib. 299.15 (ii/B.C.) ἐπιγράψαι ἐπὶ τοῦ βήματος , Magn 92a.12 (ii/A.D.) εἰς τὸ βῆμα [τῆς εἰκ ]όνος . In the papyri it is very common in the official sense ";tribunal, judgement-seat,"; as in NT. P Oxy I. 37i. 3 (A.D. 49) (= Selections, p. 48) ἐπὶ τοῦ βήματος , [Π ]εσοῦρι [ς ] πρὸς Σαραεῦν , ";in court, Pesouris versus Saraeus,"; P Tebt II. 316.11 (A.D. 99) τὸν ἀπὸ βήματος χρηματισμόν , ";the deed issued by the court,"; P Oxy II. 237v. 13 (A.D. 186) πρὸ βήματος ἐσιώπησεν , and similarly P Amh II. 80.7 (A.D. 232–3), P Strass I. 5.7 (A.D. 262) etc. In P Lond 358.19 (c. A.D. 150) (= II. p. 172) we have ἐπὶ τὸ ἱερώτατον τοῦ ἡγεμόνος βῆμα with reference to the Praefect’s court, and in BGU II. 613.19 (time of Antoninus Pius) ἀξιῶ προσκυνῶν τὸ ἱερώτατον βῆμα τ ̣ο ̣υ ̣̑ [blank follows], and so elsewhere. A unique phrase in P Grenf II. 15i. 6 (B.C. 139) ἐφ᾽ ἱερέω ]ν Πτολεμαίου σωτῆρος . . . καὶ τοῦ βήμ [ατος Διο ?]νύσου , ";priest of the βῆμα of Dionysus?"; (Edd.), is noted as perhaps applicable by translation from demotic, as in other divergences here from ordinary formulae. In the Christian fragment P Ryl I. 11.7 (v/vi A.D.) β . is used of the ";terrible judgement-seat of Christ our God";—πρὸς τῷ [φοβε ]ρῷ βήματι Χ (ριστο ) ῦ τοῦ θ (εο ) ῦ ήμῶ (ν ) : cf. Pelagia-Legenden (ed. Usener) p. 6.6 ἐνώπιον τοῦ [φρικτοῦ καὶ ] φοβεροῦ βήματός σου .
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