Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #04785 - מָרָה
Marah = “bitter”
1) the spring with bitter water which was 3 days travel from the crossing place of the Red Sea in the peninsula of Sinai
(1) pr. i.q. Arab. مَرَى to stroke, to stripe (German ftreichen, ftreifen,); specially to lash with a whip (compare the kindred מָרָא), to pass a razor over the skin, whence מוֹרָה a razor. See Schultens on Hariri, Cons. i.p. 24; De Defect. Ling. Hebr., p. 117. Kindred are מָרַה, מָרַק to rub, to rub over, beftreichen, reiben, einreiben. Hence
(2) to be contumacious, rebellious, Deuteronomy 21:18, 20 Deuteronomy 21:20; Psalms 78:8 prop. to resist, to contend against, striking and contending with both hands. (Arabic مرى to refuse what is owed, Conj. III. to contend in disputing.) Constr. with בְּ of the person resisted, Psalms 5:11; Hosea 14:1 and with an acc. (prop. to repulse any one), Jeremiah 4:17; Psalms 105:28 especially in the phrase. מָרָה אֶת־פִּי יְהֹוָה to reject a divine command, Numbers 20:24, 27:14 1 Samuel 12:15 (which, perhaps, formerly taken in its proper sense meant, to stroke or strike any one’s mouth, i.e. to refuse to hear his words, to treat him with contempt, compare Daniel 4:32).
Hiphil הִמְרָה fut. apoc. וַתֶּמֶר (Ezekiel 5:6), i.q. Kal No. 2, to resist, to oppose. Job 17:2, בְּהַמְּרוֹתָם תָּלַן עֵינִי prop. “my eye rests upon their resistance,” i.e. I see or experience nothing but their provocation; also to be refractory, contumacious, Psalms 106:7. Constr.
(a) followed by an acc. (as in Kal), Psalms 78:17, 40 Psalms 78:40, 56 Psalms 78:56 often in the phrase, הִמְרָה אֶת־פִּי יְהֹוָה as to which see Kal, Deuteronomy 1:26, 43 Joshua 1:18 and in the same sense, הִמְרָה אֶת רוּחַ יְיָ Psalms 106:33 and עֵינֵי יְיָ (as if, to offend the eyes of Jehovah) Isaiah 3:8.
(b) followed by בְּ (against) Psalms 106:43; Ezekiel 20:8.
(c) followed by עִם Deuteronomy 9:7, 24 prop. to contend with any one.
Derivative nouns, מוֹרָה, מְרִי and pr.n. יִמְרָה, מָרָה No. I, מְרָיָה, מְרָיוֹת, מִרְיָם.
Note. In two occurrences of the root מָרָה the signification appears to be borrowed from the kindred root מָרַר to be better. One is 2 Kings 14:26, עֳנִי יִשְׂרָאֵל מֹרֶה מְאֹד “the affliction of Israel (was) very bitter” (so all the ancient versions), where it would be hardly suitable to say, perverse, i.e. obstinate, affliction, nor do I see how from the notion of the root מָרָה we can with Schultens obtain the notion of severe affliction. The other instance is מְרִי Job 23:2, which see. On the other hand מָרַר has adopted the signification of the verb מָרָה Exodus 23:21.
I. מָרָה f. dual מְרָתַיִם (from the root מָרָה) repeated rebellion [Merathaim], a symbolic name of Babylon, Jeremiah 50:21.
II. מָרָה (“bitterness,” from the root מָרַר) pr.n. of a bitter or brackish fountain in the peninsula of Sinai, Exodus 15:23; Numbers 33:8 according to the probable opinion of Burckhardt (see Travels in Syria, p. 777, seqq.); the same as is now called بير هواره Bîr Hawârah, not the fountains of Moses (عيون موسى), as thought by Pococke and Niebuhr.