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Bible Commentaries

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes
Ezekiel 16



Verse 1

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

Verse 2

Son of man. See note on Ezekiel 2:1.

Jerusalem is the subject of this chapter by interpretation. Note the Figure of speech Prosbpographia (App-6). Not the nation as such. By application, the reader may, by grace, refer it to himself.

Verse 3

the Lord GOD. Hebrew. Adonai Jehovah. See note on Ezekiel 2:4.

birth, &c. = excisions and kinships. Compare Isaiah 61:1. Only other occurrences, Ezekiel 21:30; Ezekiel 29:14.

thy father, &c. i.e. thy founder. This refers to the first builders of Jebus; not to Abraham and his seed. Jebus was a Canaanite city. See App-68. Thus Satan occupied in advance both land and capital as soon as the promise to Abraham was known. See App-23and App-26.

Verse 4

to supple = to cleanse.

salted: i.e., rubbed, or washed with salt. This is the custom in the Land to = day.

Verse 5

person = soul. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13.

in the day. See App-18.

Verse 6

when. This word is not in the Hebrew text.

polluted = trodden under foot. Referring to the city, of course.

when thou . . . blood, &c. Note the Figure of speech Epizeneia (App-6), for emphasis. Canaanite cities were founded in blood, as proved to-day by human sacrifices discovered on the foundations. See note on s Kings Ezekiel 9:15-17.

Verse 7

hast increased = didst increase. This does not refer to the increase in Egypt, but to the city. All the tenses in this verse should be past tenses.

fashioned = developed.

Verse 8

behold. Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6.

thy . . . thee : i.e. the city. Not the nation at Sinai,

thy time, &c. Of this covenant nothing has been recorded. The secret is here first revealed.

I spread My skirt, he. The symbolic act to-day, signifying the taking under one"s protection. Common in the East for marrying. Compare Ruth 3:9.

saith the Lord God [is] Adonai Jehovah"s oracle.

Verse 10

badgers" skin. Similarly so used to present day. Reference to Pentateuch Exodus 25:5, Exodus 26:14. Numbers 4:6. App-92. Occurs elsewhere, only here no reference to the tabernacle.

Verse 12

on thy forehead = in thy nose. Referring to the decorations, &c., of the city after being occupied by David.

Verse 13

fine flour, &c. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of the Part), App-6, for all kinds of delicacies,

exceeding beautiful. Hebrew. me od meod. Figure of speech Epiz euxis (App-6), thus well rendered.

a kingdom. Hence the expression, "Judah and Jerusalem", the latter being reckoned as a separate kingdom.

Verse 14

heathen = nations.

Verse 15

trust = confide. Hebrew. batah. App-69.

playedst the harlot. All these expressions that follow are to be interpreted of idolatry, and not to sins of the flesh, to which they are likened.

fornications: i.e. idolatrous acts.

Verse 16

the like things. Supply the Ellipsis better thus: "thereupon: [saying] they (the curses) come not, and it (the threatened judgment) will not be. "

Verse 17

of men = of the male: i.e. the Phallus, referring to the Asherah. See App-42.

whoredom = idolatry.

them = i.e. these images.

Verse 19

meat. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of the Part), App-6, for all kinds of food.

for a sweet savour. Reference to Pentateuch. A legal phrase, found only in Ezekiel outside the Pentateuch. But in Ezekiel four times: via Ezekiel 6:13; Ezekiel 16:19; Ezekiel 20:28, Ezekiel 20:41. See notes on Genesis 8:21. Leviticus 1:9. App-92.

thus it was = [so] it became.

Verse 20

sacrificed, &c. As offerings to idols. Compare Ezekiel 16:36; Ezekiel 20:26, Ezekiel 20:31; Ezekiel 23:39. 2 Kings 16:3. Psalms 106:37, Psalms 106:38. Isaiah 57:5. Jeremiah 7:31; Jeremiah 32:35, &c.

whoredoms = idolatries. See notes on Ezekiel 16:15.

Verse 21

slain My children. See note on Ezekiel 16:20, above. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 18:21). App-92.

children = sons.

Verse 22

abominations. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6, for that which Jehovah abominated,

polluted = wallowing, or weltering.

Verse 23

wickedness. Hebrew. ra"a". App-44.

woe, woe. Note the Figures of speech Cataplace and Epiaeuxie (App-6), for emphasis.

Verse 24

eminent places = brothel house. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Subject), App-6, for the idol"s temple.

Verse 27

I have stretched out My hand, &c. Reference to Petit. (Exodus 7:19, &c.) App-92.

over = against.

ordinary food = allowance. Referring to food as measured out to captives or slaves.

will = desire. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13.

Verse 28

great of flesh = lustful. Referring to their idolatries.

Verse 29

unto Chaldea = Assyrian idolatry as well as Egyptian (Ezekiel 16:26). See the Structure, above.

Verse 30

imperious = headstrong, or without shame.

woman = wife. Compare Ezekiel 16:32.

Verse 31

hire. See note on "reward", Ezekiel 16:34.

Verse 32

But as = [Thou halt been].

Verse 33

give gifts = give fees.

gifts = presents.

hirest = bribest.

Verse 34

reward = hire. Used especially for the hire of fornication. Hebrew. ethnan. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 23:18). App-92. Used outside the Pentateuch only in Ezekiel 16:31 (hire), Ezekiel 16:33, Ezekiel 16:41. Isaiah 23:17 (hire), Isaiah 23:18 (hire). Hosea 9:1 (reward). Micah 1:7 (hire).

Verse 35

harlot = idolatress.

Verse 36

filthiness. Hebrew = brass. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6,

for money"s worth: i.e. the money of the brothel. See Ezekiel 16:31.

idols = manufactured gods.

and by = even as.

Verse 37

gather = gather out.

Verse 38

as = with the judgments meted out to: i.e. by death (Leviticus 20:20. Deuteronomy 22:22. John 8:5). Compare Genesis 38:24.

Verse 40

a company = a military host.

Verse 41

women: i. e idolaters, or idolatrous cities.

Verse 43

fretted Me = chafed at Me: i.e. at my laws. Aramaean, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate read "enraged Me". thou shalt not, &c.: i.e. I will not allow this greatest evil by suffering it to go unpunished, and thus conniving at it (referring to Leviticus 19:29. App-92.

Verse 44

proverb = derisive proverb. Figure of speech Paroemia. App-6.

Verse 46

thine elder: or, thy greater.

daughters. Put by Figure of speech Prosopopoeia (App-6), for villages or neighbouring towns.

younger: or, lesser.

Verse 47

as if that were . . . thing. The Ellipsis is wrongly supplied. See further note

a very little = a very little time, or quickly. See note on "almost" (Proverbs 5:14).

Verse 48

as thou hast done. Sodom does not mean Jerusalem here, but it refers to the Sodom of Gen 19. Sodom had not Jerusalem"s privileges: hence her transgression was less. Compare Ezekiel 16:46, and Matthew 11:20-24.

Verse 49

was = came to be.

abundance of = luxurious: i.e. security of ease. Compare Deuteronomy 11:21.

Verse 50

as I saw good. Some codices read "when I saw it", with margin "as thou sawest". Better to omit "good". Compare Genesis 18:21.

as = according to what.

Verse 51

sins. Hebrew. chata". App-44.

they : i.e. Samaria and Sodom,

Verse 52

are = will prove.

more righteous. See note on Ezekiel 16:49.

sisters. Samaria and Sodom.

Verse 53

When I: or, When therefore I.

bring again their captivity = restorethem; referring not to any return of captives, but to a restoration of prosperity. See notes on Deuteronomy 30:3, Job 42:10. Psalms 126:1.

Sodom. If the waters of the Dead Sea are to be healed, there is no reason why there should not be a restoration as here stated. Compare Ezekiel 47:8. Zechariah 14:8.

will I bring again. Aramaean, Septuagint, and Vulgate read these words in the text.

Verse 57

discovered = unveiled.

as at the time of thy. Septuagint and Vulgate read "as now [thou] art". Compare Ezekiel 23:43.

Syria. Hebrew. aram. Some codices, with two early printed editions, read "adam" = men (Daleth = D), being road for Resh = R).

Verse 58

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4. Some codices, with three early printed editions, read "Adonai". App-4.

Verse 59

oath . . . covenant. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 29:12, Deuteronomy 29:14). These words are thus found together here, and in Ezekiel 17:13, Ezekiel 17:16, Ezekiel 17:18, Ezekiel 17:19; but nowhere else in Scripture.

Verse 60

everlasting covenant. See notes on Genesis 9:16 and lsa. Ezekiel 44:7.

Verse 63

am pacified toward thee = have accepted a propitiatory covering for thee.


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Bibliography Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Ezekiel 16:4". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". 1909-1922.

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