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Bible Lexicons

Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary

Entry for Strong's #4561 - σάρξ

Transliteration
sárx
Phonetics
sarx  
Word Origin
probably from the base of (4563)
Parts of Speech
Noun Feminine
TDNT
7:98,1000
Word Definition [ Thayer | Strong | Mounce ]
Thayer's Definition
  1. flesh (the soft substance of the living body, which covers the bones and is permeated with blood) of both man and beasts
  2. the body
    1. the body of a man
    2. used of natural or physical origin, generation or relationship
      1. born of natural generation
    3. the sensuous nature of man, "the animal nature"
      1. without any suggestion of depravity
      2. the animal nature with cravings which incite to sin
      3. the physical nature of man as subject to suffering
  3. a living creature (because possessed of a body of flesh) whether man or beast
  4. the flesh, denotes mere human nature, the earthly nature of man apart from divine influence, and therefore prone to sin and opposed to God
Hebrew Equivalent Words:
Strong #: 1320 ‑ בָּשָׂר (baw‑sawr');  3894 ‑ לָחֻם (law‑khoom', law‑khoom');  7607 ‑ שְׁאֵר (sheh‑ayr');  
Frequency Lists  [ Book | Word | Parsing ]
Verse Results
KJV (151) NAS (147) HCS (143)
Matthew 5
Mark 3
Luke 2
John 12
Acts 4
Romans 23
1 Corinthians 8
2 Corinthians 9
Galatians 16
Ephesians 8
Philippians 4
Colossians 9
1 Timothy 1
Philemon 1
Hebrews 6
James 1
1 Peter 6
2 Peter 2
1 John 3
2 John 1
Jude 3
Revelation 3
Matthew 5
Mark 3
Luke 2
John 12
Acts 3
Romans 22
1 Corinthians 8
2 Corinthians 9
Galatians 16
Ephesians 7
Philippians 4
Colossians 9
1 Timothy 1
Philemon 1
Hebrews 6
James 1
1 Peter 6
2 Peter 2
1 John 2
2 John 1
Jude 3
Revelation 3
Matthew 5
Mark 4
Luke 1
John 13
Acts 3
Romans 26
1 Corinthians 10
2 Corinthians 10
Galatians 18
Ephesians 9
Philippians 5
Colossians 8
1 Timothy 1
Philemon 1
Hebrews 6
James 1
1 Peter 7
2 Peter 2
1 John 2
2 John 1
Jude 3
Revelation 7
BYZ TIS TR
N-APF 7
N-ASF 39
N-DSF 40
N-GPF 1
N-GSF 38
N-NSF 25
N-APF 8
N-ASF 36
N-DSF 39
N-GPF 1
N-GSF 37
N-NSF 26
N-APF 7
N-ASF 39
N-DSF 40
N-GPF 1
N-GSF 38
N-NSF 26
NA WH
ADV 1
N-APF 7
N-ASF 36
N-DSF 38
N-GPF 1
N-GSF 37
PREP 1
N-APF 7
N-ASF 37
N-DSF 44
N-GPF 1
N-GSF 41
N-NSF 26


Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions

σάρξ,

gen. σαρκός, ἡ, Aeol. σύρξ EM 708.31:

flesh, Hom. always in pl., exc. Od. 19.450, cf. Hes. Sc. 364, 461; κορέει κύνας . . δημῷ καὶ σάρκεσσι Il. 8.380; ἔγκατά τε σάρκας τε καὶ ὀστέα Od. 9.293, cf. 11.219; σάρκες περιτρομέοντο μέλεσσιν 18.77, cf. Hes. Th. 538, Pi. Fr. 168, etc.; τούτου σάρκας λύκοι πάσονται A. Th. 1040; ὀπτὰς σάρκας Id. Ag. 1097; σάρκες δ' ἀπ' ὀστέων . . ἀπέρρεον E. Med. 1200; sts. to represent the whole body, μήτε γῆ δέξαιτό μου σάρκας θανόντος Id. Hipp. 1031, cf. 1239, 1343 (anap.): sg. later in same sense, τοῦ αἵματος . . πηγνυμένου ς. γίνεται (of the foetus) Hp. Nat.Puer. 15, cf. Steril. 233; κορέσαι στόμα πρὸς χάριν ἐμᾶς σαρκὸς αἰόλας S. Ph. 1157 (lyr.); ἔδαπτον σάρκα E. Med. 1189, cf. Ba. 1136, Cyc. 344, etc.: also collectively, of the body, γέροντα τὸν νοῦν, σάρκα δ' ἡβῶσαν φέρει A. Th. 622; σαρκὶ παλαιᾶ Id. Ag. 72 (anap.); σαρκὸς περιβόλαια, ἐνδυτά, E. HF 1269, Ba. 746: Pl. uses sg. and pl. in much the same manner, ταῖς σαρξὶ σάρκες προσγένωνται Phd. 96d, cf. Smp. 211e, R. 556d, Grg. 518c, etc.; τῆς σαρκὸς διαλυτικόν Ti. 60b, cf. 61c, 62b, etc.: portions of meat, usu. in pl., σάρκας τρεῖς IG 12(7).237.17 ( Amorgos ) (sg., ib.12(2).498.16 (Methymna, iii B.C. )); but, pieces of flesh or membrane, βήσσοντα . . ὥστε σάρκας ἐνπύους . . ἀποβάλλειν SIG 1171.5 ( Lebena ). εἰς σάρκα πημαίνειν to the quick, Phld. Herc. 1289p.60V.

2. ἡ ς. τοῦ σκύτεος the inner or flesh-side of leather, Hp. Art. 33 .

3. fleshy, pulpy substance of fruit, Thphr. CP 6.8.5, HP 1.2.6, 4.15.1, al.

II the flesh, as the seat of the affections and lusts, fleshly nature, ἐν τῇ ς. ἡ ἡδονή Epicur. Sent. 18, cf. Sent.Vat. 33; ἀδούλωτον (prob. l.) τῇ σαρκὶ καὶ τοῖς ταύτης πάθεσι Plu. 2.107f, cf. 101b; freq. in NT, Ep.Galatians 5:19, al.

2. in NT also, the body, τῆς σαρκὸς πρόνοια Ep.Romans 13:14; οὔτε ἡ ς. αὐτοῦ εἶδεν διαφθοράν Acts 2:31, etc.: hence (partly as a Hebraism) πᾶσα σάρξ, = every- body, LXX Genesis 6:12, al., Ev.Luke 3:6, etc.; οὐ . . πᾶσα σάρξ no body, Ev. Matthew 24:22, etc.

3. the physical or natural order of things, opp. the spiritual or supernatural, σοφοὶ κατὰ σάρκα 1 Corinthians 1:26; ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ καὶ οὐκ ἐν σαρκὶ πεποιθότες Ep.Philippians 3:3; τὸν κύριον τῶν πνευμάτων καὶ πάσης ς . SIG 1181.3 ( ii B.C., Jewish). (Perh. I.- E. twr[kcirc ]- 'portion', cf. Avest. θ war[schwa]s- 'cut'.)

Thayer's Expanded Definition
 σάρξ, σαρκός, (Aeolic, συρξ; hence, it seems to be derived from σύρω, akin to σαίρω, 'to draw,' 'to draw off,' and to signify what can be stripped off from the bones ( Etym. Magn. 708,34; sed quis subsignabit (Lob. Paralip., p. 111))), from Homer down, Hebrew בָּשָׂר;

1. properly, flesh (the soft substance of the living body, which covers the bones and is permeated with blood) of both men and beasts: 1 Corinthians 15:39; plural — cf. the flesh of many beings, Revelation 19:18,21; of the parts of the flesh of one, Luke 24:39 Tdf.; Revelation 17:16; accordingly, it is distinguished both from blood, σάρξ καί αἷμα (on which expression see below, 2a.; 3bis; 4at the end (cf. Winer's Grammar, 19)), and from bones, πνεῦμα σάρκα καί ὀστέα οὐκ ἔχει, Luke 24:39 (οὐ γάρ ἔτι σάρκας τέ καί ὀστέα ἰνες ἔχουσιν, Homer, Odyssey 11,219). φαγεῖν τάς σάρκας τίνος: properly, Revelation 17:16; Revelation 19:18 ( Leviticus 26:29; κατεσθίειν, 2 Kings 9:36, and often in the Sept.; in classical Greek frequently βιβρώσκειν σάρκας; σαρκῶν ἐδωδή, Plutarch, septem sap. couviv. c. 16); tropically, to torture one with eternal penal torments, James 5:3, cf. Micah 3:3; Psalm 26:2 (Psalm 27:2>); φαγεῖν and τρώγειν τήν σάρκα τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου, in figurative discourse, to appropriate to oneself the saving results of the violent death endured by Christ, John 6:52-56; ἀπέρχεσθαι or πορεύεσθαι ὀπίσω σαρκός, to follow after the flesh, is used of those who are on the search for persons with whom they can gratify their lust (see ὀπίσω, 2a.), Jude 1:7; 2 Peter 2:10; τό σῶμα τῆς σαρκός, the body compacted of flesh (cf. Winer's Grammar, 188 (177)), Colossians 1:22. Since the flesh is the visible part of the body, σάρξ is

2. equivalent to the body, not designating it, however, as a skilful combination of related parts (`an organism,' which is denoted by the word σῶμα), but signifying the material or substance of the living body (cf. Aeschylus, Sept.622γέροντα τόν νοῦν σάρκα δ' ἡβωσαν φέρει);

a. universally, John 6:63 (see πνεῦμα, 2, p. 520a middle); Acts 2:26,30 Rec.; 2 Corinthians 12:7; Galatians 4:14; Ephesians 5:29; Hebrews 9:10,13; ( 1 Peter 3:21); Jude 1:8; μία σάρξ, one body, of husband and wife, Mark 10:8; so εἰς σάρκα μίαν (from Genesis 2:24), Matthew 19:5; Mark 10:8; 1 Corinthians 6:16; Ephesians 5:31; opposed to ψυχή, Acts 2:31 (ἔδωκεν ... Ἰησοῦν Χριστόν ... τήν σάρκα ὑπέρ τῆς σαρκός ἡμῶν καί τήν ψυχήν ὑπέρ τῶν ψυχῶν ἡμῶν, Clement of Rome, 1 Corinthians 49,6 [ET] (cf. Irenaeus 5,1, 1; but G L T Tr WH drop ψυχή αὐτοῦ in Acts , the passage cited)); opposed to πενυμα (the human), 1 Corinthians 5:5; 2 Corinthians 7:1; Colossians 2:5; 1 Peter 3:18; 1 Peter 4:6; σάρξ καί αἷμα, equivalent to ψυχικόν σῶμα, 1 Corinthians 15:50, cf. 1 Corinthians 15:44; περιτομή ἐν σαρκί, Romans 2:28; Ephesians 2:11; τό πρόσωπον μου ἐν σαρκί ( A. V. my face in the flesh), my bodily countenance, Colossians 2:1; ἀσθένεια σαρκός, of disease, Galatians 4:13; ἐν τῇ θνητῇ σαρκί ἡμῶν, 2 Corinthians 4:11 (cf.ἐν τῷ σώματι ἡμῶν, 2 Corinthians 4:10); ἐν τῇ σαρκί αὐτοῦ, by giving up his body to death, Ephesians 2:14 (15); also διά τῆς σαρκός αὐτοῦ, Hebrews 10:20, cf. John 6:51 (προσφέρειν τήν σάρκα μου, to offer in sacrifice my flesh — Christ is speaking, the Epistle of Barnabas 7,5 [ET]; τήν σάρκα παραδοῦναι εἰς καταφθοράν, ibid. 5,1 [ET]). life on earth, which is passed in the body (flesh), is designated by the following phrases: ἐν σαρκί εἶναι, Romans 7:5 (where Paul uses this expression with designed ambiguity in order to involve also the ethical sense, 'to be in the power of the flesh,' to be prompted and governed by the flesh; see 4below); ζῆν ἐν σαρκί, Galatians 2:20; Philippians 1:22; ἐπιμένειν ἐν σαρκί, Philippians 1:24; ἐν σαρκί χρόνος, 1 Peter 4:2; αἱ ἡμέραι τῆς σαρκός αὐτοῦ, of Christ's life on earth, Hebrews 5:7. ἐν σαρκί or ἐν τῇ σαρκί, in things pertaining to the flesh (body), such as circumcision, descent, etc.: Galatians 6:12 f; πεποιθέναι, Philippians 3:3 f; ἔχειν πεποίθησιν, Philippians 3:4.

b. used of natural or physical origin, generation, relationship: οἱ συγγενεῖς κατά σάρκα, Romans 9:3 (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 20,2a.); τέκνα τῆς σαρκός, children by bird, natural posterity, Romans 9:8; ἀδελφόν ἐν σαρκί καί ἐν κυρίῳ, a natural brother (as it were) and a Christian brother, Philemon 1:16; οἱ τῆς σαρκός ἡμῶν πατέρες, our natural fathers (opposed to God πατήρ τῶν πνευμάτων, see πατήρ, 1a. and 3b.), Hebrews 12:9; τά ἔθνη ἐν σαρκί, Gentiles by birth, Ephesians 2:11; Ἰσραήλ κατά σάρκα, 1 Corinthians 10:18 (the opposite term Ἰσραήλ τοῦ Θεοῦ, of Christians, is found in Galatians 6:16); τό κατά σάρκα, as respects the flesh i. e. human origin, Romans 9:5 (( Clement of Rome, 1 Corinthians 32,2 [ET]; Irenaeus haer. 4,4, 1and fragment 17 ed; Stieren, p. 836)); γενομένου ἐκ σπέρματος Δαυίδ κατά σάρκα, Romans 1:3; κατά σάρκα γεννηθείς, born by natural generation (opposed to γεννηθείς ... τόν κατά πνεῦμα, i. e. by the supernatural power of God, operating in the promise), Galatians 4:29,23; τό γεγεννήμενοι ἐκ τῆς σαρκός σάρξ ἐστιν, that which has been born of the natural man is a natural man (opposed to one who has been born again by the power of the Holy Spirit), John 3:6; σάρξ μου, those with whom I share my natural origin, my fellow-countrymen, Romans 11:14 (ἰδού ὀστᾶ σου καί σάρκες σου, 2 Samuel 5:1; add, 2 Samuel 19:13>; Genesis 37:27; Judges 9:2); εἶναι ἐκ τῆς σαρκός καί ἐκ τῶν ὀστέων τίνος, which in its proper use signifies to be 'formed out of one's flesh and bones' ( Genesis 2:23; to be related to one by birth, Genesis 29:14), is transferred metaphorically, to the church, which spiritually derives its origin from Christ and is united to him, just as Eve drew her origin from her husband Adam, Ephesians 5:30 ( R G Tr marginal reading brackets).

c. the sensuous nature of Prayer of Manasseh , 'the animal nature': without any suggestion of depravity, τό θέλημα τῆς σαρκός, of sexual desire, John 1:13; the animal nature with cravings which incite to sin: Matthew 26:41; Mark 14:38; Romans 7:18 (for which τά μέλη is used in Romans 7:22 f); Romans 13:14>; Jude 1:23; opposed to νοῦς, Romans 7:25; ἐπιθυμία τῆς σαρκός, 1 John 2:16 (with its manifestation, ἐπιθυμία τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν; (others regard this last as a new specification; cf. Westcott at the passage)); plural 2 Peter 2:18 (τά τῆς σαρκός πάθη, 4 Maccabees 7:18; τό μή δεδουλωσθαι σαρκί καί τοῖς πάθεσι ταύτης διάγειν, ὑφ' ὧν κατασπωμενος νοῦς τῆς θνητης ἀναπιμπλαται φλυαριας, ἐυδαιμον τί καί μακάριον, Plur. consol. ad Apoll c. 13; τῆς σαρκός ἡδονή, opposed to ψυχή, Plutarch, de virt. et vit. c. 3; add, Philo de gigant. § 7; ( Diogenes Laërtius 10,145; animo cum hac carne grave certamen est, Seneca, consol. ad Marc. 21; animus liber habitat; nunquam me cato ista compellet ad metum, Seneca, epistles 65 (7,3, 22); non est summa felicitatis nostrae in carne ponenda, ibid. 74 (9,3, 16)). the physical nature of man as subject to suffering: παθεῖν σαρκί, 1 Peter 4:1; ἐν τῇ σαρκί μου, in that my flesh suffers afflictions, Colossians 1:24 (where cf. Meyer and DeWette (and Lightfoot)); θλῖψιν ἔχειν τῇ σαρκί, 1 Corinthians 7:28.

3. a living creature (because possessed of a body of flesh), whether man or beast: πᾶσα σάρξ (in imitation of the Hebrew כָּל־בָּשָׂר ( Winer s Grammar, 33)), every lving creature, 1 Peter 1:24; with οὐ preceding (qualifying the verb ( Winer s Grammar, § 26,1; Buttmann, 121 (106))), no living creature, Matthew 24:22; Mark 13:20; specifically, a man (ἄνθρωπος for בָּשָׂר, Genesis 6:13), generally with a suggestion of weakness, frailty, mortality: Sirach 28:5; ἐν τῷ Θεῷ ἤλπισα, οὐ φοβηθήσομαι τί ποιήσει μοι σάρξ, Psalm 55:5 (Psalm 56:5>); cf. Jeremiah 17:5; ἐμνήσθη, ὅτι σάρξ εἰσιν, Psalm 77:39 (Psalm 78:39>); σάρξ καί αἷμα, Ephesians 6:12; γενεά σαρκός καί αἵματος, μέν τελευτᾷ, ἑτέρα δέ γεννᾶται, Sirach 14:18; λόγος σάρξ ἐγένετο, entered into participation in human nature, John 1:14 (the apostle used σάρξ, not ἄνθρωπος, apparently in order to indicate that he who possessed supreme majesty did not shrink from union with extreme weakness); εὑρίσκειν τί κατά σάρκα, to attain to anything after the manner of a (weak) Prayer of Manasseh , i. e. by the use of merely human powers, Romans 4:1 (for substance equivalent to ἐξ ἔργων in Romans 4:2); Hebraistically (see above), πᾶσα σάρξ, all men, Luke 3:6; John 17:2 ( Winer's Grammar, § 30,1a.); Acts 2:17; Sirach 45:4; with οὐ or μή preceding (qualifying the verb ( Winer s Grammar, and Buttmann, as referred to above)), no Prayer of Manasseh , no mortal, Romans 3:20; 1 Corinthians 1:29; Galatians 2:16. man as he appears, such as he presents himself to view, man's external appearance and condition: κατά σάρκα κρίνειν, John 8:15 (cf. Winer's Grammar, 583 (542)) (equivalent to κρίνειν κατ' ὄψιν, John 7:24); γινώσκειν or εἰδέναι τινα κατά σάρκα, 2 Corinthians 5:16; οἱ κατά σάρκα κυρίου (see κατά, II:3b.), Ephesians 6:5; Colossians 3:22. universally, human nature, the soul included: ἐν ὁμοιώματι σαρκός ἁμαρτίας, in a visible form, like human nature which is subject to sin, Romans 8:3 (cf. ὁμοίωμα, b.); ἐν σαρκί ἔρχεσθαι, to appear clothed in human nature, 1 John 4:2 and Rec. in 3; 2 John 1:7 (the Epistle of Barnabas 5,10 [ET]); φανερουσθαι, 1 Timothy 3:16 (the Epistle of Barnabas 5,6 [ET]; 6,7 [ET]; 12,10 [ET]); κεκοινωνηκεναι αἵματος καί σαρκός, Hebrews 2:14.

4. σάρξ, when either expressly or tacitly opposed to τό πνεῦμα (τοῦ Θεοῦ), has an ethical sense and denotes "mere human nature, the earthly nature of man apart from divine influence, and therefore prone to sin and opposed to God"; accordingly it includes whatever in the soul is weak, low, debased, tending to ungodliness and vice ("Thou must not understand 'flesh', therefore, as though that only were 'flesh' which is connected with unchastity, but St. Paul uses 'flesh' of the whole Prayer of Manasseh , body and soul, reason and all his faculties included, because all that is in him longs and strives after the flesh (Luther, Preface to the Epistle to the Romans); note that 'flesh' signifies the entire nature of Prayer of Manasseh , sense and reason, without the Holy Spirit" (Melanchthon, Loci, edition of 1535, in Corpus Reform. xxi., p. 277). This definition is strikingly supported by these two utterances of Paul: οὐδεμίαν ἔσχηκεν ἄνεσιν σάρξ ἡμῶν, 2 Corinthians 7:5; οὐκ ἔσχηκα ἄνεσιν τῷ πνεύματι μου, 2 Corinthians 2:13): Romans 8:3; Galatians 5:13,19; opposed to τό πνεῦμα (τοῦ Θεοῦ), Romans 8:6f, 12; Galatians 5:16; Galatians 6:8; Colossians 2:13 (on which see ἀκροβυστία, c.); Colossians 2:23 (see πλησμονή); ἐπιθυμία σαρκός, Galatians 5:16; αἱ ἐπιθυμίαι and τά θελήματα τῆς σαρκός, Ephesians 2:3; νοῦς τῆς σαρκός, Colossians 2:18; σῶμα τῆς σαρκός, a body given up to the control of the flesh, i. e. a body whose members our nature, estranged from God, used as its instruments (cf. Romans 6:19), Colossians 2:11 G L T Tr WH; τά τῆς σαρκός (opposed to τά τοῦ πνεύματος), the things which please the flesh, which the flesh craves, Romans 8:5; σαρκί ἐπιτελοῦμαι, to make for oneself an end (see ἐπιτελέω, 1tim) by devoting oneself to the flesh, i. e. by gradually losing the Holy Spirit and giving oneself up to the control of the flesh, Galatians 3:3; σταυρουν τήν σάρκα αὐτοῦ (see σταυρόω, 3b.), Galatians 5:24; ἐν σαρκί εἶναι (opposed to ἐν πνεύματι, namely, τοῦ Θεοῦ), to be in the power of the flesh, under the control of the flesh, Romans 8:8f, cf. Romans 7:5 (see 2above); οἱ κατά σάρκα ὄντες, who exhibit the nature of the flesh, equivalent to οἱ σαρκικοί (opposed to οἱ κατά πνεῦμα ὄντες), Romans 8:5; κατά σάρκα περιπατεῖν, to live according to the standard of the flesh, to comply in conduct with the impulse of the flesh, Romans 8:1 Rec.; 2 Corinthians 10:2; opposed to κατά πνεῦμα, Romans 8:4; βουλεύεσθαι, 2 Corinthians 1:17; καυχᾶσθαι, 2 Corinthians 11:18 where cf. Meyer; (opposed to κατά πνεῦμα) ζῆν, Romans 8:12 f (ἐν σαρκί τυγχάνουσιν, ἀλλ' οὐ κατά σάρκα ζῶσιν, of Christians, Ep. ad Diogn. 5,8 [ET]); ἐν σαρκί περιπατοῦντες οὐ κατά σάρκα στρατευόμεθα, although the nature in which we live is earthly and therefore weak, yet we do not carry on our warfare according its law, 2 Corinthians 10:3 (οὐ κατά σάρκα γράφειν, ἀλλά κατά γνώμην Θεοῦ, Ignatius ad Romans 8,3 [ET]); with the suggestion of weakness as respects knowledge: σάρξ καί αἷμα, a man liable to err, fallible man: Matthew 16:17; Galatians 1:16; ἀσθένεια τῆς σαρκός, Romans 6:19; σοφοί κατά σάρκα, 1 Corinthians 1:26. Cf. Tholuck, Ueber σάρξ als Quelle der Sünde, in the Theol. Studien und Kritiken for 1855, p. 477ff; C. Holsten, Die Bedeut. des Wortes σάρξ im Lehrbegriffe des Paulus, 4to, Rostock 1855 (reprinted in his Zum Evang. des Paul. u. Petr., p. 365ff. (Rostock, 1867); see also (with especially reference to Holsten) Lüdemann, Die Anthropologie des Apest. Paul. (Kiel, 1872)); Ritschl, Entstehung der altkathol. Kirche, edition 2, p. 66ff; Baur in the Theol. Jahrbb. for 1857, p. 96ff, and in his Biblical Theol. des N. T., p. 142ff, etc.; Wieseler, Br. an die Galater, pp. 443ff, 448ff (cf. Riddle in Schaff's Lange's Commentary on Romans , p. 235f) Weiss, Biblical Theol. des N. T. (3rd edition) § 68, p. 243ff, § 100, p. 414 f; Rich. Schmidt, Paulin. Christologie, p. 8ff; Eklund, σάρξ vocabulum quid ap. Paulum apost. significet (Lund, 1872); Pfleiderer, Paulinismus, p. 47ff. (English translation, vol. i., p. 47ff); Wendt, Die Begrifle Fleisch u. Geist im Biblical Sprachgebr. (Gotha, 1878); ( Cremer in Herzog edition 2under the word Fleisch, but especially in his Biblical-theol. Wörterbuch, 3te (or 4te) Aufl., under the word; Laidlaw, The Bible Doctr. of Man (Edinb. 1879), pp. 74ff, 373 f; Philippi, Glaubensl. edition 2, vol. iii., pp. 231-250; especially Dickson, St. Paul's use of the terms Flesh and Spirit (Glasgow, 1883)); and the references in Meyer on Romans 4:1 (6te Aufl.).

Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
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Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament

σάρξ , σαρκός , ,

[in LXX chiefly for H1320;]

flesh;

1. as in cl. generally,

(a) prop., of the soft substance of the animal body: 1 Corinthians 15:39, 2 Corinthians 12:7, Galatians 6:13, al.; σ . καὶ αἷμα , 1 Corinthians 15:50; σ . καὶ ὀστέα , Luke 24:39; pl., of the flesh of many or parts of the flesh of one (cl.), Revelation 17:16; Revelation 19:18 φαγεῖν , Re, ll. C. (cf. κατεσθίειν , 2 Kings 9:36, al., and βιβρώσκειν , freq. in ώ .); metaph., James 5:3; mystically, φ . (τρώγειν ) τὴν σ . τοῦ υἱοῦ τ . ἀνθρώπου , John 6:52-56;

(b) of the whole substance of the body, = σῶμα : Acts 2:26 (LXX) Acts 2:31, 2 Corinthians 12:7, Galatians 4:14, Ephesians 5:29; μία σ ., Mark 10:8; εἰς σ . μίαν (Genesis 2:24), Matthew 19:5, Mark 10:8, 1 Corinthians 6:16, Ephesians 5:31; hence, of the material as opp. to the immaterial part of man (cf. Lft., Notes, 88): opp. to πνεῦμα , 1 Corinthians 5:5, 2 Corinthians 7:1, Colossians 2:5, 1 Peter 3:18; 1 Peter 4:6; to ψυχή , Acts 2:31, Rec.; of the present life, ἐν σ ., Romans 7:5, Galatians 2:20, Philippians 1:22; Philippians 1:24, 1 Peter 4:2; of Christ's life on earth, αἱ ἡμέραι τ . σαρκὸς αὐτοῦ , Hebrews 5:7; of things pertaining to the body, ἐν (τῇ ) σ ., Galatians 6:12-13, Philippians 3:3-4

2. As in Heb. idiom,

(a) of a living creature: πᾶσα σ . (Heb. H1320־ H3605; cf. El., § 47, 9), Matthew 24:22, Mark 13:20, 1 Peter 1:24; esp. of man and his mortality (Psalms 56:5, Sirach 28:5, al.), John 1:14; πᾶσα σ . (v. supr.), Luke 3:6, John 17:2, Acts 2:17; ἐν σ ., 1 John 4:2, 1 Timothy 3:16;

(b) of natural origin and relationship (Genesis 2:24, Isaiah 58:7, al.): τέκνα τῆς σ ., Romans 9:8; κατὰ σάρκα , Romans 9:3; Romans 9:5, 1 Corinthians 10:18, Galatians 4:23; Galatians 4:29; ἡ σ . μου , Romans 11:14 (cf. Judges 9:2, 2 Samuel 5:1, al.).

3. Of the physical nature as subject to sensation and desire (Plut.),

(a) without any ethical disparagement: Romans 7:18; Romans 13:14; opp. to πνεῦμα , Matthew 26:41, Mark 14:38; τ . θέλημα τῆς σ ., John 1:13; ἡ ἐπιθυμία τῆς σ ., 1 John 2:16; pl., 2 Peter 2:18; πειθεῖν σαρκί , 1 Peter 4:1;

(b) in ethical sense, esp. in Pauline Epp., of the flesh as the seat and vehicle of sinful desires: opp. to νοῦς , Romans 7:25; to πνεῦμα , Romans 8:4-9; Romans 8:12-13 Galatians 5:16-17; Galatians 5:19; Galatians 6:8 (cf. DB, ii, 14 f.; iv, 165 f.; Cremer, 844 ff.).


Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT

in plur. = ";spoils"; (Luke 11:22) : cf. P Hamb I. 91.4 (B.C. 167) ἀπὸ τῶν γενομένων σκύλ [ω ]ν ἐν Τεβέτνοι παρεδόθη μοι ὑπὸ τ [ῶν συν ]στρατιω [τῶν αἰχμά ]λω ̣τα δ ̄, and ib..30 παραδοῦναί μοι τὰ σ [κῦλ ]α ̣. Add from the inscrr. Syll 35 (= .3 61).1 (after B.C. 440) σκῦλα ἀπὸ Θουρίον Ταραντῖνοι ἀνέθηκαν Διὶ Ὀλυμπίοι δεκάταν, OGIS 332.8 (B.C. 138–2) ἄγαλμα. . βεβηκὸς ἐπὶ σκύλμων ἐν τῶι ναῶι τοῦ Σωτῆρος Ἀσκληπιοῦ.

 

The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
List of Word Forms
σαρκα σάρκα σαρκας σάρκας σάρκες σαρκι σαρκί σαρκὶ σαρκος σαρκός σαρκὸς σαρκων σαρκών σαρκῶν σαρξ σάρξ σὰρξ σαρξί σαρξίν sarka sárka sarkas sárkas sarki sarkí sarkì sarkon sarkôn sarkōn sarkō̂n sarkos sarkós sarkòs sarx sárx sàrx

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