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Bible Lexicons

Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary

Entry for Strong's #5228 - ὑπέρ

Transliteration
hypér
Phonetics
hoop-er'  
Word Origin
a primary preposition
Parts of Speech
Preposition
TDNT
8:507,1228
Word Definition [ Thayer | Strong | Mounce ]
Thayer's Definition
  1. in behalf of, for the sake of
  2. over, beyond, more than
  3. more, beyond, over
Frequency Lists  [ Book | Word | Parsing ]
Verse Results
KJV (160) NAS (61) HCS (148)
Matthew 3
Mark 1
Luke 6
John 12
Acts 9
Romans 18
1 Corinthians 9
2 Corinthians 31
Galatians 4
Ephesians 10
Philippians 6
Colossians 5
1 Thessalonians 3
2 Thessalonians 3
1 Timothy 3
Titus 1
Philemon 3
Hebrews 11
James 1
1 Peter 3
1 John 1
3 John 1
Matthew 2
Luke 2
John 3
Acts 2
Romans 4
1 Corinthians 3
2 Corinthians 18
Galatians 1
Ephesians 5
Philippians 3
Colossians 3
2 Thessalonians 1
1 Timothy 1
Philemon 3
Hebrews 3
3 John 1
Matthew 5
Mark 2
Luke 5
John 13
Acts 7
Romans 17
1 Corinthians 10
2 Corinthians 33
Galatians 4
Ephesians 10
Philippians 6
Colossians 7
1 Thessalonians 2
2 Thessalonians 3
1 Timothy 3
Titus 1
Philemon 3
Hebrews 11
James 1
1 Peter 2
1 John 2
3 John 1
BYZ TIS TR
PREP 159
PREP 142
PREP 163
NA WH
ADV 3
PREP 143
ADV 2
PREP 172


Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions

ὑπέρ [ ],

also ὑπείρ, used by Hom. (metri gr.) only in the phrase ὑπεὶρ ἅλα (v. ὑπείρ); Arc. ὁπέρ (q. v.): in Aeol. replaced by περί (v. περί A. V): Pr governing gen. and acc., in Arc. also dat. (Cf. Skt. upaári 'above', Goth. ufar, O E. ofer 'over': from it are formed the Comp. and Sup. ὑπέρτερος, -τατος, also Adv. ὕπερθεν, and Nouns ὑπέρα, ὕπερος.)

WITH GENIT.,

I of Place, over;

1 in a state of rest, over, above, freq. in Hom., βάλε.. στέρνον ὑ. μαζοῖο Il. 4.528; χιτωνίσκους ἐνεδεδύκεσαν ὑ. γονάτων not reaching to the knees, X. An. 5.4.13; ἕστηκε.. ὅσον τ' ὄργυι' ὑ. αἴης Il. 23.327; εἴθ' ὑ. γῆς, εἴτ' ἐπὶ γῆς, εἴθ' ὑπὸ γῆς Thphr. Ign. 1; στῆ δ' ἄρ' ὑ. κεφαλῆς stood over his head as he lay asleep, Il. 2.20, Od. 4.803, al.; πασάων ὕ. ἥ γε κάρη ἔχει 6.107; ὑ. πόλιος, ὅθι Ἕρμαιος λόφος ἐστίν, ἦα 16.471; ὑ. κεφαλῆς οἱ ἐγίνετο διεξελαύνοντι over head, i. e. over the gateway, Hdt. 1.187; ὑ. τῆς ὀροφῆς IG 12.373.246; ὑ. τοῦ ἀγάλματος ib.264; ὄρος τὸ ὑ. Τεγέης Hdt. 6.105; τὰ ὑ. κεφαλῆς the higher ground, X. Ages. 2.20; Ἰονίας ὑ. ἁλὸς οἰκέων on the Ionian sea, i.e. on its shores, Pi. N. 7.65; λιμὴν καὶ πόλις ὑ. αὐτοῦ κεῖται Th. 1.46, cf. 6.4, D.C. 40.14: of relative geographical position, above, farther inland, οἰκέοντες ὑ. Ἁλικαρνησσοῦ μεσόγαιαν Hdt. 1.175; ἐξ Αἰθιοπίας τῆς ὑ. Αἰγύπτου Th. 2.48; τοῖς ὑ. Χερρονήσου Θρᾳξίν X. An. 2.6.2; ὑ. Μασσαλίας Plb. 2.14.8, cf. 5.73.3, al.: in Hellenistic Gr. the acc. is commoner in this sense, v. infr. B. I. of ships at sea, off a place, Th. 1.112, 8.95; ναυμαχίην τὴν ὑ. Μιλήτου γενομένην Hdt. 6.25; ὑ. τούτου (sc. Φαλήρου) ἀνακωχεύσαντες τὰς νέας ib. 116.

2. in a state of motion, over, across, κῦμα νηὸς ὑ. τοίχων καταβήσεται Il. 15.382; τὸν δ' ὑ. οὐδοῦ βάντα προσηύδα Od. 17.575; πηδῶντος.. τάφρων ὕ. S. Aj. 1279; ὑ. θαλάσσης καὶ χθονὸς ποτωμένοις A. Ag. 576; ἐκκυβιστᾶν ὑ. [τῶν ξιφῶν ] X. Smp. 2.11.

3. over, beyond, ἐν Κρήτῃ εὐρείῃ τηλοῦ ὑ. πόντου Od. 13.257.

II metaph., in defence of, on behalf of, τεῖχος ἐτειχίσσαντο νεῶν ὕ. Il. 7.449; ἑκατόμβην ῥέξαι ὑ. Δαναῶν 1.444: generally, for the prosperity or safety of, τὰ ἱερὰ ὑ. τῆς Εὐβοίας θῦσαι IG 12.39.65, cf. 45.5; ἱερὰ θυόμενα ὑ. τῆς πόλεως X. Mem. 2.2.13; ἐπιτελεῖν τὰς θυσίας ὑ. τε ὑμῶν καὶ τῶν τέκνων UPZ 14.27 (ii B.C.); in dedications (always with reference to living persons), Σμικύθη μ' ἀνέθηκεν.. εὐξαμένη.. ὑ. παίδων καὶ ἑαυτῆς IG 12.524, cf. 22.4403, 42(1).569 (Epid.); Ἀρτέμιδι Σωτείρᾳ ὑ. βασιλέως Πτολεμαίου Ἐπικράτης Ἀθηναῖος OGI 18 (Egypt, iii B. C.), cf. 365 (Amasia, ii B. C.), al.; ὑ. τῆς εἰς αἰῶνα διαμονῆς Ἀντωνείνου Καίσαρος ib.702.3 (Egypt, ii A.D.); ὑ. τῆς τύχης.. Ἀντωνείνου Σεβαστοῦ Εὐσεβοῦς ib.703.2 (Ptolemais, ii A.D.); ὑ. σωτηρίας τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν.. Ἀντωνείνου ib.706 (Egypt, ii/iii A. D.); εὑδόντων ὕ. φρούρημα A. Eu. 705; ὑ. τινὸς κινδυνεύειν, μάχεσθαι, βοηθεῖν, Th. 2.20, Pl. Lg. 642c, X. An. 3.5.6; ἧς ἔθνῃσχ' ὕ. S. Tr. 708; ὑ. γῆς τῆς Ἀθηναίων ναυμαχέειν Hdt. 8.70; ὑ. τῆς Ἑλλάδος ἀμῦναι Pl. Lg. 692d; ἀμυνῶ ὑ. ἱερῶν καὶ ὁσίων Jusj. ap. Poll. 8.105; νῦν ὑ. πάντων ἀγών A. Pers. 405; ὑ. δόξης τελευτήσαντες D. 23.210, cf. Isoc. 6.93; πάνθ' ὑ. ὑμῶν φανήσεται πράξας Χαβρίας, καὶ τὴν τελευτὴν αὐτὴν τοῦ βίου πεποιημένος οὐχ ὑ. ἄλλου τινός in your interests, D. 20.80, cf. 83; ὑ. τῆς Ἀσίας στρατηγήσας Isoc. 4.154; of things sought, ὑ. τοῦ νεκροῦ ὠθισμὸς ἐγένετο πολύς Hdt. 7.225; ἀφίκετο ὑ. γενεᾶς, ὑ. φωνᾶς, ὑ. τοῦ θησαυροῦ, IG 42 (1).121.10,42, 123.11 (Epid., iv B.C.); γίνωσκέ με πεπορεῦσθαι εἰς Ἡρακλέους πόλιν ὑ. τῆς οἰκίας UPZ 68.3 (ii B. C.); sts. even of the thing to be averted, ἱκέσιον λόχον δουλοσύνας ὕ. about slavery, A. Th. 111 (lyr.), cf. Aeschin. 3.10.

2. for, instead of, in the name of, ὑ. ἑαυτοῦ τι προϊδεῖν on his own behalf, Th. 1.141; ὑ. τινὸς ἀποκρίνεσθαι Pl. R. 590a; προλέγειν X. An. 7.7.3; ἐπεὶ οὖν σὺ σιωπᾷς, ἐγὼ λέξω καὶ ὑ. σοῦ καὶ ὑ. ἡμῶν Id. Cyr. 3.3.14, cf. S. El. 554; ὑ. Ζήνωνος πράσσων as Zeno's representative, PSI 4.389.8 (iii B. C.); ἔγραψεν ὑ. αὐτῶν διὰ τὸ φάσκειν αὐτοὺς μὴ εἰδέναι γράμματα PGrenf. 2.17.9 (ii B. C.); θεάσασθε ὃν τρόπον ὑμεῖς ἐστρατηγηκότες πάντ' ἔσεσθ' ὑ. Φιλίππου as though by commission from P., D. 3.6; so in other dialects c. acc., v. infr. B. v.

3. in adjurations, with verbs of entreaty, entreat one as representative of another, τῶν ὕ. ἐνθάδ' ἐγὼ γουνάζομαι οὐ παρεόντων, i. e. I entreat you as they would if they were here, Il. 15.665, cf. 660; then more metaph., by, λίσσομ' ὑ. ψυχῆς (as you value your life) καὶ γούνων σῶν τε τοκήων 22.338, cf. 24.466; λίσσομ' ὑ. θυέων καὶ δαίμονος.. σῆς τ' αὐτοῦ κεφαλῆς καὶ ἑταίρων Od. 15.261; λίσσου' ὑ. μακάρων σέο τ' αὐτῆς ἠδὲ τοκήων A.R. 3.701; ὑ. ξενίου λίσσεται ὔμμε Διός in the name of Zeus, AP 7.499.2 (Theaet.); so Aeol. περ (v. περί A. V).

4. of the cause or motive, for, because of, by reason of, ἀλγέων ὕ. E. Supp. 1125 (lyr.); ὑ. παθέων Id. Hipp. 159 (lyr.); ἔριδος ὕ. Id. Andr. 490 (lyr.); of punishment or reward, for, on account of, τοῖσιν ἄγουσιν κλαύμαθ' ὑπάρξει βραδυτῆτος ὕ. S. Ant. 932 (anap.), cf. Isoc. 11.39, Lys. 3.43, 4.20, 13.41,42, X. An. 1.3.4; ἀτῆθθαι ὑ. τῶ πατρὸς τὰ πατρώϊα the father's property shall pay the fine for the father, Leg.Gort. 11.42; ἀποτεισάτω ὁ δεσπότης ὑ. τοῦ δούλου PHal. 1.198 (iii B. C.); τοῦτον (viz. a runaway slave) ὃς ἂν ἀναγάγῃ, λήψεται ὅσα καὶ ὑ. τοῦ προγεγραμμένου UPZ 121.24 (ii B. C.); τὸ κατεσκευασμένον ὑ. τῆς ἡμετέρας σωτηρίας Ἰσιδεῖον as a thank-offering for.., Sammelb. 3926.12 (i B. C.); ὑ. ὧν ἐτιμήσαμεν αὐτοὺς ταῖς μεγίσταις τιμαῖς Isoc. 9.57; ἀποδοῦναι χάριν ὑ. ὧν.. ἅπαντας ἀνθρώπους εὐεργέτησεν Id. 4.56; of payment, ἡμιωβέλιον ὑ. ἑκάστου IG 12.140.2; μέτρησον Ποσειδωνίῳ ὑ. Ἡρακλείδου on account of H., i.e. debiting H.'s account, PFay. 16 (i B. C.); μετρήσω ὑ. σοῦ εἰς τὸ δημόσιον for the credit of your account, PAmh. 2.88.22 (ii A. D.); ὑ. λαογραφίας Ostr.Bodl. iii 80 (i A. D.); ὑ. λόγου ἀννώνης Ostr. 1479 (iii A. D.); ὑ. ὧν ἔμαθεν καταβαλεῖν μισθόν Jul. Or. 3.126a, cf. Ael. NA 3.39.

5. ὑ. τοῦ μή c. inf., for the purpose of preventing or avoiding, ὑ. τοῦ μηδένα.. βιαίῳ θανάτῳ ἀποθνῄσκειν X. Hier. 4.3; ὑ. τοῦ μὴ ποιεῖν τὸ προσταττόμενον Isoc. 7.64, cf. 12.80; τὴν πόλιν ἐκλιπεῖν ὑπέμειναν.. ὑ. τοῦ μὴ τὸ κελευόμενον ποιῆσαι D. 18.204: also without μή, for the sake of, ὑ. τοῦτοῖς ἄλλοις ἐπιτάττειν ἐθέλειν ἀποθνῄσκειν to be ready to die for the sake of.., Isoc. 6.94; μὴ τοσαύτην ποιεῖσθαι σπουδὴν ὑ. τοῦ βλάψαι τοὺς πολεμίους ἡλίκην ὑ. τοῦ μηδὲν αὐτοὺς παθεῖν δεινόν Plb. 3.94.9, cf. 5.32.1, 5.86.8: this constr. is found also in signf. A. 111.

III concerning, ὑ. σέθεν αῐσχε' ἀκούω Il. 6.524; κᾶρυξ ἀνέειπέ νιν ἀγγέλλων Ἱέρωνος ὑ. καλλινίκου ἅρμασι Pi. P. 1.32; Σκύθαι μὲν ὧδε ὑ. σφέων τε αὐτῶν καὶ τῆς χώρης τῆς κατύπερθε λέγουσι Hdt. 4.8; τὰ λεγόμενα ὑ. ἑκάστων v.l. in Id. 2.123; τοὺς ὑ. τοῦ αἰῶνος φόβους Epicur. Sent. 20; διαλεχθῆναι, ἀγορεύειν ὑ. τινός, Pl. Ap. 39e, Lg. 776e; περὶ μὲν οὖν τούτων τοσαῦτά μοι εἰρήσθω, ὑ. ὧν δέ μοι προσήκει λέγειν.. Lys. 24.4, cf. 21, 16.20; ὑ. οὗ.. ὁμολογῶ.. διαφέρεσθαι τούτοις D. 18.31; βουλευομένων ὑ. τοῦ ποίαν τινὰ [εἰρήνην ποιητέον ] Id. 19.94; ἔγραψάς μοι ὑ. τῶν καμίνων PCair.Zen. 273.2 (iii B. C.); ἐνεκάλουν ὑ. σύκων PSI 6.554.24 (iii B. C.); ἐπεδώκαμέν σοι ὑπόμνημα ὑ. τοῦ μὴ εἰληφέναι τὴν.. ὄλυραν UPZ 46.4 (ii B. C.); συλλαλήσαντες ὑ. τοῦ τὴν πόλιν ἐνδοῦναι τοῖς Ῥωμαίοις Plb. 1.43.1; θροῦς ὑ. τοῦ τὸν Λυκοῦργον ἐκπέμπειν talk of sending L., Id. 5.18.5, cf. 6; γνώμην ὑ. τῆς κοινῆς [δόξης ] Isoc. 6.93; ὑ. τῶν τούτου λῃτουργιῶν.. ὡδὶ γιγνώσκω D. 21.152; ἐκ τῶν ἐμφανῶν ὑ. τῶν ἀφανῶν πιστεύειν Jul. Or. 4.138b; with vbs. expressing emotion, ποίας.. γυναικὸς ἐκφοβεῖσθ' ὕ.; S. OT 989; εἰ τὰ παρὰ σοὶ καλῶς ἔχει, θάρρει ὑ. ἐκείνων X. Cyr. 7.1.17; οὐδεὶς ὑ. μου δαιμόνων μηνίεται κατασφαγείσης A. Eu. 101 (approaching sense 11.1).

WITH ACCUS.,

I of Place in reference to motion, over, beyond, freq. in Hom., e.g. ὑ. ὦμον ἤλυθ' ἀκωκή Il. 5.16, cf. 851; ἀλάλησθε.. ὑπεἰρ ἅλα Od. 3.73, cf. 7.135, al., A. Eu. 250, S. Ant. 1145 (lyr.); ὑ. τὸν δρύφακτον ὑπερτιθέμενοι Plb. 1.22.10: without such reference, ὑ. Ἡρακλείας στήλας ἔξω κατοικοῦσι Pl. Criti. 108e, cf. Jul. Or. 1.6d; τὰς κεφαλὰς ὑ. τὸ ὑγρὸν ὑπερίσχον Plb. 3.84.9; τῶν ὑ. τὸ Σαρδῷον πέλαγος τόπων Id. 2.14.6; ὑ. Μασσαλίαν Id. 2.16.1; λόφον κείμενον ὑ. τὴν ὁδόν Id. 2.27.5, cf. 3.47.2, al.; τῶν συριῶν ὑ. τὴν σκηνὴν οὐσῶν PHib. 1.38.7 (iii B. C.); οὐλὴ.. ὑ. ὀφρὺν δεξιάν PCair.Zen. 76.13 (iii B. C.); τὸ ὑ. τὸν ἔσχατον.. σπόνδυλον Sor. 1.102; ὑ. τὸν οὐρανόν Jul. Or. 4.135a.

II of Measure, above, exceeding, beyond, ὑ. τὸν ἀλαθῆ λόγον Pi. O. 1.28; ὑ. τὸ βέλτιστον A. Ag. 378 (lyr.); ὑ. ἐλπίδα S. Ant. 366 (lyr.); ὑ. δύναμιν Th. 6.16; μεγέθει ὑ. τοὺς ἐν τῇ νηΐ Pl. R. 488b; ὑ. ἄνθρωπον εἶναι Id. Lg. 839d, Luc. Vit.Auct. 2; ὑ. ἡμᾶς beyond our powers, Pl. Prm. 128b; ὑ. τὴν ἀξίαν E. HF 146; ὑ. τὴν οὐσίαν Pl. R. 372b; ὑ. τὸ ὕδωρ (cf. ὕδωρ 1.4) Luc. Pr.Im. 29. after Comp., than, δυνατώτεροι ὑ... LXX Jd. 18.26: so after Posit., τοῖς ἀγαθοῖς ὑ. αὐτόν better than he, ib. 3 Ki. 2.32.

2. of transgression, in violation of, ὑ. αἶσαν, opp. κατ' αἶσαν, Il. 3.59, al.; ὑ. Διὸς αἶσαν 17.321; ὑ. μοῖραν 20.336; ὑ. μόρον (or ὑπέρμορον) ib. 30; ὑ. θεόν 17.327; ὑ. ὅρκια 3.299, al.

III of Number, above, upwards of, τὰ ὑ. δέκα μνᾶς [ξυμβόλαια ] IG 12.41.23, cf. 22.48, al.; ὑ. τεσσεράκοντα ἄνδρας Hdt. 5.64; ὑ. τετταράκοντα (sc. ἔτη) X. HG 5.4.13; ὑ. τὰ στρατεύσιμα ἔτη γεγονόσι Id. Cyr. 1.2.4; ὑ. ἥμισυ more than half, ib. 3.3.47. of Time, beyond, i.e. before, earlier than, ὁ ὑ. τὰ Μηδικὰ πόλεμος Th. 1.41; ὑ. τὴν φθοράν Pl. Ti. 23c. in some dialects, in sense A. 11.1,2, on behalf of, ὑ. τὰν πόλιν SIG 437 (Delph., iii B. C.), al., cf. IG 42(1).109iv113 (Epid., iii B. C.), 5(2).438-40,442 (Megalop., ii B. C.), 42(1).380,665 (Epid., i A. D.), IPE 4.71.10 (Cherson., ii A. D.); in sense A. 111, concerning, ἐπικράνθη μοι ὑ. ὑμᾶς LXX Ruth 1:13.

WITH DAT., only Arc., μαχόμενοι ὑ. τᾷ τᾶς πόλιος ἐλευθερίᾳ fighting for.., IG 5(2).16 (Tegea, iii B. C.).

POSITION: ὑπέρ may follow its Subst., but then by anastrophe becomes ὕπερ, Il. 5.339, Od. 19.450, al., S. OT 1444, etc. AS ADV., over-much, above measure, ὑπὲρ μὲν ἄγαν E. Med. 627 (lyr.); also written ὑπεράγαν, Str. 3.2.9, Ael. NA 3.38, etc.; cf. ὑπέρφευ: as a predicate, διάκονοι Χριστοῦ εἰσι; ὑπὲρ ἐγώ I am more [than they], 2 Corinthians 11:23.

IN COMPO S. ὑπέρ signifies over, above, in all relations, e. g.,

1 of Place, over, beyond, as in ὑπεράνω, ὑπέργειος, ὑπερβαίνω, ὑπερπόντιος.

2. of doing a thing for or in defence of, as in ὑπερμαχέω, ὑπερασπίζω, ὑπεραλγέω.

3. above measure, as in ὑπερήφανος, ὑπερφίαλος.

Thayer's Expanded Definition

ὑπέρ (cf. English up, over, etc.), Latin super, over, a preposition, which stands before either the genitive or the accusative according as it is used to express the idea of state and rest or of motion over and beyond a place.

I. with the genitive; cf. Winer's Grammar, 382f (358f).

1. properly, of place, i. e. of position, situation, extension: over, above, beyond, across. In this sense it does not occur in the N. T.; but there it always, though joined to other classes of words, has a tropical signification derived from its original meaning.

2. equivalent to Latinpro, for, i. e. for one's safety, for one's advantage or benefit (one who does a thing for another, is conceived of as standing or bending 'over' the one whom he would shield or defend (cf. Winer's Grammar, as above)): προσεύχεσθε ὑπέρ τῶν ..., Matthew 5:44; Luke 6:28 (T Tr marginal reading WH περί (see 6 below)); Colossians 1:3 L Tr WH marginal reading (see 6 below); (James 5:16 L Tr marginal reading WH text), 9; εὔχομαι, James 5:16 (R G T Tr text WH marginal reading); after δέομαι, Acts 8:24; and nouns denoting prayer, as δέησις, Romans 10:1; 2 Corinthians 1:11; 2 Corinthians 9:14; Philippians 1:4; Ephesians 6:19; προσευχή, Acts 12:5 (here L T Tr WH περί (see 6 below)); Romans 15:30; 1 Timothy 2:1, 2; εἶναι ὑπέρ τίνος (opposed to κατά τίνος), to be for one i. e. to be on one's side, to favor and further one's cause, Mark 9:40; Luke 9:50; Romans 8:31, cf. 2 Corinthians 13:8; τό ὑπέρ τίνος that which is for one's advantage, Philippians 4:10 (but see ἀναθάλλω and φρονέω, at the end); ἐντυγχάνω and ὑπερεντυγχάνω, Romans 8:26 R G, 27,34; Hebrews 7:25, cf. Hebrews 9:24; λέγω, Acts 26:1 R WH text (see 6 below); μερίμνω, 1 Corinthians 12:25; ἀγρύπνω, Hebrews 13:17; ἀγωνίζομαι ἐν ταῖς προσευχαῖς, Colossians 4:12, cf. Romans 15:30; πρεσβεύω, Ephesians 6:20; 2 Corinthians 5:20; with a substantive: ζῆλος, 2 Corinthians 7:7; (Colossians 4:13 Rec.); πόνος, Colossians 4:13 (G L T Tr WH); σπουδή, 2 Corinthians 7:12; 2 Corinthians 8:16; διάκονος, Colossians 1:7; to offer offerings for, Acts 21:26; to enter the heavenly sanctuary for (used of Christ), Hebrews 6:20; ἀρχειρεα καθίστασθαι, Hebrews 5:1; after the ideas of suffering, dying, giving up life, etc.: Romans 9:3; Romans 16:4; 2 Corinthians 12:15; after τήν ψυχήν τιθέναι (ὑπέρ τίνος), in order to avert ruin, death, etc., from one, John 10:11; John 13:37f; of Christ dying to procure salvation for his own, John 10:15; John 15:13; 1 John 3:16; Christ is said τό αἷμα αὐτοῦ ἐκχύνειν, passive, Mark 14:24 L T Tr WH (see 6 below); Luke 22:20 (WH reject the passage); ἀπολέσθαι, John 18:14 Rec.; ἀποθνῄσκειν, John 11:50ff; ( L T Tr WH); Acts 21:13; Romans 5:7; of Christ undergoing death for man's salvation, Romans 5:6, 8; Romans 14:15; 1 Thessalonians 5:10 (here T Tr WH text περί (see 6 below); 1 Peter 3:18 L T Tr WH text); γεύεσθαι θανάτου, Hebrews 2:9; σταυρωθῆναι, 1 Corinthians 1:13 (here L text Tr marginal reading WH marginal reading περί (see 6 below)); (of God giving up his Son, Romans 8:32); παραδιδόναι τινα ἑαυτόν, Galatians 2:20; Ephesians 5:2, 25; διδόναι ἑαυτόν, Titus 2:14; with a predicate accusative added, ἀντίλυτρον, 1 Timothy 2:6; τό σῶμα αὐτοῦ διδόναι, passive, Luke 22:19 (WH reject the passage), cf. 1 Corinthians 11:24; τυθῆναι (θυθῆναι, see θύω, at the beginning), 1 Corinthians 5:7; παθεῖν, 1 Peter 2:21; 1 Peter 3:18 (R G WH marginal reading; 4:1 R G); ἁγιάζειν ἑαυτόν, John 17:19. Since what is done for one's advantage frequently cannot be done without acting in his stead (just as the apostles teach that the death of Christ inures to our salvation because it has the force of an expiatory sacrifice and was suffered in our stead), we easily understand how ὑπέρ, like the Latinpro and our for, comes to signify

3. in the place of, instead of (which is more precisely expressed by ἀντί; hence, the two prepositions are interchanged by Irenaeus, adv. haer. 5, 1, τῷ ἰδίῳ αἵματι λυτρωσαμένου ἡμᾶς τοῦ κυρίου καί δόντος τήν ψυχήν ὑπέρ τῶν ἡμετέρων ψυχῶν καί τήν σάρκα τήν ἑαυτοῦ ἀντί τῶν ἡμετέρων σαρκῶν): ἵνα ὑπέρ σου μοι διακονῇ, Philemon 1:13; ὑπέρ τῶν νεκρῶν βαπτίζεσθαι (see βαπτίζω, at the end), 1 Corinthians 15:29; (add, Colossians 1:7 L text Tr text WH text); in expressions concerning the death of Christ: εἷς ὑπέρ πάντων ἀπέθανεν (for the inference is drawn ἄρα οἱ πάντες ἀπέθανον, i. e. all are reckoned as dead), 2 Corinthians 5:14(15),15; add, 21; Galatians 3:13. (On this debated sense of ὑπέρ, see Meyer and Van Hengel on Romans 5:6; Ellicott on Galatians and Philemon, the passages cited; Wieseler on Galatians 1:4; Trench, Synonyms, § lxxxii.; Winer's Grammar, 383 (358) note.) Since anything, whether of an active or passive character which is undertaken on behalf of a person or thing, is undertaken 'on account of' that person or thing, ὑπέρ is used

4. of the impelling or moving cause; on account of, for the sake of, any person or thing: ὑπέρ τῆς τοῦ κόσμου ζοης, to procure (true) life for mankind, John 6:51; to do or suffer anything ὑπέρ τοῦ ὀνόματος Θεοῦ, Ἰησοῦ, τοῦ κυρίου: Acts 5:41; Acts 9:16; Acts 15:26; Acts 21:13; Romans 1:5; 3 John 1:7; πάσχειν ὑπέρ τοῦ Χριστοῦ, Philippians 1:29; ὑπέρ τῆς βασιλείας τοῦ Θεοῦ, 2 Thessalonians 1:5; στενοχωριαι ὑπέρ τοῦ Χριστοῦ, 2 Corinthians 12:10 (it is better to connect ὑπέρ etc. here with εὐδοκῶ); ἀποθνῄσκειν ὑπέρ Θεοῦ, Ignatius ad Rom. 4 [ET]. examples with a genitive of the thing are, John 11:4; Romans 15:8; 2 Corinthians 1:6; 2 Corinthians 12:19; ὑπέρ τῆς εὐδοκίας, to satisfy (his) good-pleasure, Philippians 2:13; with a genitive of the person, 2 Corinthians 1:6; Ephesians 3:1, 13; Colossians 1:24; δοξάζειν, εὐχαριστεῖν ὑπέρ τίνος (genitive of the thing), Romans 15:9; 1 Corinthians 10:30; ὑπέρ πάντων, for all favors, Ephesians 5:20; ἐυηξαρίστειν ὑπέρ with a genitive of the person, Romans 1:8 (here L T Tr WH περί (see 6 below)); 2 Corinthians 1:11; Ephesians 1:16; ἀγῶνα ἔχειν ὑπέρ with a genitive of the person Colossians 2:1 L T Tr WH (see 6 below); ὑπέρ (τῶν) ἁμαρτιῶν (or ἀγνοημάτων), to offer sacrifices, Hebrews 5:1, 3 (here L T Tr WH περί (see 6 below)); ; ἀποθανεῖν, of Christ, 1 Corinthians 15:3; ἑαυτόν δοῦναι, Galatians 1:4 R WH text (see 6 below).

5. Like the Latinsuper (cf. Klotz, HWB, d. Latin Spr. ii, p. 1497b; (Harpers' Latin Dict. under the word, II. B. 2 b.)), it frequently refers to the object under consideration, concerning, of, as respects, with regard to ((cf. Buttmann, § 147, 21); examples from secular authors are given in Winer's Grammar, 383 (358f)); so after καυχᾶσθαι, καύχημα, καύχησις (R. V. on behalf of): 2 Corinthians 5:12; 2 Corinthians 7:4, 14; 2 Corinthians 8:24; 2 Corinthians 9:2; 2 Corinthians 12:5; 2 Thessalonians 1:4 (here L T Tr WH εγ( (or εν() καυχᾶσθαι); φυσιουσθαι, 1 Corinthians 4:6 (others refer this to 4 above; see Meyer edition Heinrici (cf. φυσιόω, 2 at the end)); ἐλπίς, 2 Corinthians 1:7 (6); ἀγνοεῖν, 8 (here L T Tr WH marginal reading περί (see 6 below)); φρονεῖν, Philippians 1:7 (2 Macc. 14:8); ἐρωτᾶν, 2 Thessalonians 2:1; κράζειν, to proclaim concerning, Romans 9:27; (παρακαλεῖν, 1 Thessalonians 3:2 G L T Tr WH (see 6 below)); after εἰπεῖν, John 1:30 L T Tr WH (see 6 below); (so after verbs of saying, writing, etc., 2 Samuel 18:5; 2 Chronicles 31:9; Joel 1:3; Judith 15:4; 1 Esdr. 4:49; 2 Macc. 11:35); εἴτε ὑπέρ Τίτου, whether inquiry be made about Titus, 2 Corinthians 8:23; ὑπέρ τούτου, concerning this, 2 Corinthians 12:8.

6. In the N. T. manuscripts, as in those of secular authors also, the prepositions ὑπέρ and περί are confounded (cf. Winers Grammar, 383 (358) note; § 50, 3; Buttmann, § 147, 21; Kühner, § 435, I. 2 e.; Meisterhans, § 49, 12; also Wieseler or Ellicott on Galatians, as below; Meyer on 1 Corinthians 15:3 (see περί, the passage cited δ.)); this occurs in the following passages: Mark 14:24; (Luke 6:28); John 1:30; Acts 12:5; Acts 26:1; Romans 1:8; 1 Corinthians 1:13; 2 Corinthians 1:8; Galatians 1:4; Colossians 1:3; Colossians 2:1; (1 Thessalonians 3:2; 1 Thessalonians 5:10); Hebrews 5:3. (For ὑπέρ ἐκ περισσοῦ or ὑπέρ ἐκπερισσοῦ, see ὑπερεκπερισσοῦ.)

II. with the accusative (cf. Winers Grammar, § 49, e.); over, beyond, away over; more than;

1. properly, of the place 'over' or 'beyond' which, as in the Greek writings from Homer down; not thus used in the N. T., where it is always

2. metaphorically, of the measure or degree exceeded (cf. Buttmann, § 147, 21);

a. universally: εἶναι ὑπέρ τινα, to be above i. e. superior to one, Matthew 10:24; Luke 6:40; τό ὄνομα τό ὑπέρ πᾶν ὄνομα namely, ὄν, the name superior to every (other) name, Philippians 2:9; κεφαλήν ὑπέρ πάντα namely, οὖσαν, the supreme head or lord (A. V. head over all things), Ephesians 1:22; ὑπέρ δοῦλον ὄντα, more than a servant, Philemon 1:16; more than (R. V. beyond), Philemon 1:21; ὑπέρ πάντα, above (i. e. more and greater than) all, Ephesians 3:20a; ὑπέρ τήν λαμπρότητα τοῦ ἡλίου, above (i. e. surpassing) the brightness of the sun, Acts 26:13; more (to a greater degree) than, φιλεῖν τινα ὑπέρ τινα, Matthew 10:37 (examples from secular authors are given by Fritzsche at the passage); beyond, 1 Corinthians 4:6; 2 Corinthians 12:6; ὑπέρ δύνασθε, beyond what ye are able, beyond your strength, 1 Corinthians 10:13 (cf. Winer's Grammar, 590 (549)); also ὑπέρ δύναμιν, 2 Corinthians 1:8; opposed to κατά δύναμιν (as in Homer, Iliad 3, 59 κατ' Αισαν, ὀυδ' ὑπέρ Αισαν, cf. 6, 487; 17, 321. 327), 2 Corinthians 8:3 (where L T Tr WH παρά δύναμιν).

b. with words implying comparison: προκόπτειν, Galatians 1:14; of the measure beyond which one is reduced, ή῾ττασθαι, 2 Corinthians 12:13 (Winer's Grammar, § 49 e.), (πλεονάζω, 1 Esdr. 8:72; περισσεύω, 1 Macc. 3:30; ὑπερβάλω, Sir. 25:11); after comparatives equivalent to than, Luke 16:8; Hebrews 4:12 (Judges 11:25; 1 Kings 19:4; Sir. 30:17); cf. Winers Grammar, § 35, 2; (Buttmann, § 147, 21).

c. ὑπέρ is used adverbially; as, ὑπέρ ἐγώ (L ὑπερεγώ (cf. Winers Grammar, 46 (45)), WH ὑπέρ ἐγώ (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 14, 2 Note)), much more (or in a much greater degree) I, 2 Corinthians 11:23; cf. Kypke at the passage; Winer's Grammar, 423 (394). (For ὑπέρ λίαν see ὑπερλίαν.)

III. In Composition ὑπέρ denotes

1. over, above, beyond: ὑπεράνω, ὑπερέκεινα, ὑπερεκτείνω.

2. excess of measure, more than: ὑπερεκπερισσοῦ, ὑπερνικάω.

3. aid, for; in defense of: ὑπερεντυγχάνω. Cf. Viger. edition Hermann, p. 668; Fritzsche on Romans, vol. i., p. 351; (Ellicott on Ephesians 3:20).

Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
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Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament

ὑπέρ

(when following subst.poët.ὕπερ ; so as adv., 2 Corinthians 11:23), prep. c. gen., acc

I. C. gen., primarily of place (rest or motion), over, above, across, beyond, hence, metaph.,

1. for, on behalf of: of prayer, Matthew 5:44, Acts 8:24, Romans 10:1, James 5:16, al.; of laying down life, John 10:11, Romans 9:3, al.; esp. of Christ giving his life for man's redemption, Mark 14:24, John 10:15, Acts 21:13, Romans 5:6-8, al.; opp. to κατά , Mark 9:40, Luke 9:50, Romans 8:31.

2. Causal, for, because of, for the sake of: c. gen. pers., Acts 5:41, Romans 1:5, Philippians 1:29, 2 Corinthians 12:10, al.; c. gen. rei, John 11:4 Romans 15:8, 2 Corinthians 1:6, al.

3. = ἀντί (v. M, Pr., 105), for, instead of, in the name of: 1 Corinthians 15:29, 2 Corinthians 5:15; 2 Corinthians 5:21 Galatians 3:13, Colossians 1:7, Philemon 1:13 (cf. Field, Notes, 225).

4. In more colourless sense, = περί (M, Pr., l.c.), for, concerning, with regard to: Romans 9:27, 2 Corinthians 1:6; 2 Corinthians 8:23; 2 Corinthians 12:8, Philippians 1:7, 2 Thessalonians 2:1, al.

II. C. acc, primarily of place, over, beyond, across, hence, metaph., of measure or degree in excess, above, beyond, over, more than: Matthew 10:24; Matthew 10:37, Luke 6:40, Acts 26:13, 1 Corinthians 10:13, 2 Corinthians 1:8, Ephesians 1:22; Ephesians 3:20, Philemon 1:16, al.; after comparatives = than (Judges 11:25, al.), Luke 16:8, Hebrews 4:12.

III. As adv. (v. supr. ad init.), more: ὕπερ ἐγώ , I more, 2 Corinthians 11:23; in compounds, see ὑπεράνω , ὑπερλίαν , ὑπερπερισσῶς .

IV. In composition: over (ὑπεραίρω ), beyond (ὑπερβάλλω ), more (ὑπερνικάω ), on behalf of (ὑπερεντυγχάνω ).

ὑπερ -εκ -περισσοῦ ,

comp. adv. (v. supr.),

superabundantly, exceeding abundantly: 1 Thessalonians 3:10; 1 Thessalonians 5:13; seq. ὑπέρ , Ephesians 3:20 (not elsewhere).†

*† ὑπέρ -εκ -περισσῶς ,

comp. adv. (v. supr.),

beyond measure, exceedingly: 1 Thessalonians 5:13, WH, mg. (cf. ἐκπερισσῶς ).†

 

*† υπερλίαν

(Rec. ὑπὲρλίαν , v. WM, § 50, 7n; B1., § 4, 1),

adv.,

exceedingly, pre-eminently: 2 Corinthians 11:5; 2 Corinthians 12:11.†

ὑπερεκ -περισσοῦ , Adv. superabundantly, Ephesians 3:20, 1 Thessalonians 3:10 ( v.l. ὑπερεκπερισσῶς ).


Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT

";Pharaoh."; For the form Φαραώθης, as in Josephus, see Deissmann BS p. 327.

 

The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
List of Word Forms
περὶ υπερ υπέρ ὑπὲρ ὕπερ υπερεκπερισσου ὑπερεκπερισσοῦ υπερλιαν ὑπερλίαν hyper hypèr hýper hyperekperissou hyperekperissoû hyperlian hyperlían peri perì uper uperekperissou uperlian
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