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Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #7761 - שִׂים
1) to set, make, appoint
1a1) to make, make decree, set out (decree)
1a2) to make, appoint
1a3) to set, fix
1b) (Ithpeal) to be made, be set, be laid
V) mfx (סומ SWM) - Place: To set anything in a place. [Hebrew and Aramaic; A generic verb with a wide application meaning to set in place] [df: MwV MyV] KJV (612): (vf: Paal, Hiphil, Hophal) put, make, set, lay, appoint, give, consider, turn, brought, ordain, place, take, shew, regard, mark, dispose, care, command, give, name, have - Strongs: H7760 (שִׂים), H7761 (שִׂים)
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
שִׂים fut. יָשִׂים apoc. יָשֵׂם, וַיָּשֶׂם; once יָשׂוּם Exodus 4:11 imp. שִׂים; inf. absol. שׂוֹם constr. שׂוּם; more rarely שִׂים Job 20:4 gener. to put, to set, to place; τιθέναι (Syr. ܣܳܡ; Eth. ሠደመ፡ ሤመ፡: id.; less frequent is سام Med. Ye, to set, to constitute, e.g. a price.) Specially
(1) to put, i.q. to set, to place (feßen, ftellen), when referring to persons and things which stand upright, or are rather regarded as standing than as lying prostrate. Genesis 2:8, וַיָּשֶׂם שָׁם אֶת־חָאָדָם “and there (in the garden) he placed man.” שׂוּם פּ׳ בֵּית כֶּלֶה to put any one in prison, 2 Chronicles 18:26. Hence
(a) to place a plant, for, to plant; like the Lat. ponere arborem; Arab. نصب Isaiah 28:25.
(b) שׂוּם בָּנִים to set, i.e. to beget children (Germ. Kinder in die Welt feßen), Ezra 10:44 compare θέσθαι παῖδα ὑπὸ ζώνῃ, Hymn. Ven. 256, 283.
(c) שׂוּם קֵן to construct a nest or habitation (in a rock), Numbers 24:21.
(d) to dispose an army, to set in array (מַחֲנֶה), Joshua 8:2, 13 Joshua 8:13 bands of soldiers (רָאשִׁים), Job 1:17 and without an accus, id., 1 Kings 20:12; Ezekiel 23:24 (compare Hiphil 21:21 ). In like manner intrans., 1 Samuel 15:2, שָׂם לוֹ בַּדֶּרֶךְ “he set himself in the way.” There is the same ellipsis in the verbs עָרַךְ No. 1, a, and שִׁית.
(e) to constitute (τιθέναι, Acts 20:18); e.g. a king, Deuteronomy 17:15 a prince, Hosea 2:2 judges, 1 Samuel 8:1 followed by two acc., 1 Sam. loc. cit.; followed by an acc. and לְ Genesis 45:9; Exodus 2:14 followed by an acc. and עַל to be set over, put in charge of any thing, Exodus 1:11, 5:14 1 Samuel 18:5.
(f) to found (as if to place a foundation), as the world, Job 34:13 a people, Isaiah 44:7 divine right, Isaiah 42:4. To this belongs the phrase in which God is said שׂוּם שְׁמוֹ to place his name (anywhere), i.e. to set his seat anywhere (to occupy the temple or holy place), Deuteronomy 12:5, 21 Deuteronomy 12:21, 14:24 1 Kings 9:3, 11:36 2 Kings 21:4 i.q. שִׁכֵּן שְׁמוֹ Deuteronomy 12:11, 26:2.
(g) to set (to constitute) a statute, Genesis 47:26 a place (to determine it), Exodus 21:13.
(2) to put, to place, to lay, inanimate things, so that they lie down; Germ. legen, followed by בְּ in any place (hineinlegen), Genesis 31:34, 44:1 Deuteronomy 10:2. Job 13:27, תָּשֵׂם בַּסַּד רַגְלַי “thou hast put my feet in the stocks;” followed by עַל upon any place, to set on (darauf legen), Genesis 9:23, 22:6 שׂוּם יָד עַל פֶּה to put the hand on the mouth, as done by a person imposing silence on himself, Job 21:5, 29:9 followed by אֶל id. 1 Samuel 19:13. שִׂים אֵשׁ to set fire to, to set on fire, 1 Kings 18:23, 25 1 Kings 18:25. Specially
(a) שׂוּם שְׂמָלוֹת עָלָיו to put garments on oneself (die Kleider anlegen), Ruth 3:3 compare עַל No. 1, a.
(b) absol, to put, lay down, sc. a pledge (ein Pfand einlegen, feßen), Job 17:3. Compare Arab. وضح Conj. III, i.q. رهان وضح; Gr. τίθεσθαι, Passow, letter A, 8.
(c) to put, to impose on some one anything to be done, followed by עַל of pers. Exodus 5:8, 14:22, 24 Exodus 14:24 or to be suffered, followed by בְּ Deuteronomy 7:15 also, to attribute to any one (guilt, eine Schuld zur Laft legen), followed by עַל Judges 9:24 לְ Deuteronomy 22:14, 17 Deuteronomy 22:17בְּ 1 Samuel 22:15; Job 4:18.
(d) שׂוּם שֵׁם לְ to put or impose a name on any one (ὄνομα θεῖναί τινι, Od. xix. 403; ὄνομα θέσθαι, xix. 406), Daniel 1:7 and with a somewhat different construction, Judges 8:31, וַיָּשֶׂם אֶת־שְׁמוֹ אֲבִימֶלֶךְ “and he set his name Abimelech.” Nehemiah 9:7, and Chald. Daniel 5:12.
(e) שׂוּם לְנֶגְדּוֹ to put before one’s own eyes, used of things which we regard highly, Psalms 54:5, 86:14.
(f) followed by אֶל to propound, to explain anything to any one, Job 5:8 in like manner, followed by בְּאָזְנֵי פ׳ to declare, to signify, Exodus 17:14.
(g) to lay up as in a treasury. Job 36:13, “the wicked יָשִׂימוּ אַף lay up (in their heart) wrath;” i.e. they keep it with them, they retain wrath, they indulge in anger and envy, they do not piously turn to God. So rightly Umbreit. Commonly, “they heap up (as it were) the (divine) wrath,” θησαυρίζουσι ἑαυτοῖς θυμόν (Romans 2:5). Similar to this is the phrase
(h) שׂוּם עַל לֵב to lay up on the heart; Germ. etwas zu Herzen nehmen [Engl. to lay to heart], to let anything remain in the heart and mind, Isaiah 57:1, 11 Isaiah 57:11(Gr. θέσθαι ἐνὶ φρεσί); also, שׂוּם אֶל לֵב 2 Samuel 13:33 שׂ׳ בְּלֵב 1 Samuel 21:13, to be moved, to be anxious. Followed by a gerund, Malachi 2:2, and אֲשֶׁר לֹא (lest, that not) Daniel 1:8, to take care lest anything be done. Ellipt. Psalms 50:23, שָׂם דֶּרֶךְ “who takes care of the way,” i.e. his manner of life.
(3) to put, to place, to set, i.e. to direct, to turn in any direction, as
(a) שׂוּם עַיִן עַל to set the eye on, see עַיִן No. 1,.
(b) שׂוּם פָּנִים to set the face on or towards, in various senses, see פָּנִים No. 1, letter -ce.
(c) שׂוּם לֵב to set the heart upon, to attend, Isaiah 41:22 Haggai 2:15, 18 Haggai 2:18 and without לֵב Isaiah 41:20; Job 34:23, 37:15 Judges 19:30. Compare הֵכִין לֵב and הֵכִין id. Followed by עַל of the thing (to or towards anything), Job 1:8 אֶל Exodus 9:21 לְ Deuteronomy 32:46; Ezekiel 40:4 followed by בְּ (without לֵב), Job 33:6 but 1 Samuel 9:20, שׂוּם לֵב לְ is to set the heart and mind on, i.q. שׂוּם עַל לֵב.-From the signification of constituting (see above, No. 1, letter c) arises
(4) to make or render any one so or so, τιθέναι i.q. ποιεῖσθαι (see Passow, h.v. letter B), Exodus 4:11, מִי יָשׂוּם אִלֵּם “who maketh the dumb?” Followed by two acc. Psalms 39:9, “make me not the reproach (object of reproach) of the wicked;” Psalms 40:5, 91:9 105:21 Job 31:24 followed by an acc. and לְ Genesis 21:13, 18 Genesis 21:18; Job 24:25; Isaiah 5:20, 23:13 followed by an acc. and כְּ (to make any one like such a one), Genesis 32:13, “I will make thy seed as the sand of the sea;” 1 Kings 19:2; Isaiah 14:17. There seems to be a blending of two constructions in Isaiah 25:2, שַׂמְתָּ מֵעִיר לַגָּל “thou hast made of a city ruins,” for לַגָּל עִיר or מֵעִיר גַּל, unless it be deemed better to supply מֵעִיר לַגָּל (עִיר) שַׂמְתָּ.-More rarely absol. to make, to do i.q. עָשָׂה (compare examples, No. 1, letter f), Genesis 6:16, “and thou shalt make the door of the ark in the side of it.” שׂוּם אֹתוֹת to do signs, i.e. miracles, Exodus 10:2; Psalms 78:43. Hence
(5) followed by a dat. to make, to prepare for an one, is often i.q. to give, as שׂוּם שָׁלוֹם לְ to give peace to any one, Numbers 6:26 שׂוּם כָּבוֹד לְ to give honour to any one, Joshua 7:19; Isaiah 42:12, compare Psalms 66:2 שׂ׳ רַחֲמִים לְ to give compassion to any one, Isaiah 47:6. Compare Gr. θεῖναί τινι ἄλγεα, πένθος, φόως, see examples, Passow, B, No. 2.
Hiphil, i.q. Kal. Imp. הָשִׂימִי, either attend, see Kal No. 3, c, or range, sc. the battle, see Kal No. 1, d, Ezekiel 21:21 and part. מֵשִׂים (attending) Job 4:20.
Hophal, once, Genesis 24:33 קרי (See יָשַׂם.)
Derivatives, תְּשׂוּמֶת, אָסָם [not so placed in Thes.], and pr.n. יְשִׂימְאֵל.
the Third Sunday after Epiphany