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Bible Commentaries

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes
Micah 1



Verse 1

The word of the LORD. The only occurrence of this expression in this book: bidding us to receive it from Jehovah, not Micah, and to note Micah"s pen but Jehovah"s words.

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

Micah = Who is like Jehovah? An abbreviated form of Micaiah (2 Chronicles 18:7, &c.); it is used in Jeremiah 26:18 (in the Heb). Compare Micah 7:18.

Morasthite: Mareshah (Micah 1:15) or Moresheth-gath (Micah 1:14); now Tel Sandahanna, in the Shephelah, or plain, between Judea and Philistia. In the excavations at Sandahanna the ancient name is seen as Marissa. Marissa was a Sidonian colony (cent. 3 B. C), and was afterward used as the capital of" Idumea by the Edomites during the captivity of Judah (see Records of the Past, vol. iv, part x, pp. 291-306).

which he saw. Compare Isaiah 1:1. Obadiah 1:1. Nahum 1:1.

concerning, &c. This furnishes the subject.

Verse 2

Hear, all ye people. Micah begins by taking up the concluding words of the other Micah or Micaiah (1 Kings 22:28), and recurs to them in Micah 3:1, Micah 3:9; Micah 6:1, Micah 6:2. Five times, not three, as some say; and forms no part of the Structure of the whole book. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 32:1). App-92.

all ye = ye peoples, all of them.

people = peoples. Including ourselves.

all that therein is = her fullness.

let the Lord GOD be witness. Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 31:50).

the Lord. Hebrew Adonai. App-4.

GOD Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

the LORD*. One of the 134 places where the Sopherim say they altered "Jehovah" of the primitive text to "Adonai". See App-32.

from His holy temple. Compare Psalms 11:4. Jonah 2:7. Habakkuk 2:20.

holy. See note on Exodus 3:5.

Verse 3

behold. Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6.

tread upon, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 32:13; Deuteronomy 33:29). App-92. Compare Amos 4:13.

Verse 4

the mountains, &c. This verse foretells the calamities of 2Ki 17 and 25.

Verse 5

transgression = rebellion. Hebrew. pasha". App-44.

sins. Hebrew. chata". App-44. Aram, and Syriac read singular.

What = Whose.

is it not Samaria? = is it not Samaria"s [idolatry]? Figure of speech Erotesis. App-6.

high places. Compare 1 Kings 12:31; 1 Kings 14:23. Ezekiel 6:6. These existed in Jerusalem (Jeremiah 32:35); hence the mention of them in the further question. Figure of speech Erotesis. Compare 2 Kings 16:4.

are they not Jerusalem? = is it not Jerusalem"s [idol altars]?

Verse 6

discover, &c. This has now recently (1911) been done in the unearthing of Ahab"s wine-cellars.

Verse 7

graven images. Hebrew. pesilim. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 20:4). App-92.

hires. The technical Pentateuchal word for a harlot"s hire, to which idolatry is compared. Compare Hosea 8:9, Hosea 8:10; Hosea 9:1. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 23:18). App-92.

they shall return, &c.: i.e. the wealth gained by idolatry shall be taken away by the Assyrian idolaters.

Verse 8

wail = lament. Compare the Structure above; and note weight of the prophetic "burden".

dragons = jackals.

owls. Hebrew daughters of a doleful cry.

Verse 9

wound = stroke. Hebrew. makkah (feminine)

it. Aramaean and Syriac read "she". Referring to her stroke, which is feminine.

he = he, referring to some unnamed foe. Aram, and Syriac read "she", referring to the "stroke" of judgment.

the gate. Compare Obadiah 1:11, Obadiah 1:13.

Verse 10

Declare ye it not at Gath. Compare 2 Samuel 1:20.

Gath. Now Tell es Safi (Joshua 11:22, &c).

at all. Hebrew. bakko, written defectively for beakko. Note the Figure of speech Paronomasia (App-6). Hebrew. bakko "al tibku "[in] Weep-town weep not".

in . . . Aphrah roll thyself in the dust. Note the Figure of speech Paronomasia (App-6). Hebrew in "aphrah . . . "aphar, English, "in Dust-house roll thyself in dust, "

Verse 11

Pass ye away: i.e. go into exile.

Saphir, having thy shame, &c. Here we have contrast. Saphir = Beautytown, with beauty shamed; now es Suafir.

inhabitant of Zaanan came not forth. Hebrew not gone forth hath . . . Zaanan. Hebrew Figure of speech Paronomasia (App-6): lo yatz"ah . . . tz"anan = not gone out [to weep] hath the inhabitant of Outhouse.

in the mourning . . . his standing. Commence a fresh sentence here; thus: "The trouble of Beth-ezel (Neighbour-town) shall be a useless neighbour". Or, "the Bystander"s house will, from you, get its standing-room".

he shall receive, &c. : or, he will take from you its support.

Verse 12

Maroth waited carefully. The inhabitress of Bitter town bitterly grieved for her goods [taken from her].

evil = calamity. Hebrew. ra"a". App-44.

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4. Not by chance.

the gate of Jerusalem. In Taylor"s Cylinder, Sennacherib mentions his breaking of this gate (col. iii, lines ).

Verse 13

inhabitant = inhabitress.

Lachish . . . swift beast. Note the Figure of speech Paronomasia (App-6). Hebrew. larekesh . . . lakish = [bind the chariot] to the horse, O inhabitress of Horse-town,

Lachish. Now Ummtum Lakis, or Tell el Hesy. See notes on 2 Kings 14:19; 2 Kings 19:8.

she. Evidently Samaria. Compare verses: Micah 5:9; Micah 6:16.

Verse 14

give presents to = give up possessions at.

Achzib . . . a lie. Note the Figure of speech Paronomasia, = the houses of False-town ("Akzib) shall prove false (iakzab).

Achzib. Now es Zib (Joshua 15:44; Joshua 19:29. Judges 1:31).

Verse 15

an heir . . . Mareshah. Hebrew the possessor (hayyoresh) . . . O Possession (Mareshah). The possessor whom Jehovah would bring was Assyria.

he shall come, &c. The glory: i.e. the nobility (Isaiah 5:13) of Israel shall go (or flee) unto [the cave] Adullam; as David had done (1 Samuel 22:1).

Verse 16

Make thee bald, &c. The signs of mourning. Compare Job 1:20. Isaiah 15:2; Isaiah 22:12. Jeremiah 7:29; Jeremiah 16:6; Jeremiah 47:5; Jeremiah 48:37). This is addressed to Judah. It was forbidden under the law (Deuteronomy 14:1). Judah had become as the heathen: let them mourn as the heathen.

children = sons.


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Text Courtesy of Used by Permission.

Bibliography Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Micah 1:4". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". 1909-1922.

Lectionary Calendar
Tuesday, October 15th, 2019
the Week of Proper 23 / Ordinary 28
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