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Deuteronomy 3:11

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Bible Study Resources


- Nave's Topical Bible - Bashan;   Bed;   Cubit;   Iron;   Israel;   Og;   Rabbah;   Rephaim;   Reubenites;   Thompson Chain Reference - Beds;   Cubits;   Giants;   Iron;   Og;   Rabbah;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Beds;   Desert, Journey of Israel through the;   Iron;   Measures;  


- American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Bed;   Giants;   Iron;   Og;   Rabbath;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Ammon;   Cubit;   Measurement;   Palestine;   Rabbah;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Amorites;   Bed;   Bedstead;   Giants;   Og;   Rabbah;   Sihon;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Bed;   Giants;   Og;   Rabbah;   Weights and Measures;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Bed, Bedroom;   Beth-Rapha;   Giants;   Iron;   Og;   Rabbah;   Rabbath;   Rephaim;   Weights and Measures;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Alexandria;   Giant;   Mining and Metals;   Og;   Rabbah;   Rephaim;   Weights and Measures;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Bed, Bedstead;   Cubit;   Giant;   Og;   Rabbah, Rabbath ;   The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Og;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Giant;   Hauran;   Measures;   Og;   Rabbah;   Rephaim;   Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Bedstead;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Argob;   Bible;   Giant;   Iron;  


- International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Bed;   Cubit;   Deuteronomy;   Giants;   Iron (1);   Og;   Pentateuch;   Rabbah;   Remnant;   Kitto Biblical Cyclopedia - Beds;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Abraham;   Bed;   Furniture, Household;   Giants;   Iron;   Og;   Parable;   Pentateuch;   Rabbah (Rabbath);  

Parallel Translations

Contextual Overview

Bible Verse Review

Treasury of Scripure Knowledge

For only Og king of Bashan remained of the remnant of giants; behold, his bedstead was a bedstead of iron; is it not in Rabbath of the children of Ammon? nine cubits was the length thereof, and four cubits the breadth of it, after the cubit of a man.
giants Genesis 14:5
2 Samuel 12:26; Jeremiah 49:2; Ezekiel 21:20; Amos 1:14
nine cubits.
1 Samuel 17:4; Amos 2:9
Reciprocal: Genesis 6:4 - giants;  Genesis 6:15 - cubits;  Numbers 13:33 - saw the giants;  Numbers 21:34 - Fear him;  Deuteronomy 2:21 - great;  Deuteronomy 3:2 - Fear;  Joshua 12:4 - the remnant;  Joshua 12:6 - gave it;  Joshua 13:12 - Og;  Joshua 13:25 - Rabbah;  2 Samuel 11:1 - Rabbah;  2 Samuel 12:27 - Rabbah;  2 Samuel 21:16 - of the sons;  1 Chronicles 11:23 - five;  1 Chronicles 20:1 - Rabbah;  Ezekiel 40:5 - by;  Ezekiel 40:10 - they three;  John 21:8 - cubits;  Revelation 13:18 - the number


Gill's Notes on the Bible

For only Og king of Bashan remained of the remnant of giants,.... The meaning seems to be, either that he was the only one that was left of the race of the giants the Ammonites found when they took possession of this country, Deuteronomy 2:20 or that was left when the Amorites took it from the Ammonites; and who having by some means or other ingratiated himself into their affections, because of his stature, strength, and courage, and other qualifications they might discern in him, made him their king:

behold, his bedstead was a bedstead of iron: his body being so large and bulky, he might think it most proper and safest for him to have a bedstead made of iron to lie upon, or to prevent noxious insects harbouring in it; nor was it unusual to have bedsteads made of other materials than wood, as of gold, silver, and ivory; See Gill on Amos 6:4. Some learned men have been of opinion, that the beds of Typho in Syria, made mention of by Homer, refer to this bedstead of Og:

is it not in Rabbath of the children of Ammon? which was the royal city of the Ammonites, in the times of David, 2 Samuel 12:26, now called Philadelphia, as Jerom says. This bedstead might be either sent thither by Og, before the battle at Edrei, for safety, or rather might be sold by the Israelites to the inhabitants of Rabbath, who kept it, as a great curiosity:

nine cubits was the length thereof, and four cubits the breadth of it, after the cubit of a man; a common cubit, so that it was four yards and a half long, and two yards broad. Onkelos renders it, after the king's cubit; and the king's cubit at Babylon, according to Herodotus, was larger by three fingers than the common one; such as the cubit in Ezekiel 40:5, which was a cubit and an hand's breadth; and this makes the dimensions of the bedstead yet larger. And by this judgment may be made of the tallness of Og's stature, though this is not always a sure rule to go by; for Alexander, when in India, ordered his soldiers to make beds of five cubits long, to be left behind them, that they might be thought to be larger men than they were, as Diodorus Siculus and Curtius relate; but there is little reason to believe that Og's bedstead was made with such a view. Maimonides observes, that a bed in common is a third part larger than a man; so that Og, according to this way of reckoning, was six cubits high, and his stature doubly larger than a common man's; but less than a third part may well be allowed to a bed, which will make him taller still; the height of Og is reckoned by Wolfius to be about thirteen feet eleven inches of Paris measure.

Barnes' Notes on the Bible

Giants - Or Rephaim: see the marginal reference note.

A bedstead of iron - The “iron” was probably the black basalt of the country, which not only contains a large proportion, about 20 percent, of iron, but was actually called “iron,” and is still so regarded by the Arabians. Iron was indeed both known and used, principally for tools (see e. g. Deuteronomy 19:5 and compare Genesis 4:22 note), at the date in question by the Semitic people of Palestine and the adjoining countries; but bronze was the ordinary metal of which weapons, articles of furniture, etc., were made.

The word translated “bedstead” is derived from a root signifying “to unite” or “bind together,” and so “to arch” or “cover with a vault.” The word may then certainly mean “bier,” and perhaps does so in this passage. Modern travelers have discovered in the territories of Og sarcophagi as well as many other articles made of the black basalt of the country.

Is it not in Rabbath of the children of Ammon? - Probably after the defeat and death of Og at Edrei the remnant of his army fled into the territory of the friendly Ammonites, and carried with them the corpse of the giant king.

After the cubit of a man - i. e. after the usual and ordinary cubit, counted as people are accustomed to count. Taking 18 inches to the cubit, the bedstead or sarcophagus would thus be from thirteen to fourteen feet long.

Clarke's Notes on the Bible

Og king of Bashan remained - Og was the last king of the Amorites; his kingdom appears to have taken its name from the hill of Bashan; the country has been since called Batanaea.

Remnant of giants - Of the Rephaim. See on Deuteronomy 2:10; (note), Deuteronomy 2:11; (note).

His bedstead was - of iron - Iron was probably used partly for its strength and durability, and partly to prevent noxious vermin from harbouring in it.

Is it not in Rabbath, of the children of Ammon? - The bedstead was probably taken in some battle between the Ammonites and Amorites, in which the former had gained the victory. The bedstead was carried a trophy and placed in Rabbath, which appears, from 2 Samuel 12:26, to have been the royal city of the children of Ammon.

Nine cubits was the length - four cubits the breadth - Allowing the bedstead to have been one cubit longer than Og, which is certainly sufficient, and allowing the cubit to be about eighteen inches long, for this is perhaps the average of the cubit of a man, then Og was twelve feet high. This may be deemed extraordinary, and perhaps almost incredible, and therefore many commentators have, according to their fancy, lengthened the bedstead and shortened the man, making the former one-third longer than the person who lay on it, that they might reduce Og to six cubits; but even in this way they make him at least nine feet high.

On this subject the rabbins have trifled most sinfully. I shall give one specimen. In the Targum of Jonathan ben Uzziel on Numbers 21:33-35, it is said that "Og having observed that the camp of the Israelites extended six miles, he went and tore up a mountain six miles in its base, and put it on his head, and carried it towards the camp, that he might throw it on the Israelites and destroy them; but the word of the Lord prepared a worm, which bored a hole in the mountain over his head, so that it fell down upon his shoulders: at the same time his teeth growing out in all directions, stuck into the mountain, so that he could not cast it off his head. Moses, (who was himself ten cubits high), seeing Og thus entangled, took an axe ten cubits long, and having leaped ten cubits in height, struck Og on the ankle bone, so that he fell and was slain."

From this account the distance from the sole of Og's foot to his ankle was thirty cubits in length! I give this as a very slight specimen of rabbinical comment. I could quote places in the Talmud in which Og is stated to be several miles high! This relation about Og I suppose to be also an historical note added by a subsequent hand.