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Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #2567 - חָמַשׁ
1) to arrange in multiples of five, take one fifth
1a) (Piel) to take one fifth, tax a fifth of
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
חָמַשׁ an unused root, to be fat, whence חֹמֶשׁ abdomen. Arabic حَمِيشُ fat, Kam. p. 826; but much more commonly with the letters transposed, شَحْمُ fat, fatness, شَحُمَ to be fat; also حشم to become fat after having been lean.
חָמַשׁ a root nearly allied to the roots חָמַס and חָמַץ i.q. Arabic حَمِسَ to be eager or manly in battle. II. IV. to excite anger. XII. to be angry. V. to act harshly and obstinately (in religion and) in war; حَميسُ, أَحْمَسُ brave, warlike, حَمَاسَةُ martial valour, comp. حَمِشَ to be angry, حَمَشَ to kindle with anger; all which words have a sense springing from that of sharpness, acrimony. Hence part. pass. plur. חֲמֻשִׁים (a word, the etymology of which has been long sought for), i.e. the eager, active, brave, ready prepared for fighting, Exodus 13:18; Joshua 1:14, 4:12 Judges 7:11 comp. in the context חֲלֻצִים, Josh. 4:13 (compare verse 12 Judges 7:12). Numbers 32:30, 32 Numbers 32:32. Aqu. ἐνωπλισμένοι. Symm. καθωπλισμένοι. Vulg. armati, and similarly Onk. Syr. Some have referred this word to חָמֵשׁ No. III; comparing خَمِيسُ i.e. a host arrayed (for battle), properly five-parted, as consisting of the centre, the front and rear guard, and the two wings. Theod. πεμπταΐζοντες: variously rendered by others; but the explanation previously given, is that which best suits the context and the structure of the language.
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